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stolen, ^209, or 27 per cent., was recovered. There is one jail at
Kuch Behar town. In 1S74, the aggregate number of prisoners was
1324, of whom 34 were females; the average cost per head was
£4, 13s. 4&, and the net profit from jail manufactures amounted to

,£478.

Education has extended rapidly during recent years. In 1S74 there
were 245 schools, attended by 6495 pupils, showing 1 school to every
5 -3 square miles, and 1 pupil to every S2 of the population. The high
school, with 176 students, has won many scholarships in the colleges of
Bengal. The artisan school, or technical institution for the lower
classes, is attended by 39 pupils. There is a good library of English
literature in Kuch Behar town, and also a State printing-press. An
official Gazette called Cooch Behar State Gazette is published every
fortnight at the State Press.

The administration of Kuch Behar State is carried on by the
Maharaja, assisted by a council, consisting of three members, namely,
the Superintendent of the State, the Diwan or chief revenue officer,
and the Civil Judge. The Maharaja is the President of the Council,
and in his absence the Superintendent of the State acts as Vice-
President.

The Superintendent of the State supervises, directs, and controls the
administration of criminal justice, and the police, military, jail, public
works, education, and audit departments. He is also Sessions Judge,
hearing all criminal appeals which ordinarily lie to Sessions Judges in
British Districts.

The Diwan is in charge of the revenue department, and is respon-
sible for the collection of all kinds of revenue, and the supervision of
all proceedings in connection therewith. He does not exercise any
judicial powers. Appeals from the decisions of his subordinates in



KUCH BEHAR TOilW.

rent suits lie to the Civil Court; but he hears appeals from the.r
orders in revenue executive matters, such as sales for arrears, mutation
cases, etc.

The Judicial Member of Council hears all civil and revenue a]
in which the subject-matter of the suit exceeds Rs. ioo in value in
Small Cause Court cases, and Rs. 50 in other cases. In addition, he-
tries original civil and rent suits, in which the value exceeds Rs. 500.

The following appeals lie to the Council— (1) Appeals from sent
passed by the Sessions Court ; (2) Civil appeals, both on the facts and
on points of law, from the Judicial Member in original suits ; (3) S
appeals on law points only, in other civil and revenue cases. Sentences
of death are confirmed by the Maharaja in Council in every case.
three Members of Council are independent of each other.

The officers subordinate to the Superintendent of the State are — (1)
The Fanjddri A/iiikdr, or Magistrate, who exercises the powers of a
first-class Magistrate in British Districts. He is assisted by subordinate-
Magistrates, who exercise second and third class powers; (2) The
Superintendent of Education, who has under him a Deputy and a
Sub-Deputy Superintendent; (3) The Superintendent of Police, with
his staff of inspectors and sub-inspectors ; (4) The Superintendent
of Public Works, with a subordinate staff of assistant superinter.
overseers, and sub-overseers. The Diwan, or chief revenue offi«
assisted by an officer styled Mdl-kachhari Naib Ahilkdr, who has also
the charge of the treasury. There are four administrative Sub-divisions
in the State, each presided over by an officer styled Naib Ahiikar,
whose duties are analogous to those of sub-divisional office
British Districts.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Kuch Behar is damp and malarious,
but not so hot as in other parts of Bengal. The wind sets mud.
the east, and thunderstorms are common from March to May. I he
rainy season lasts from April to October. Fogs are common during
the cold weather in the early mornings. The average anni
is returned at 123 inches. During the year 1S74, tl
temperature recorded at 10 a.m. was 92-5° F., in the month oi
the lowest at 4 p.m. was 49/ 1°, in January.

The chief diseases are malarious fevers, dysentery, diarrto 1
and goitre. Cholera appears to be endemic to the country, ai
sionally breaks out with great epidemic violence. Small-]
disappearing before the introduction of vaccination. In 1
number of patients treated at the charitable dispens
proportion of deaths to patients treated being 31 P« th ' «

Kuch Behar.-Capital of Kuch Behar State and the
dence of the Maharaja ; situated on the Torsha river. I
long. 89 28' 53" e. Population (1872) 7*45 i («**«) ^35- llm



328 KUCHLA BIJNA—KUDALUR.

numbered in the latter year 61 19; Muhammadans, 3337; and 'others,' 79.
Area of town site, 1309 acres. The town until recently consisted of a
congeries of mat huts surrounding the brick mansion which formed the
residence of the Maharaja. Great improvements have, however, been
effected within the last few years, and others have been introduced and
energetically proceeded with since the Maharaja assumed the direct
management of the State on attaining his majority in 1883. The
principal square has been surrounded on three sides with handsome
public buildings. In the centre of the square is a large tank called the
Sagar-dighi, which affords good drinking water to nearly all the
population. On the north side of the square stands the Maharaja's
court-house and attached offices, a two-storied building of imposing
appearance. On the east are the English and vernacular schools,
printing-office, and State record rooms. To the south the subordinate
civil and criminal courts occupy a fine building, containing four
large court-rooms and other smaller offices. The old market-place
has been recently cleared of mat huts, and a quadrangular market-
place with a corrugated iron roof and brick floor has been con-
structed. An excellent dispensary and hospital has also been built.
The principal street passing through the bazar now contains hardly a
single mat hut, and corrugated iron has taken the place of straw as
roofing. The other public buildings are the post-office, jail, police
station, and artisans' schools, located in suitable masonry buildings.
A new palace, a splendid building, has just been constructed as a
residence for the Maharaja at a cost of about 12 lakhs of rupees
G£i 20,000).

The trade is not large, and the few Marwari merchants confine their
dealings mainly to export traffic. The two small streams, both called
Torsha, which encircle the town on three sides, are navigable only
during the rainy season. For the rest of the year, the sole means of
communication is by land. The main line of road from Rangpur to
Jalpaiguri passes through the town. A municipality, consisting of official
and non-official members, has lately been established.

Kuchla Bijna. — Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; situated on the
right bank of the Ramganga river, 4 miles above its confluence with the
Ganges. Population (1869) 2104 ; (1881) 1612, chiefly Raikwars, who
obtained the village by conquest from the Thatheras.

Ktichmala. — Hill in Palghat taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presi-
dency. Lat. io° 33' n., long. 76 55' e. ; about 4000 feet above sea-
level. A well-defined, pinnacle-shaped peak, terminating the Kollangod
range. Contains some splendid teak. Inhabited by the hill tribe of
Kurders.

Kudallir.— Taluk and town in South Arcot District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Cuddalore.



KUDAL UR—KUHAN.
Kudalur. — Pass in Travancore State, Madras Presidency.— See

GUDALUR.

Kudarimukh. — Mountain in the Western Ghits, Bombay I

dency. — See Kuduremukha.

Kudarkot. — Village and ruins in Bidhauna tahsi/, Etawah I > :
North- Western Provinces. Lies on the Etawah and Kanauj ro
miles north-east of Etawah town. Population (1872) 25C7 ; (1881)
3459, namely, Hindus 2709, and Muhammadans 750. Probably a
place of great importance in the days of the Gupta kings. Tradition
asserts that an underground passage connected Kudarkot with Kanauj.
The houses of the modern village are built of bricks dug out of the
ancient mound. Miyan Almas All Khan, minister of Nawab Asafud-
daula, held court at Kudarkot, and built a fort with 16 bastions on the
site of the prehistoric stronghold. Disused after the British occupation,
it now serves in part for the factory of an indigo planter, in part for
a police station and village school. An inscription of the 1 ith century
has been found among the ruins.

Kuddana.— State in Rewa Kantha Province, Gujarat (Gu.
Bombay Presidency. The chief is Thakur Parvat Singhji, born about
1822. The area of the State is 130 square miles. The revenue is
estimated at ^1400. The State pays no tribute.

Kuditini.— Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency. Popula-
tion (1881) 3944; number of houses, 768. The first stage on the
Dharwar road, and formerly sacred as the halting-place of Komaras
wami on his expedition against the Rakshasas. Remains of a fort anil
of a Jain settlement.

Kudligi. — Taluk in Bellary District, Madras Presidency.
838 square miles (536,595 acres). Population (1881) 74,690, namely,
37,226 males and 37,464 females, inhabiting 15,086 house-
number 72,469; Muhammadans, 2181 ; Christians, 6; 'other.
The area under actual cultivation in 187 1 was 124,42s
quarters of the taluk are waste. There are 70 miles of made rOJ
Chief towns are Kudligi (2977), KottiSr (5156), and Jenmala.
Uluk contains 2 criminal courts and 9 police stations ; regular pol
63 men. Land revenue, ^9046.

Kuduremukha (literally ' Horse-face >).-Peak of the U estern G
on the boundary between Kadiir District, Mysore State, and the
District of South Kanara. Lat. 13° 8' N., long. 75" -°. ' - :
above sea-level. The name is said to be derived from ;•
as a conspicuous landmark to sailors. It can be ascei
west by a bridle-path. On the summit a bungalow has beer.
a summer retreat for the Malabar officials, and anutl.
been built by the missionaries of the Basel Evangelical Mia

Kuhan.— River in the Punjab.— See Kahan.



330 KUHLUR—KULACHI.

Kuhlur. — State in the Punjab. — See Kahlur.

KukdeL — Town in the Shahada Sub-division of Khandesh District,
Bombay Presidency, included within the municipal limits of Shahada
(q.v.) town. The population of Kukdel itself in 1881 was 1217 ; the
houses numbered 202.

Kliki. — A family of wild tribes inhabiting hilly country on the
north-east frontier of India, extending along the southern border of the
Assam District of Cachar, the eastern borders of the Bengal District
of Chittagong, the hilly tracts of Northern Arakan, and stretching away
into the unexplored mountains of Independent Burma. — See Lushai
Hills.

Kukra Mailani. — Pargand in Lakhimpur ta/isi/, Kheri District,
Oudh ; lying between the Kathna river on the west and the Ul on the
east ; bounded on the north by Bhiir, and on the south by Haidarabad
pargands. A jungle tract, containing three large clearings — one to the
south, Saukhia Sansarpur ; one to the north-east, Kukra ; and a third
to the extreme north-west, Mailani. Most of the forest or upland area,
amounting to 126 square miles, was made over to grantees under the
lease rules, but they all failed to comply with the conditions of their
grants, which have since been resumed and transferred to the Oudh
Forest Department. The revenue-paying tract, 51 square miles, consists
mainly of the basins of three or four ancient lakes, into which the high
lands drained.

The aspect of these mere pits in the surface of the forest is very
peculiar. The largest (Kukra) may be taken as a type of all : a flat plain
about seven miles long and four broad, covered with rice-fields and
prairies of long coarse grass, through which breast-high the foot-passenger
moves with difficulty in pursuit of the game which lies concealed in herds.
A few mango groves adjoin the mud -walled villages. Here and
there a slight depression allows the rain-water to gather in stagnant
marshes. All round the horizon the traveller sees the high bluffs—
once the shores of this inland sea — rising crowned with a ring of
lofty and dense sal forest. This wall of verdure is only broken at
places where it has been levelled to make room for the roads which
pass through the plain, piercing the forest towards Gola and Bhira.

Rice is the principal crop in these clearings, but barley and gram have
been sown largely of late years. The want of means of carriage alone
prevents a large trade springing up in timber. Population (1868)
12,236; (1881) 14,641, of whom 2511 are Muhammadans, principally
Pathans ; 12,125 Hindus ; and 5 ' others.' Land revenue, ^945. The
proprietary body was formerly Ahban, but many of them have now
lost all their possessions. Ahban Musalmdns, however, still hold 19 of
the 40 townships comprising the pargand, 13 being held by Rajputs.
Kulachi.— Western tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab ;



KULACHI—KU-LA-DAX.

'consisting of the wild country immediately below the in I

Sulaiman mountains, stretching in its extreme southern ;
the west bank of the Indus. Lat. 30 57' 30" to 32 16' :,..
70 14' to 70 45' e. Area, 1513 square miles, with ml
villages, and 14,172 houses. Population (1SS1) 70,95c 1
males 37,763, and females 33,187 ; average density of i
47 persons per square mile. Number of families, 15,942. I
according to religion, Muhammadans numbered 62,614; Hindus,
8170; and Sikhs, 166. Of the total area of 1513 square miles
or 968,400 acres, 238,618 acres were returned as under cultn
in 1878-79, in the last quinquennial agricultural statistics of the
Punjab Government. The uncultivated area comprised 8771 a< 1
grazing land, 588,159 acres of cultivable waste, and 13s
uncultivable waste. Revenue of the tahsil, ^4673. The administrative
staff consists of a tahsilddr, a munsif, and an honorary magistrate.
These officers preside over 3 civil and 2 criminal courts. The
contains 3 tahsils or police circles, a regular police of 77 men. and a
village watch of 1 2 2 chaukidars.

Kulachi. — Chief town and head-quarters of Kulachi tahs'il. 1 >era I
Khan District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 31° 55' 38" n., Ion-. 70' 30'
19" e., on the left bank of the Lunf, 27 miles north-west of Dera 1
Khan town, and 24 miles south of Tank. Population (1868) 9921 ;
(1881) 7834, namely, 2461 Hindus, 5310 Muhammadans, and 63 Sikh:
number of houses, 1336. Kulachi is rather an aggregation of [6
separate hamlets standing at the point of union in their lands, tha
a regular town. Surrounded by a low mud wall; scattered hou:
30 mosques, 5 dharmsdlas. Formerly carried on a brisk
the Waziris of the hills, which declined before annexatioi
since somewhat revived. Transit trade to Ghwalari Pass. Tm
police station, dispensary, school, travellers' bungalow. A thin
municipality, with an income in 18S0-81 of £y^ j
^551.

Ku-la-dan.— River of Arakan, British Burma. Sup;
the neighbourhood of the Blue Mountain, a peak in tl
After a course generally north and south, it foils into t:
at Akyab town, where it is called by Europeans the ' Araka:
by the inhabitants of the country < Gat-sa-ba.' Before the
leaves the hills, it is fed by numerous tributaries, the tw<
Mf from the east and the Pi from the west; its banks are inh.
hillmen. It is navigable by vessels of from 300 to 40c I » »

nearly 50 miles. Its mouth forms a large harbour witl
ground, protected from the south-west monsoon by tl
On Savage Island, at the entrance to the harbour, sta,
erected in 1842. The entrance is dangerous and difficult at k>« tide,



332 KU-LA-DAN TO WNSHIP—KULBARGA.

there being then a depth of barely 3J fathoms, much reduced when
a rolling swell sets in.

Kli-la-dan. — Township in the north of Akyab District, Arakan
Division, British Burma. It adjoins the Hill Tracts, and is divided into
13 revenue circles. Except to the south, the country is hilly, forest-
clad, and but little cultivated. The township contains 294 villages.
The area under cultivation (1881-82) is 40,880 acres, mostly under rice.
Agricultural stock: — Horned cattle, 25,768; pigs, 2550; goats, 805;
ploughs, 5901 ; carts, 1237; and boats, 1095. The head-quarters of
the township are on the right bank of the Kii-la-dan river, near the
Maha-muni temple. Population (1881) 38,896; gross revenue, ^11,979;
of which land revenue contributed ^7716, capitation-tax ^£3488, and
local cess ^"738.

Kulaghat. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle in Rangpur
District, Bengal ; situated on the right bank of the Dharla river. An
important trading mart; principal articles of export — jute, tobacco, and
ginger.

Kulasekharapatnam. — Town and seaport in Tenkarai taluk, Tin-
nevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 4 40" n., long. 77° 31'
20" e. Population (1881) 14,972, namely, 6548 males and 8424
females; number of houses, 3823. Hindus numbered 7182; Muham-
madans, 3572; Christians, 4218. One of the trade centres of the
District. Imports (1880-81), ^16,828 ; exports, ^55,030.

Kulbarga (or Gulbargd). — Chief town of the Kulbarga District of
Haidarabad State (Nizam's Dominions) ; situated on an undulating
plain, which presents a somewhat dreary expanse of black soil.
Population (1881) 22,834. The former capital of a powerful dynasty,
it has now become a place of secondary importance. In early times
it was a Hindu city of great extent. Previous to the Muhamma-
dan conquest, Kulbarga was included in the dominions of the Rajas of
Warangal. After the subjugation of the Zadavas of Deogiri (Daulat-
abad) by the Muhammadans, other inroads followed which resulted
in the overthrow of the Hindu kingdom of Warangal. In 1323, Prince
Alagh Khan (afterwards the emperor Muhammad Tughlak), who was
deputed by his father, Ghazi Beg Tughlak, to suppress a rebellion that
had broken out in the southern portions of the kingdom, captured
Kulbarga and Bidar. Twenty years afterwards the Deccan governors
rebelled against the emperor Muhammad Tughlak, and set up a
king of their own. Malik Magh, the nominee of the rebels, abdi-
cated in favour of Jafar Khan, who assumed the title of Ala-ud-din
Hasan Shah Gangu Bahmani. He selected Kulbarga as his capital,
and commenced to reign in 1347. The new king rapidly extended
his dominions, which were subsequently divided into four great pro-
vinces. In 1432, the capital was transferred to Bidar. Towards



KULIK— KULLAR.

the close of the fifteenth century, Kulbarga came into i.,
of the kings of Bijapur.

During the last ten or twelve years much has been done I
to Kulbarga some of its former prosperity. The south-eastern
sion of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway has a station near the
Between the railway station and the old town, plantation
been laid out. A handsome garden and many new buildings a) >
the town. Kulbarga is entered by a stately gateway re< entl) - I
In the jail the manufacture of carpets, both of the finer and
kinds, of soda-water and lemonade, of tents, and of paper,
with cloth-weaving, is carried on by 400 convicts.

After the abandonment of Kulbarga for Bidar, the palaces and
mosques, which had been erected by the kings who ruled there, were
allowed to fall into ruin and decay. The outer walls and g I
the old fort are now in a dilapidated condition. A citadel, or Bali 1 1
has suffered the least. The only remarkable building in the fort is the
great mosque or masjid, modelled after the mosque of Cordova in -
Its chief peculiarity is that, alone among the larger mosques of India,
the whole area of 38,016 square feet is covered in. Nothing hut
of ruin remain of the palaces and pleasure-houses of the Ilahmani
kings.

Kulik. — River of Dinajpur District, Bengal. The principal tributary
of the Nagar. It takes its rise in a marsh in the police circle (///<///</')
of Thakurgaon, and, after running for 36 miles through the thdi
Ranisankail, Pirganj, and Hemtabad, falls into the Nagar in lat -\
n., and long. 88° 5' e., at Gorahar village, near the point whei
latter river joins the Mahananda. The important jute mart of RAIGANJ
is situated on the Kulik.

Kulitalai. — Taluk in Trichinopoli District, Madr
Area, 941 square miles. Population (188 1) 201,990, nam.:
males and 104,608 females. Number of villi
41,666. Hindus number 187,180; Muhammadans, 651.;: I
8295; 'others,' 2. Villages of considerable size are— \
(4465), Mahadanapuram (6191), and Kristnarayapuram (3233
taluk contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations
1 2 ; regular police, 86 men. Land revenue ( 1 883 \ / - '

Kulitalai— Town in Kulitalai t&luk, Trichinopoli District, Ma.
Presidency. Lat. io° 56' n, long. 7S 27' e. ; situated on tin
of the Kaveri (Cauvery). Population (1881) 1459 i ™
296. Head-quarters of the taluk, and a station on the 1 I
of the South Indian Railway.

Kullar.— Village in Nilgiri Hills District, Madras I jr. Lai

ii° 20' N.,long. 7 o° 56' E. Although it belongs to N
Kullar lies low, being the dak (post) station (5 miles from



3 34 KULL U—KULSI.

terminus at Mettapolliem), where the ascent of the Kuniir (Coonoor)
ghdt begins.

Kullu. — Valley and Sub-division of Kangra District, Punjab. Set
Kulu.

Kulpahar (also called Pami'dri-Jditpur, from the name of the two
pargands comprising it). — Southern tahsil of Hamirpur District, North-
western Provinces, consisting of part of the hilly and rocky southern
border of the District. Area, 55 8 square miles, of which 309 are
cultivated. Population (1872) 123,911; (1SS1) 125,578, namely,
males 64,468, and females 61,110. Total increase of population in
the 9 years, 1667, or 1*3 per cent. Classified according to religion,
there were, in 18S1 — Hindus, 119,931, and Muhammadans, 5647.
Of the 233 villages constituting the tahsil, 153 contained less than
five hundred inhabitants. Land revenue, ^"17,852 ; total Government
revenue, ^21,110; rental paid by cultivators, ^32,671 j incidence of
Government revenue, is. per acre.

Kulpahar. — Town in Hamirpur District, North-Western Provinces,
and head-quarters of Kulpahar tahsil ; situated in lat. 25 19' 10" n.,
and long. 79° 39' 40" e., in the southern hill country ; distant from
Hamirpur town 60 miles south. Population (1872) 6044; (iSSt)
6066, namely, 5294 Hindus and 772 Muhammadans. Founded by
Jagatraja, son of the great Bundela leader, Chhatar Sal, and Raja of
Jaitpur. Each of Jagatraja's sons built himself a mansion in the town,
the ruins of which still exist. Kesri Singh also erected the Toriya fort,
whose remains still stand. Large tanks, built by the Bundela Rajas.
Tahsi/i, police station, school, sanii, unpretentious mosques and temples.
Trade in grain, cotton, and the al dye. A specially good variety of
cotton is grown in, and named from, the locality. The town was a
centre of local disaffection during the Mutiny.

Kulsi. — River of Assam, formed by the junction of the Khri and
Um-gin streams in the Khasi Hills. The united stream flows north into
Kamriip District, and, after a very winding course, which changes year
by year, finally falls into the Brahmaputra, in lat. 2 6° 9' n., and long.
91 22' e., near the Nagarbera hill on the south bank of that river.
In the plains it is navigable by native boats during the greater part of
the year. On its banks in Kamriip District are several valuable
forests of sal trees, under the protection of the Forest Department.
The timber depot is at Kukurmara, at the crossing of the trunk road.
A portion of the river is leased annually as a fishery.

Kulsi. — Forest reserve and experimental plantation in Kamriip
District, Assam ; on the right or west bank of the river of the same
name, immediately north of the Bard war reserve. Area, 3520 acres,
or 5-5 square miles. The surface soil is a sandy loam covered with
vegetable mould, resting upon granitoid rock, much decomposed.



KU LSI A— KULU.

There are several marshy tracts, inundated during the rain,. A: out 2
square miles are covered with sdl (Shorea robusta), which
tended to preserve. The remainder is being gradually
experimentally with teak (Tectona grandis), sissu | I
tun (Cedrela Toona), nahor (Mesua ferrea), sUm (Ma
tissima); and all the land not suitable for timber I
planted with caoutchouc or india-rubber (Ficua elastica). Al
close of the year 1882, 168 acres had been planted with teak, 30
with sissu, 101 acres with caoutchouc, and 2 acres with bain:
Kulsia. — Native State, Punjab. — Sec KALSIA.
Kulu. — Eastern tahsil or Sub-division of Kingra District!
Lat. 31° 20' to 33° n., and long. 76 49' to 78" 35' 1 .. j 1
three taluks or cantons of Kulu, Lahul, and Situ, each of •
separately. Area of the Sub-division, 6344 square miles, of whi< h only



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