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which forms everywhere the centre of depression, has an elevat
about 10,000 feet on the north-eastern border, falling to about 4 -
as it passes out of Kunawar on the south-west. The lowei
a warm climate, rendered oppressively hot in summer W :
the rocks. The monsoon reaches only the southern extrem I
Kunawar, so that the autumn rains do not extend to the 1
which depends almost entirely for its water-supply upon art.
gation from the hill streams. The winter is rigorous, ai
blocks up and isolates the higher villages t l
together. Nevertheless, until about twenty-five years
an abundant vintage, being manufactured into
spirit. The prevalence of vine disease has, howe,
the vintage of the country. Its attacks are supposed I by m
have been provoked by the wrath of the local goddes



362 KUNCH TAHSIL AND TOWN.

han, who was offended by the attempt of a European to manufacture
wine or spirit at Chini.

The population consists of a mixed Tibetan and Hindu race, the
Turanian element preponderating in the north, while the southern
region is inhabited by persons of Aryan type. In physique, the
Kunawaris are tall, athletic, well made, and dark - skinned ; while
their character stands high for hospitality, truthfulness, and honesty.
Alone among the neighbouring hill tribes, they successfully resisted the
Gurkha invasion, and so completely baffled the enemy by breaking
down bridges, that the Gurkhas entered into a convention by which,
in return for a tribute of ^750 per annum, they agreed to leave the
valley unmolested. Polyandry everywhere exists in its fullest form.

The religion of the Kunawaris shows the same mixed origin as its
ethnical peculiarities. The northern villages profess Buddhism of the
Tibetan model ; in the south, Hinduism prevails, while the middle
region shades off gradually from one faith into the other, producing
grotesque mixtures of ceremonial and belief. Brahmans do not live
beyond Serahan, near the southern frontier ; at Kanum, half-way across
the tract, the Tibetan sacred books are in use, and himas are found, but
the Hindu veneration for kine still exists, and the distinctions of caste
survive ; while at Hang-rang, on the northern frontier, Buddhism
assumes the pure Tibetan form. The language shades off, like the
religion, from Tibetan in the north to neo-Sanskritic dialects on the
Indian side. The chief villages in the valley are Sangnam and Kanum.

Kunch. — South-western tahsil of Jalaun District, North-Western
Provinces ; consisting of a level plain, much cut up by ravines along
the Pahiij river on its western border, and irrigated by the inundation
known as pauh from the Samthar State on the south. The tahsil is
thickly populated, and said to be better cultivated than any other tract in
the District. Area, 209 square miles, of which 168 are under cultivation.
Population (1872) 67,041 ; (1881) 71,429, namely, males 36,246, and
females 35,183 ; the total increase during the nine years being 4388,
or 6*5 per cent. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 —
Hindus, 67,035, and Muhammadans, 4394. Of the 216 villages com-
prising the tahsil, 162 contained less than five hundred inhabitants.
Land revenue, ,£22,484; total Government revenue, ,,-£25,268 ; rental
paid by cultivators, £40,013 ; corrected rental, £49,663; incidence of
Government revenue per acre, 3s. 4^d. Communication is afforded by
the metalled roads from Jhansi to Phaphund railway station in Etawah
District, and from Kunch to Urai, as well as by several fair-weather
roads. In 1883 the tahsil contained 2 civil and 2 criminal courts;
number of police circles (thdnds), 5 ; with a regular police force of 46,
and a village watch of 186 men.

Kunch.— Municipal town 'in Jalaun District, North- Western Pro-



KUND-KUNDAHS.

vinces, and head-quarters of Kiinch tahs'il. Lat. 25' 59' 30" n., and
long. 79° 11' 55" e. The town stands on the open plain, distant
Urai 19 miles west, from Kalpi 42 miles south-west. Population
(1872) 14,448; (1881) 13,739, namely, males 6749, and females I
Classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 11,216 in 1881, and
Muhammadans 2523. Area of town site, 705 acres. The town con-
sists of a business end to the east, and of a quiet, straggling, country
village to the west. A large tank, known as Govind Rao's Tal, built
about 1750, is adorned with steps on all sides, and a cupola at ea< h
corner, but it contains no water during the dry season. Cotton anil
wheat market ; market for molasses, rice, and tobacco ; salt market.
Narrow, tortuous, unmade, undrained bazar lanes, with poor-looking and
often ruinous shops. Surface much intersected by ravines and water-
courses. Declining trade and population ; insufficient communications.
In 1804, Colonel Fawcett, commanding British troops in Bundelkhand,
sent a force to reduce a neighbouring fort. Amir Khan, then plunder-
ing Mau and Irichh, attacked them unexpectedly, and drove them back
to their camp with considerable loss. The freebooting chief next
plundered Kalpi and Ata ; but Kiinch was saved by the remains of the
British force. Shortly afterwards, the British troops under Colonel
Shepherd dispersed the marauding body. During the Mutiny of 1857,
the rebels under Barjor Singh frequently occupied Kiinch. Residence
of an extra-Assistant Commissioner \ tahsili, police station, t
school, girls' school, Government charitable dispensary. Municipal
revenue in 1875-76, ,£805 ; in 1882-83, ^722, of which ^62 6
derived from octroi ; incidence of taxation, iofd. per head of the town
population.

Kund.— Valley in Kashmir State, Northern India.— See Km ^^
Kundada-betta.— Peak in the Kiggatnad taluk of Coorg. Distant
4 miles from Hatur, on the Mysore-Cannanore road. On the summit is
a small stone temple dedicated to Iswara or Siva, repaired in 1
standing on the edge of a precipice 500 feet high. A festival ox jatra
is annually held here.

Klindahs.— Range of mountains in Nilgiri District, Madras I

dency. Lat. n° 9' to n° 21' 40" *., and lon S- ' 6 ° 27 ' 5 ° to ' '

E. The western wall of the Nilgiri plateau, rising abruptly from

Malabar. The summit of the ridge is rocky and precipitous : and t

sides, covered at places with grass, slope down to the val

Kundah river, which separates this range from the rest ot the tabl

The three highest points are Avalanche Peak, S502 feet ; I

8 353 feet; and Makiirti, 8402 feet. The ground is broken, and te

planting is less developed than in the rest of tl

Utakamand (Ootacamund) the view of the Kundah range u remark

beautiful. The Bhavani river rises in this range, and Government



364 KUNDALA— KUNDRI, NORTH.

recently reserved all the remaining woodlands with the view of main-
taining the rain-supply. The best big game shooting on the Nilgiris is
to be found here.

Kundala. — Village in the Hill State of Nalagarh (Hindur), Punjab ;
situated near the borders of Bilaspur State and the Rupar tahsil of
Ambala District, on the road between Bilaspur and Nalagarh towns.
Celebrated for its deep lake known as Kala Kund. A bandh or
masonry dam, placed across one end of the lake by a late Raja
of the State, has enabled its waters to be used extensively for
irrigation.

Kundapur. — Town and river, South Kanara District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Kandapur.

Kundhnan Khurd. — Town in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh.
— See Kandarka Khurd.

Kundia. — Village in the Native State of Udaipur, Rajputana.
Situated 45 miles north-east of Udaipur city, on the banks of the Banas.
Here are many temples ; and the pool Matri-ka-kiind is celebrated, as
it is said that the sins of Parasurama, the would-be matricide, were
washed away on his bathing in its waters.

Kundla. — Town in Bhaunagar State, Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay
Presidency. Lat 21° 21' n., long. 71 25' e. Population (188 1) 6135,
of whom 4431 are Hindus, 921 Muhammadans, and 783 Jains. The
Kundla region is very fertile, and excellent cotton is grown. Irrigation
is carried on, and large crops are obtained in the cold weather. Native
saddlery of wide reputation is made here. Travellers' bungalow,
dispensary, post-office, and two schools.

Kundri, North. — Pargand in Biswan tahsil, Sftapur District, Oudh;
forming together with South Kundri the dodb or alluvial valley
between the Chauka and Gogra. The country is a perfect network of
small streams, which annually overflow their banks during the rains,
causing considerable damage. Area, 164J square miles, or 105,507 acres,
of which 67,983 acres are cultivated, 17,695 acres are cultivable, and
19,829 acres are uncultivable waste. Population (1869) 69,584;
(1881) 71,161, namely, males 37,288, and females 33,873. The incidence
of the land revenue is at the rate of is. 3|d. per acre of total area,
is. 8jd. per acre of assessed area, and 2s. ifd. per acre of cultivated
area. The villages number 129, of which 66 are held on tdlukddri and
63 on zaminddri tenure. Rajputs hold 92 villages, Musalmans 26,
Government 7, and Brahmans, Kayasths, Baniyas, and Bhats, 1 each.
In ancient times, the inhabitants were Bhars, Kurmis, and Raghubansis.
Local tradition relates that about 700 years ago two Rajput brothers,
Bal and Sal, came from their native town of Raika in Jamu, and
drove out the Bhars. Bal and Sal divided the country, the former
taking the northern parts, and the latter the southern. The descend-



KUNDRI, SOUTH— KUNHIAR. 365

ants of both are extant to the present day, and are known as Raikwar
Rajputs, from the name of the original village of their ancestors.
The descendants of Sal are chiefly found in Ramnagar par -g and, Bara
Banki District; and those of Bal, in Kundri and in Bahraich. In
Kundri, the chief Raikwar proprietors were the Raja of Chahlari, who
was slain in the Mutiny and his estates confiscated, the Rao of
Mallapur, and the Thakur of Rampur.

Kundri, South. — Pargand in Siddhauli tahsil, Sitapur District,
Oudh; forming, together with North Kundri, the dodb or alluvial
valley between the Chauka and the Gogra, and liable to destructive
inundations. Area, 63^ square miles, or 40,898 acres, of which 24,135
acres are cultivated, 7997 acres cultivable, 52 acres mudfi, and 8764
acres uncultivable waste. Population (1869)29,393; (1881) 26,516,
namely, males 14,259, and females 12,257. The incidence of the land
revenue is at the rate of is. id. per acre of total area, is. 4^d. per acre
of assessed area, and is. 9d. per acre of cultivated area. The villages
number 39, of which 27 are held by a Raikwar tdlukddr.

Kunhar (also called Nainsukh). — River in Hazara District, Punjab ;
draining the whole of the Khagan valley. Rises in lat. 34 51' n., and
long. 74 4' e., in lake Lohusur, at the head of the Khagan glen, and
after a course of about 100 miles, joins the Jehlam (Jhelum) at Patan,
in lat. 34 17' n., and long. 73 31' e. Narrow and rocky bed; as far
as Balakot, extremely tortuous. Mountains from 8000 to 16,700
feet in height hem it in on either side, the basin between rarely
exceeding 16 miles in width, and contracting in its lower portion,
where the hills subside, to 8 miles or less. Above Balakot, the torrent
flows so fiercely that nothing can live in it ; below that point, the
stream may be crossed by swimming during the summer months, and
sometimes even becomes fordable. One of the main roads to Kashmir
runs through the Batrasi and Dub Passes, on the western and eastern
banks respectively, and crosses the Kunhar at Garhi Habib-ulla by a
suspension bridge, with a span of 108 feet, erected in 1856 at a cost of
^"798. Below this bridge, rough suspension bridges of rope, manu-
factured from twisted twigs, cross the river at long intervals.

Kunhiar. — One of the Simla Hill States, under the political superin-
tendence of the Government of the Punjab. Lat. 31 3' to 31 7' n.,
and long. 7 6° 59' to 77 3' e. The area is 8 square miles, and the
population in 1881 was returned at 1923. The little State occupies a
fertile valley about 15 miles west of Simla. The climate is very mild,
and the soil fertile, producing good crops of sugar-cane. The Thakur
of Kunhiar, Tegh Singh, is a Raghubansi Rajput, born about 1834.
The family has the title of Rao, and within the last two generations has
taken the suffix Singh. The founder of the family, Bhaj Deo, who came
from Jamu, conquered and held this petty State at a date unknown. The



3 66 KUNI—KUNJPURA.

sanadoitiit chiefship is dated 4th September 18 15, after the expulsion
of the Gurkhas. It contains the usual terms of vassalage. The annual
revenue of the chief is estimated at ,£4°°- The State pays a tribute of
£\Z to the British Government.

Kuni. — River rising in the Yeotmal range of hills, Wiin District,
Berar. After a southerly course of about 46 miles, it flows into the
Penganga, in lat. 19° 47' 3°" N -> and lon §- 7^° 41' 3°" E -

Kunia-dh&Iia.— Petty State in Bundelkhand, Central India.— See
Khania-dhana.

Kunigal.— Taluk in the south-east of Tumkiir District, Mysore
State. Area, 328 square miles, of which 116 are cultivated. Popula-
tion (1881) 58,757, namely, 28,306 males and 30,451 females. Of the
total population, 54,849 were Hindus, or 93 per cent.; 3830 Muham-
madans, 31 Jains, and 47 Christians. Land revenue (1881-82),
exclusive of water rates, ^9018, or 2s. 5d. per cultivated acre. The
Shimsha runs through portion of the taluk. The north is fertile and
well cultivated. The taluk in 1884 contained 1 criminal court and 5
police stations (thdnds) ; regular police, 5 1 men ; village watch {chauki-
ddrs), 26. Revenue, ,£10,356.

Kunigal.— Town in Tumkiir District, Mysore State. Lat. 13 1'
40" n., long. 77° 4' 10" e. ; on the Bangalore-Hassan road, 22 miles
south by road from Tumkur town. Population (1881) 3793. The fort
is said to have been founded by a local chief in 1290. It is said to
derive its name from a 'dancing stone' {kunigallu), Siva having
danced here. A large tank has been constructed at the junction
of three hill streams. In recent years, a low type of fever has made
the place very unhealthy. An important establishment for breed-
ing horses for the Mysore silliddrs. Head-quarters of the Kunigal
taluk.

Kunjah. — Town and municipality in Gujrat tafisil, Gujrat District,
Punjab, 7 miles north-west of Gujrat town. Lat. 32 31' 45" N., long.
74 1' e. Population (1868) 5975; (1881) 5799, namely, Muham-
madans, 3898; Hindus, 171 2; and Sikhs, 189. Number of houses,
640. Municipal revenue in 1875-76, ^113; in 1882-83, £156,
or 6jd. per head of the town population. Kunjah is a considerable
agricultural and local trading centre, with a bazar, grain market,
police station, school-house, and dispensary.

Kunjpura. — Town and municipality in Karnal ta/isil, Karnal
District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 29 43' n., long. 77 7' 15" e., 6
miles north-east of Karnal town. Population (1868) 5163; (1881)
4725, namely, Muhammadans, 2550; Hindus, 2174; and Jain, 1.
The town is the residence of a distinguished Pathan family, whose head
enjoys the revenues of the neighbourhood as jdgir, and bears the title
Nawab, with jurisdiction as honorary magistrate on his own estates. The



KUXSA— KURAI. 3 7

town is enclosed by an old masonry wall, now in a dilapidated
state, which the municipality is unable to keep in proper repair for
want of funds. The public buildings consist of a police station,
dispensary, and school. Fine orchards exist close to the town.
Municipal revenue in 1S75-76, .£150; in 1882-83, £ l 9 l > or 9fd«
per head of the town population.

Kunsa. — Town in Rai Bareli District, Oudh, situated 16 miles from
Rai Bareli town, on the road from Gurbakshganj to Bachhrawan. Lat.
26° 20' 15" n., long. 8i° 3' 55" e. Almost purely a Hindu town, the
majority of the inhabitants being Brahmans. Population (1869) 5352 ;
(1881) 4807, namely, Hindus, 4638, and Muhammadans, 169.

Klinur. — Mountain sanitarium and town in the District of the
Nilgiri Hills, Madras Presidency. — See Coonoor.

Kupili. — Town and seaport in Chipurupalle tdluk, Vizagapatam
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 18 10' 30" n., long. 83 52' 40" e.
Population (1881) 1942 ; number of houses, 377. Salt station, yielding
a revenue of about ;£i 5,000 per annum.

Kurai. — North-western tahsil or Sub-division of Sagar (Saugor)
District, Central Provinces. Area, 936 square miles, with 1 town
and 482 villages; number of houses, 26,332. Population (1881)
116,767, namely, males 61,440, and females 55,327; average density,
12475 persons per square mile. Total adult agricultural popula-
tion, 34,844, or 29*8 per cent, of the entire population of the
tahsil. Average area of cultivated and cultivable land, 13 acres
per head. Of the total area of 936 square miles, 190 square
miles are held revenue free, and 746 square miles are assessed for
Government revenue. Of the assessed area, 358 square miles are
returned as cultivated, 282 square miles as cultivable, and 106 square
miles as uncultivable waste. Total Government revenue, including
local rates and cesses levied on land, ^11,174, or an average of n|d.
per cultivated acre. Total rental paid by cultivators, ^27,324, or
2S. 2§d. per cultivated acre. In 1883, the tahsil contained 1 criminal
and 2 civil courts; number of police stations, 3, with 15 outposts;
strength of regular police, 139 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 405.

Kurai. — Town in Sagar (Saugor) District, Central Provinces, and
head-quarters of Kurai tahsil. Lat. 24 2' 30" N., long. 78 22' 30" e. ; 34
miles north-west of Sagar town. From the Gaulis Kurai passed to the
Muhammadan rulers of Delhi. Aurangzeb united the pargand of Kurai
with that of Garola, and gave the tract in jdgir to a Dangi chief,
who built the fort. In 1753, Govind Pandit, on behalf of the Peshwa,
took possession of Kurai. He enlarged the fort, and dug a large well
within it; and built on its south-west side a temple, still in good
preservation, isolating the whole by water from a lake he had excavated.
The fort consists of round towers connected by curtain walls, and



3 68



KURAM.



encloses 1 1 acres. Within it stands the tahsil court-house, also built by
Govind Pandit.

Kurai formed part of the country ceded by the Peshwa to the
British in 1818. In July 1857, the Raja of Bhanpur invested Kurai,
on which the tahsilddr surrendered the fort and joined the rebels.
They held the place till February 1858, when Sir Hugh Rose defeated
the Raja of Bhanpur at Barodia Nawanagar. The ravages of the
rebels greatly depressed the country round Kurai ; but since the
new Settlement, marked improvement has taken place.

The town is well laid out, with wide streets, and substantial
houses. North of the fort are some handsome Hindu temples. Large
quantities of cattle are brought to the weekly markets, chiefly from the
Native State of Gwalior ; and the whole of the meat supplied by the
commissariat to the European troops at Sagar, Jabalpur (Jubbulpore),
and Nowgong comes from Kurai. The town has a police station-house,
a post-office, and 3 schools, one being for girls. Population (1872)
4965; (1881) 5370, chiefly Dangis, a class of agricultural Rajputs.
Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 3856;
Jains, 745 ; Sikhs, 10 1 ; Muhammadans, 665 ; and Christians, 3.
Municipal income (1882-83) ;£ I0 9°> of which JJ571 was derived from
taxation, principally octroi; average incidence of taxation, 2s. ijd. per
head.

Kuram. — A district of Afghanistan, consisting of the valley of the
river Kuram as far as British territory. The length of the district,
until 1880 a sub-division of Kabul Province, is about 60 miles, and its
breadth varies from 3 to 10 miles.

The scenery is exceedingly fine, and in some places grand, the Safed
Koh forming a magnificent background to a picture of quiet beauty.
The Kuram river runs through green fields and sunny orchards, and
numerous villages dot the plain. The principal spur from the Safed
Koh range is the Peiwar ridge, which runs south and divides into two
branches, one of which is parallel to the Kuram. The other rivers of
the district are the Hariab, Keria, Mangal, Ahmad Khel, Kirman, and
Karamana. The chief tribes inhabiting the Kuram valley are the
Bangash, Tiiri, Jaji, and Mangal. The two last, who are semi-indepen-
dent, inhabit the upper portion of the district towards the crest of the
Peiwar Kotal, and south of Chamkani. The numbers of these tribes
are thus estimated :—



Mangals,
Jajis,
Bangash,
Turis,



Total,



at 8,000 fighting men, by Lumsden.
,, 800 ,, ,,

,, 5,620 ,, by Edwardes.

„ 5>o°o »



19,420 fighting men.



The total number of inhabitants has been estimated at 77,680.



KURAM. 3 6 9

Although Kuram lies in the midst of an Afghan population, all its
tribes belong to the Shia sect.

The chief crops of Kuram are rice, cotton, barley, andjodr. Apples,
pomegranates, melons, quinces, and other fruits are also grown. Water
is abundant everywhere, and irrigation is rendered easy by the presence
of the Kuram and the numerous hill torrents which feed it. A large
unirrigated tract in the north is known as the Maidan. All the irri-
gated lands in the district lie close to the banks of the Kuram ; and
whenever these fields are flooded, it is a common practice to plant rows
of willows as thickly as they will stand, and keep them cut down to 2
or 3 feet in height for some years. These spreading form a complete
barrier, which in ordinary floods catches and retains rich deposits of
alluvial soil, on which as soon as it is dry, a crop is sown, while each
succeeding flood only adds to the depth of the deposit. Thus the
cultivator only loses one crop, and in a very few years regains a fine
field supported on a living wall of willows.

The slopes of the Safed Koh range are clothed with pine forests,
and the timber is floated down the Kuram to Bannu for the use of the
British Forest Department.

The route through the Kuram valley is perhaps the best of all the
roads between Afghanistan and the Punjab, both on account of its
easiness and the abundance of water, fuel, etc. procurable.

The number of villages in Kuram' is 36; the largest contains a
population of about 1000. The fort of the governor is at Ahmadzai.

The following particulars are given by General Macgregor (from
Major Plowden's compilation) as to the administration of Kuram.
The district was formerly divided in 29 sub-divisions, each of 720
acres, the whole paying an aggregate land-tax of ^6250. The mis-
cellaneous revenue is raised by a poll-tax on Hindus, each male adult
paying a sum of about 6s. ; by taxes on animals sold ; and by
transit duties. The Turfs are great traders, and own a large stock of
pack-mules ; there are no camels or pack-bullocks in Kuram. Fruit,
rice, and ddl are brought down to British territory, the traders lading
Kohat salt for the return journey. Habfb-Kala in Peiwar is the chief
centre of trade. The customs of the people do not differ materially
from those of other parts of Afghanistan. In cases of murder, blood
is either taken for blood, or ^"36 and a bride (valued at ;£iS) are
accepted as compensation. Peace is not held to be complete until a
bride has been given. Semi-military and police posts are — Kapian,
Ahmadi-Shama, Balesh Khel, Fort Kuram, and Peiwar.

The Kuram valley is historical as the starting-point of General
Roberts' expedition in the war between England and Afghanistan,
1878-79. On the nth of September in the latter year, the murder of
our envoy Sir Louis Cavagnari was followed by General Roberts'

VOL. VIII. 2 A



37 o KURAM RIVER— KURANTA Dili.

seizure of the Shutargardan pass, and an advance by the Kuram route
to Kabul.

Kuram. — River in Afghanistan and Bannu District, Punjab ;
rises in the Safed Koh mountains beyond the frontier, and, before
reaching British territory, waters the fertile Kuram valley in the inde-
pendent hills. Then it rushes through the mountains held by various
Waziri clans, and entering Bannu District at its north-west corner, 5
miles from the cantonment and civil station, finally falls into the Indus
some 4 miles south of Isakhel, after receiving the waters of the Tochi
a few miles east of Lakki, in lat. 32 37' n., and long. 71 22' e.

The rich deposits brought down by the Kuram render its waters
peculiarly valuable for irrigation, but unwholesome for drinking.
The Bannuchis, however, draw their whole domestic supply from this
source. Immediately below the hills, boulders line the shallow bed j
farther down, the stream cuts itself a deep channel through the yield-
ing banks of clay ; while near the Indus it loses its force, and widens



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