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out over a spreading and ill-defined basin. Throughout its course in
British territory, it is used for irrigation, and a large area is constantly
flooded by means of side-cuts ; so much so that but little water reaches
the Indus, except during the rainy season. The depth varies from 2
feet in the dry months to 6 or 7 feet in the floods. In its diagonal
course of about 60 miles through Bannu District, the Kuram falls fully
700 feet. It is subject to sudden and prolonged freshes; and being
nowhere yet bridged, crossing is sometimes impossible for several days
at a time. During the Afghan campaign a military detachment has been
known to be detained on the bank a week, unable to reach the canton-
ment a mile distant on the opposite side of the river. Between June
and September, the only tolerably safe and practicable ford for laden
camels is that opposite the cantonment. A bridge at this point is the
great commercial and military want of Bannu District. In parts, how-
ever, quicksands render the passage difficult or dangerous. Bannu
District owes almost all its fertility to the Kuram and its tributary the
Gambila (Tochi). Area annually irrigated, about 60,000 acres.

Kurambraiiad. — Taluk or Sub - division of Malabar District,
Madras Presidency. Area, 408 square miles. Population (1SS1)
261,024, namely, 129,394 males and 131,630 females, dwelling in
57 villages, containing 48,440 houses. Hindus numbered 196,383;
Muhammadans, 64,245 ; Christians, 394 ; and ' others,' 2. There
were, in 1S83, 2 civil and 2 criminal courts; police circles, 10;
regular police, 91 men. Land revenue, ^£2 1,304.

Kurandwad. — Native State under the South Maratha Agency of
the Bombay Presidency. — See Kurundwad.

Kurantadih. — Eastern tahsil or Sub-division of Ghazipur District,
Xorth-Western Provinces, consisting of the pargands of Muhammad-



KURANTADIH TAIJSIL—KURAUNA. 37 ,

abad, Garha, Dihma, and Zahiirabad. Area, according to the latest
official statement (1S81), 404-6 square miles, of which 302-2 square
miles are cultivated, 29-3 square miles cultivable, and 73-1 square
miles uncultivable waste. Population (1872) 236,800 ; (1881) 286,022,
namely, males 142,820, and females 143,202. Increase of population
during the nine years, 49,222, or 2o-S per cent. Classified according
to religion, there were, in 1S81— Hindus, 258,814; Muhammadans,
27,202 ; and Christians, 6. Of the 804 villages, 646 contained less
than five hundred inhabitants in 1SS1. Two towns, Narhi and Baha-
durganj, contained upwards of five thousand inhabitants. Government
land revenue (1S81), ^£29,943 ; total Government revenue, including
rates and cesses, ,£33,704; total rental paid by cultivators, including
cesses, ^61,408.

Kurantadih.— Head-quarters of Kurantadih tahsil, Ghazipur Dis-
trict, North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 25 35' n., and long.
84 1' 20" e., 26 miles from Ghazipur town, with which it is connected
by a metalled road. There is no village here, and no population
except the Government officials, who, with their families, number about
40. The public buildings consist of a tahsili, munsifi, police station, and
Anglo-vernacular school. The head-quarters of the tahsil were moved
here from Muhammadabad in 1876. Until 1873, Kurantidih was the
seat of a branch of the Government stud department.

Kurara. — Town in Hamirpur tahsil, Hamirpur District, North-
Western Provinces ; situated on the Kalpi road, 10 miles west of Hamir-
pur town. Population (1872) 4897; (1881) 3612. Police station,
post-office, village school. A considerable trade in grain, cotton,
and the scarlet at dye is carried on at the Sunday and Thursday
markets. A house-tax is raised for police and sanitary purposes.

Kurauli. — Town in Mainpuri tahsil, Mainpuri District, North-
Western Provinces; situated on the road from Mainpuri to Etah, 14 miles
north of the former town. Kurauli is an open and well-built modern
town, owing its rise to the growing prosperity of the Raja and his
family, who have a handsome mansion with large gardens in its
midst. Four mosques ; 9 Hindu temples, the most striking built
by the late Raja, with rest-house for pilgrims attached ; handsome
masonry bathing tank. Post-office, police station, tahsili school.
Population (1872) 4071 ; (1881) 6776, namely, Hindus, 5454;
Muhammadans, 11 52; and 'others,' 170. The late Raja took great
interest in education, especially of females, and did much to encourage
improvements in the town. He died in 1880, leaving an adopted
minor son, and the estate is now (1S84) under the Court of Wards.
A local family of oculists have a high reputation for the cure of
cataract.

Kurauna. — Pargand in Misrikh tahsil, Sitiipur District, Oudh.



37 2 KURG—KURLA.

Area, 46 square miles, or 29,329 acres, of which 16,986 acres are
cultivated, 7024 acres cultivable, 2467 mudji, and 2852 uncultivable
waste. Population (1869) 14,807 ; (1881) 16,283, namely, males 8664,
and females 7619. Incidence of land-tax, 2s. o^d. per acre of total
area, 2s. 3I& per acre of assessed area, 3s. 2§d per acre of cultivated
area. Of the 51 villages comprising the pargand, 32 are held by
Janwar Rajputs, 10 by Muhammadans, 3 by Kayasths, and 2 by
Gosains, while the remaining 4 are newly formed grants. The pargand
was formerly occupied by Pasis, who were driven out 400 years ago
by an invasion of Janwar Rajputs, whose descendants still own the
greater part of the pargand.

Kurg. — Province of Southern India. — See Coorg.
Kurha Keshupur (or Darshannagar). — Town in Faizabad (Fyz-
abad) District, Oudh ; situated 4 miles from Faizabad town, on the
road to Akbarpur. Population (1869) 2730; (1881) 3167, viz. 2726
Hindus and 441 Muhammadans.

Kurhurbaree. — Coal-field in Hazaribagh District, Bengal. — See
Karharbari.

Kurigram. — Sub-division of Rangpur District, Bengal. Area, 937
square miles ; number of villages, 2386 ; houses, 70,828. Population
(1881) — males 268,054, and females 266,900; total, 534,954. Classi-
fied according to religion, there were — Muhammadans, 318,303;
Hindus, 216,596; Christians, 14; Buddhists, 10; Jains, 22; and
' others,' 9. Average density of population, 571 persons per square mile ;
villages per square mile, 2-55; persons per village, 224; houses per
square mile, 77 ; persons per house, 7*5. This Sub-division comprises
the three police circles (thdnds) of Barabari, Nageswari, and Ulipur.
In 1883 it contained 2 civil and 1 criminal court, with a regular
police force of 71 officers and men, and 1205 rural police or village
watchmen.

Kurigram. — Village and head-quarters of Kurigram Sub-division,
Rangpur District ; situated on the right bank of the Dharla river, and
a station on the Kauniya and Dharla Railway. A tobacco and jute
mart.

Kurivikulam. — Town in Sankaranaianarkoil taluk, Tinnevelli Dis-
trict, Madras District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 10' 30" n., long.
77 42' e. Population (1881) 6268 ; number of houses, 1499. Hindus
number 6078 ; Christians, 174; and Muhammadans, 16.

Kurla. — Municipal town in Thana District, Bombay Presidency.
Situated on the eastern extremity of Salsette Island, at the point where
it is connected with the island of Bombay by the Sion Causeway.
Also a station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The town has
a post-office, dispensary, and two large cotton mills, one of which, the
'Dharmsey Poon-jabhoy,' is the largest in India. Population (1881)



KURMA TUR—KURSL 3 7 3

9715. Hindus numbered 6793; Muhammadans, 1320; Christians,
1369; Parsi's, 81; Jains, 30; and 'others,' 122. Municipal income
(1882), ,£"498; expenditure, ^569; incidence of taxation, 9M.

Kurmatxir. — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat.
9 4' N., long. 76 43' 30" e.

Kurnool. — District and town, Madras Presidency. — See Karnul.

Kurpa. — District and town, Madras Presidency. — See Cuddapah.

Kurrachee. — District, tahsil, and town, Sind, Bombay Presidency.
— See Karachi.

Kursanda.— Town in Sadabad tahsil, Muttra (Mathura) District,
North-Western Provinces ; situated on the Agra and Aligarh road, 8
miles north of the Jumna, 3 miles south-west of Sadabad, and 20 miles
south-east of Muttra town. Lat. 27 23' 45" N., long. 78 3' 24" e. Popu-
lation (1872) 7145 ; (1881) 6018, namely, Hindus, 5625, and Muham
madans, 393. Area of town site, 82 acres. The town was founded
by a Jat named Piiran Chand, who bestowed a portion of the land on
his family priest. Their descendants are still in possession, and Jats
and Brahmans form the principal inhabitants and landholders. The
town contains four small temples ; and markets are held twice a week
on Sunday and Thursday. During the Mutiny, two of the local land-
holders were hanged for participation in the sack of Sadabad.

Kursat.— Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated 10 miles north
Of Safipur, and 4 miles north of Asiwan. Lat. 26 52' 10" n., long.
8o° 27' 10" e. Population (1869) 5373 ; (1881) 5755, namely, Hindus,
3960, and Muhammadans, 1795. Area of town site, 100 acres.
Vernacular school ; weekly market, with sales averaging ^223 a year.
Founded by one Kuds-ud-din, in the reign of Babar, the previous in-
habitants, a tribe called Shahids, being expelled and their village laid
in ruins. The descendants of the conquerors still hold the land.

Kursat Kalan— Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; situated near
the right bank of the Sai, 9 miles north-east from Mallanwan. A fine
village with a population (1869) of 2688, and (1881) 2621, chiefly
Kanaujia Brahmans. Bi-weekly market. Held by the Thatheras till
about the middle of the 12th century, when a body of Kurmis drove
them out. Their descendants still hold the village.

Kurseli.— Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; situated a little off the
Pihani road, 11 miles north of Hardoi town. Population (1869) 2898 ;
(1881) 3056, mostly Pasis. Said to have been founded about 400
years ago by Diwan Singh and Jagat Singh, Chamar Gaurs, the
descendants of Ruber Sah, the conqueror of the Thatheras.

Kurseong— Sub-division and village in Darjfling District, Bengal.—
See Karsiang.

Kursi— Pargand in Fatehpur tahsil, Bara Banki District, Oudh.
Area, 89 square miles, of which 47 are cultivated. Population (1S69)



3 74 KURSI TO WN—KUR UKSHE TRA.

37,459; (1881) 35,814, namely, males 18,813, and females 17,001.
Land revenue assessment, ^7055 ; average incidence, 2s. 5jd. per acre
of total area, 3s. id. per acre of assessed area, and 4s. 8|d. per acre of
cultivated area. Number of villages, 91 ; principally owned by Sayyids
and Rajputs.

Kursi— Town in Fatehpur tahsil, Bara Banki District, Oudh, and
head-quarters of Kursi tahsil ; 18 miles from Bara Banki town.
Population (1869) 3650; (1881) 3154, of whom more than half are
Musalmans. Police station ; Government school ; registration office ;
post-office. Weaving and cotton-cleaning trades flourish, but no bazar
is held here. Crossed by two roads— one running north from Lucknow,
which passes on to Mahmudabad and Biswan in Sftapur District ; and
the other west from Bara Banki, which joins the imperial road from
Lucknow to Sftapur. The town has long belonged to Musalman pro-
prietors j but it is said to have been built by two Bhars, Khushal and
Mithan, one of whom gave his name to Kursi, and the other to the
village of Mithan, some 4 miles east of it.

Kurtkoti.— Town in the Gadag Sub-division of Dharwar District,
Bombay Presidency; situated 25 miles east of Hubli, and 8 miles
south-west of Gadag, in lat. 15 45' N -> and lon S- 75° 4 E. Population
(1881)4516.

Kuruda-male (or Kudu-male, ' Hill of Assembly ').— Hill in Kolar
District, Mysore State. Lat. 13° 12' n., long. 78 25' e. ; 3312 feet
above sea-level. At the foot of the hill are the ruins of several
large temples, .with sculpture ascribed to Jakanachari, but apparently
restored at a later date. The principal are those of Someswara and
Ganesha, The figure of Ganesha is of huge size. Tradition asserts
that here the ancient gods mustered their forces for the attack on
Tripura.

Kurugodu— Town in Bellary taluk, Bellary District, Madras Presi-
dency. Lat. 15° 20' n., long. 76 53' e. Population (1881) 2723;
number of houses, 747. Remarkable for the number of temples in
its vicinity, among them a very fine new one dedicated to Siva, and
containing a colossal representation of the bull Nanii % a monolith.
Village school.

Kurukshetra.— Holy tract and place of pilgrimage in Ambala
(Umballa) and Karnal Districts, Punjab ; embracing the country lying
west and south-west of the town of Thanesar as its centre. The name
derives its origin from Kuru, the ancestor alike of the Kauravas and
Pandavas who figure in the Mahdbhdrata. Kuru became an ascetic
upon the banks of the holy lake south of Thanesar ; but the limits
of the sacred tract cannot be exactly ascertained. According to
popular belief, the Kurukshetra embraces 360 places of pilgrimage,
and extends as far as the town of Jind, 64 miles from Thanesar;



KU RUMBA. 375

though General Cunningham believes that modern Brahmans have
unduly enlarged its boundaries to gratify the Sikh Raja of Jind, whose
territories are thus included within the holy borders. Whatever be
the precise extent of the sacred tract, it is certain that the strip of
country between the Saraswati (Sarsuti) and the Ghaggar (the Saras-
wati and Drishadvati of the Sanskrit epics) formed the original home
of the Hindu faith, the earliest settlement of the Aryan colonists in
India. Here their religion first assumed its present form ; and there-
fore the Kurukshetra and the river Saraswati still attract worshippers
from the remotest parts of Bengal.

The ancient capital of Kurukshetra was Srughna, the site of which
has been identified by General Cunningham with the village of Sugh,
situated in a bend of the old bed of the Jumna, close to Jagadhri and
Buriya. Srughna is mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim
of the 7th century, as a town 3J miles in circuit, the capital of a
kingdom, and the seat of considerable learning, both Buddhistic and
Brahmanical. He describes the kingdom of Srughna as extending to
the mountains on the north, and to the Ganges on the east, with the
Jumna flowing through the centre.

The towns of Thanesar and Pihoia are the chief centres of
pilgrimage, but minor shrines line the bank of the river for many
miles. At Thanesar, as many as 100,000 persons sometimes
assemble on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun, and treble
that number bathe annually in a tank filled from the Sarsuti
(Saraswati). The great conflict between the Pandavas and the
Kauravas was fought out in the surrounding country; and the
Mahdbhdrata keeps alive the memory of all the most famous scenes in
the minds of Hindu votaries, who regard the Kurukshetra as the Holy
Land of their religion.

Kurumba. — A primitive tribe of South India, Madras Presidency.
The Kurumbas are believed to have sprung from a race of nomadic
shepherds, one of the great Dravidian family which inhabited the
Peninsula of South India before the historical period. They founded
a powerful kingdom, known as Kuramba-bhumi, occupying the tract
along the sea-coast from the Pennar to the Palar rivers, and extend-
ing inland to the Western Ghats. This kingdom was finally over-
thrown by Adondai, the illegitimate son of Kulattungi Chola ; and the
conquered country passed thenceforth by the name of Tondamanda-
lam. The power of the Kurumbas probably survived longest in the
North Karnatik, particularly in the hills. The Kurumbas themselves
have lost all traces of their ancient civilisation, and retain no recol-
lection of their previous history. At the present day they are a
tribe of shepherds, scattered through the Districts of Malabar, Coim-
batore, Cuddapah, Bellary, Tanjore, Trichinopoli, the Nilgiris, Mysore,



376 KURUNDWAD.

and Pudukota State. The Census of 1S81 returned the total number
of Kurumbas throughout the whole of Southern India as only 3801, of
whom as many as 3601 were found in the petty State of Pudukota.
The Kurumbas in the British Districts and Mysore were apparently
enumerated among the low-caste Hindus.

The Kurumbas are small in stature, uncouth, and squalid. They
wear their hair matted and straggling, sometimes tied into a knot
with a piece of cord on the crown or back of the head, with the ends
hanging down. The men have scarcely any moustache or whiskers,
and only a scanty beard. Their clothing consists of a piece of cloth
passed between their legs. Some of the women wear a square cloth
which reaches from the arm to the knee ; others have only a waist-
cloth. The Kurumbas profess to worship Siva, and occasionally the
women mark their forehead with the Siva spot. The tribe has no
special ceremonies or rites at birth or marriage. The dead are burned,
and the ashes are left to be scattered by the wind. Mr. Metz describes
the language as a corruption of Kanarese, with Tamil words intermixed.
Dr. Caldwell, however, speaks of it as ' rude Tamil.' The Mysore
Kurumbas speak old Kanarese.

Kurundwad. — Native State under the Political Agency of the
Southern Maratha Country, Bombay Presidency. This State at present
consists of two divisions, one belonging to the elder ruler of Kurund-
wad, and the other to the younger chiefs. The elder division com-
prises two towns, Kurundwad and Tikota, and 37 villages. Of these,
Tikota and Wadegaon — the former in Kaladgi, and the latter in Satara
District — are quite isolated from the main Jdgir, of which 25 villages
lie close to and south of the town of Belgaum, while the remaining
10 lie in the valley of the Kistna intermixed with British territory
and with the territory of the Kolhapur, Sangli, and Muraj States. The
junior division comprises 34 villages, 17 in the neighbourhood of
and mostly to the south of Belgaum, 15 on the borders of the Nizam's
Dominions and to the east of Sholapur District, and 2 within the limits
of the Kolhapur State.

The elder chief's estate contains an area of 182 square miles, and a
population (1881) of 35,187 persons, namely, 17,636 males and 17,551
females, occupying 6577 houses. Hindus numbered 28,558; Muham-
madans, 3409; and 'others,' 3220. The staple products are millet,
rice, wheat, gram, and cotton. Coarse country cloth and articles
of native female apparel are the principal manufactures. The
Kurundwad State was a grant made before 1772 by the Peshwa to a
member of the Patwardhan family, on condition of military service.
In 181 1 the State was divided, a half share being given by the
Peshwa to Ganpat Rao, the nephew of Nilkant Rao, the original
grantee. In 1855 a further division of Kurundwad was effected by



KURUNDWAD TOWN—KURWAL 37 7

the British Government between Raghunath Rao and his nephew
Ganpat Rao, and younger brothers Vinayak Rao and Trimbak Rao.
The latter dying in 1869 without male issue, the whole of his share of
the jdgir was bestowed on the two younger chiefs, with the exception
of the share he possessed in the indm estate, which reverted to the
elder chief. The total yearly tribute received by the British Govern-
ment from Kurundwad amounts to ^96 1. The present (1881-82)
senior chief is Chintaman Rao Raghunath, a Hindu of the Brahman
caste. He is twenty-seven years of age, and administers his estate
in person. The elder chief of Kurundwad ranks as a first-class
sarddr, and has power to try his own subjects for capital offences
without the express permission of the Political Agent. He enjoys
an estimated gross revenue of ^11,000, and maintains a military
force of 268 men. His family hold a sanad of adoption, and the
succession follows the rule of primogeniture. In 1882-83 there were
five schools with 165 scholars, besides seven indigenous schools.

The share of the younger chiefs contains an area of 114 square
miles, and a population (1881) of 25,811 persons, namely, 13,052 males
and 12,759 females, occupying 3557 houses. Hindus numbered
20,632; Muhammadans, 2548; and 'others,' 2631. The arrangement
entered into by the senior branch is considered as binding upon the
younger chiefs. The present (1881-82) head of the younger chiefs
is Ganpat Rao Harihar. He is thirty-nine years of age, and administers
his estate in person. He maintains a military force of 304 men, and
has an estimated gross revenue (1882) of ^10,283. In 1S82-83 there
were two vernacular schools.

Kurundwad.— Chief town of the State of Kurundwad, in the South
Maratha Country, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16 41' n., long. 74° 38' E.
Population (1881) 7138. Hindus numbered 5278; Muhammadans,
1064; Jains, 791 ; Christians, 1 ; and Parsi's, 4. Situated on the right
bank of the Panchganga river, close to its junction with the Kistna.
The town is the residence of the representatives of both branches of
the ruling family, and was formerly well protected, but the defences are
now mostly in ruins. It has no public buildings of any interest, save
the palace of the chiefs, and a temple dedicated to Vishnu. Outside
the town, and distant about a mile, is a fine masonry bathing ghdt
on the Kistna. The water-supply is dependent on the Panchganga,
from which a windmill pump raises the water for the town. There is
a charitable dispensary. The town is not a part of the jd<it\ having
been given in indm to an ancestor of the present chiefs by the Raja
of Kolhapur. It possesses a municipality.

Kurwai. — Native State under the Bhopal Agency of Central India.
Lat 23 21' to 24 14' n., and long. 77 26' to 78 20' e. The State is
situated on the river Betwa, between Sagar (Saugor) and Sironj. Chief



37 8 KUR WAI TO WN— KUSHTIA.



i



products, opium and grain. The founder of the principality was an
Afghan adventurer, named Muhammad Dalel Khan. He first entered
the service of the Raja of Datia, and afterwards, about 1726, that of
the Raja of Basoda. By dint of his valour, he became commandant of
the Basoda troops ; and, on the death of the chief of Kurwai, he seized
that territory, and built the fort of Kurwai. During the decline of the
Mughal Empire, the State increased greatly in consideration and pros-
perity. The chief rendered assistance to General Goddard in 1783,
and in consequence suffered severely afterwards from the enmity of the
Marathas; in 18 18 he applied to the British Resident at Bhopal for
protection, which was accorded, and thenceforward he remained undis-
turbed in his possessions. The chief, Muhammad Najaf Khan, bears
the title of Nawab. The area of the State is about 139 square miles,
with a population in 1881 of 24,631, of whom 12,622 were males
and 12,009 females; density of the population, 176 persons per
square mile. Hindus numbered 20,788; Muhammadans, 3609; Jains,
24 ; and aboriginal tribes, 216. The revenue is estimated at
;£io,ooo. The Nawab keeps up a force of 40 horse and 150
infantry.

Kurwai. — Chief town of the Kurwai State, under the Bhopal
Agency, Central India. Lat. 24 7' n., long. 78^ 5' e. Situated on the
Betwa river. The fort, built of red granite and surrounded by a ditch,
is on an eminence to the east of the town. The houses in the town
are of stone set in mud and roofed with stone slabs, which are obtained
in abundance from the quarries in the vicinity. Native weapons, such
as matchlocks and knives, are manufactured, and are much prized in
the neighbouring villages. Dispensary and post-office. Population
(1881) from 3000 to 5000.

Kusbhadra. — A deltaic distributary of the Koyakhai branch of the
Mahanadi, which, after throwing off a branch, the Prachi, falls into the
Bay of Bengal a little south of the Kanarak temple, in lat. 19° 51' n.,
and long. 86° 4' e.

Kushtia (Kooshtea). — Sub-division of Nadiya District, Bengal. Lat.
23 42' to 24 9' n., and long. 88° 47' to 89 24' 45" e. Area,
558 square miles, with 861 villages or towns, and 71,811 houses.
Population (1881) 446,694, namely, males 216,617, and females
2 3°j°77 ) proportion of males in the total population, 48-5 per
cent. The most densely populated Sub-division in the District, the
average density being 800 persons per square mile, or 1 to every 1*25
acre; villages per square mile, 1*54; persons per village, 519; houses
per square mile, 1337 ; persons per house, 6 2. This Sub-division
comprises the 6 police circles (thdnds) of Daulatpur, Naopara, Kushtia,
Kumarkhali, Bhaluka, and Bhadulia. In 1883 it contained 4 civil
and 2 magisterial courts, a regular police force of 120 men, besides



KUSHTIA TOWN—KUSL 379

a village watch numbering 913. The Northern Bengal State Railway,
from the Eastern Bengal Railway station at Parodah to Damukdiha
on the Ganges, intersects the Sub -division. The population is



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