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almost entirely agricultural, but a considerable river trade is also
carried on.

Kushtia. — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Kushtia Sub-
division and police circle (thdnd) in Nadiya District, Bengal ; situated
on the right bank of the Padma or Ganges. Lat. 23 54' 55" N.,
long. 89 10' 5" e. Population (1872) 9245, namely, 4674 males and
4571 females; (1881) 9717, namely, males 4778, and females 4939-
Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Muhammadans,
5669; Hindus, 4023; 'others,' 25. Area of town site, 3200 acres.
Municipal income (1876-77), ^279 ; (1883-84), ^524; rate of muni-
cipal taxation, is. oid. per head. The principal seat of river trade in
the District, and an important station on the Eastern Bengal Railway.
Until the extension of the line to Goalanda in 1870, Kushtia was the
terminus of the railway, and the chief landing-place for jute and other
products of Eastern Bengal. The silting up of the river, and the
extension of the line eastwards down the Ganges to Goalanda in
Farfdpur District, has removed much of the traffic of Kushtia to the
new terminus.

Kusi (Koosy). — River of Northern Bengal, rising among the Nepal
Himalayas in lat. 28 25' n., and long. 86° 1 1' E. It first takes a course
south-west for about 60 miles, then south and south-east for 160 more,
during which it receives on its left bank its two great tributaries the
Aran and Tambar. It leaves the mountains in lat. 2 6° 45' n., and long.
87° 13' e., in a series of cataracts and rapids, and after a southerly
course touches upon British territory in the extreme north-east of
Bhagalpur District, at which point it is a large river nearly a mile wide.
It here assumes the character of a deltaic stream, and runs a direct
southerly course, with many bifurcations and interlacings, till, after
receiving another considerable tributary on its left bank, the Ghugri, it
finally falls into the left bank of the Ganges in lat. 25 22' 15" n., and
long. 87 19' e., after a total course of about 325 miles.

The Kusi is remarkable for the rapidity of its stream, the
dangerous and uncertain nature of its bed, but chiefly for its con-
stant westerly movement and the desolation caused by its floods.
Tracts inundated by it lapse into sand and jungle, and in this way
it has made a wilderness of about half the Madahpura Sub-division.
In the early part of the 18th century, the Kusi river passed below
Purniah town, but it has since worked westwards across about 50
miles of country, as indicated by now deserted channels, to its present
line. Owing to these characteristics, its navigation is at all times
of the year a matter of much difficulty. The channels of deep


water are constantly changing, new ones being yearly opened up, and
old ones choked by vast sandbanks. The bed of the river is full of
sunken trees or snags. Owing to the great velocity of the current,
boats have frequently to wait several days for a favourable wind to
help them up particular reaches of the river. They require to be pre-
ceded by a regular pilot, who goes some distance in advance, and
selects the channel to be followed. The river is navigable all the year
round, as far as the Nepal frontier, by boats of 9 or 10 tons burden.

According to a Hindu legend, this river is Kausiki, the daughter of
Kusik, Raja, King of Gadhi. Although the daughter of a Kshattriya,
she was the wife of a Brahman ; and on giving birth to a son, who
preferred the warlike exploits of his mother's race to the sacred duties
of his father, she became changed into a river.

Kusiara. — The most southerly of the two branches of the Surma or
Barak river in Sylhet District, Assam. The point of bifurcation is at
the village of Bhanga on the Cachar boundary. The Kusiara, after
receiving the waters of the Langai, Juri, and Manu rivers, takes the
name of Bibiana, at Bahadurpur, where the old course of the Barak
] iver (now almost closed) bifurcates. Farther west, the waters of the
Kusiara or Bibiana meet those of the Surma or northerly branch of the
Barak. The united stream takes various names at different parts of
its course, and at length contributes to make up the estuary of the
Meghna. The various portions of this river are navigable throughout
the year by boats of 4 tons burden, and, except in the very driest
season, by boats of 20 tons burden.

KllSSOWlee. — Town and cantonment in Simla District, Punjab. —
See Kasauli.

Kutabdia. — Island and lighthouse off the coast of Chittagong,
Bengal. This and the neighbouring island of Maheskhal (Maskhal)
bear a resemblance both in character and general appearance to the
Gangetic Sundarbans, except that Kutabdia does not contain much
of the genuine Sundarban jungle, and Maheskhal has some rising
grounds with large trees. The island was at one time nearly abandoned
by its inhabitants, owing to its liability to incursions of the sea.
Recently, large sums have been spent by Government as landlord to
embank the island, and embankments upwards of 40 miles in extent
have been constructed. A new land settlement was in progress in
1883, from which a large increase of revenue is expected. The island
has already recovered its prosperity, and is well cultivated. Lighthouse
situated on the west of the island; lat. 21 52 30" n., long. 91 53' e.
A police outpost station, under the Maheskhal t/uind, is located here.

Kutabnagar. — Town in Sftapur District, Oudh ; situated on the
high road, 18 miles west of Sitapur town. Population (1869) 2256;
(1881) 2319. Bi-weekly market; vernacular school.


Kutabpur. — Village in Midnapur District, Bengal. The site of a
considerable fair held in April or May in honour of the goddess
Brahmani, which lasts for eight days.

Kutch. — State in Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. — See


Kuthar. — One of the Simla Hill States, under the political super-
intendence of the Government of the Punjab. Lat. 30 55' 30" to
31 1' 30" n., and long. 76 57' to 77 1' e. This little State has an
area of only 7 square miles, and contains 150 villages or hamlets,
with 863 houses. Population (1881) 3648, namely, Hindus, 3494;
Muhammadans, 149 ; and Sikhs, 5. The State lies west of Subathu,
and formerly included it, until the land for the cantonment was
purchased by the Government. The founder of the State is said to
have come from Rajaoli in the Jamu territory, forty-seven generations
ago, whence he fled in fear of the Muhammadan invaders. In 1815,
when the Gurkhas were driven out of this country, the chief was
replaced by the British, on the usual conditions of feudal service. The
present Rana of Kuthar is Jai Chand, a Chandrabansi Rajput, born
in 1844. The family suffix is Chand. The annual revenue is
estimated at about ^"500; tribute of £100 is paid to the British

Kutiyana (or Katidnd). — Town in the State of Junagarh, Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency. Situated on the Bhadra river, 25 miles east of
Porbandar. Lat. 21 38' n., long. 70 10' e. Population (1881)
8177. Muhammadans numbered 5895; Hindus, 2279; and Jains, 2.
A fortified town, with an inner citadel. Old Kutiyana is about a mile
to the west of the modern town.

Kutosan. — State, Mahi Kantha, Bombay Presidency. — See Katosan.

Kutru. — Zaminddri estate in Bastar State, Central Provinces.
Bounded on the north and west by the river Indravatf ; comprising
150 poor villages, scattered over a wild country. The proprietor is a

Kiittalam. — Town in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. — See


Kuttiyadi. —Pass in the Western Ghats, Malabar District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. n°4i'to n°43'45" N., and long. 75 49' 30" to
75 52' 15" e. Leading from Kurumbranad taluk into the Wynad ;
steep, and only practicable for foot-passengers and beasts of burden.

Kuvam (Cooum). — River of Chengalpat District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 13 1' 30" to 13 4' 10" n., and long. 79 48' to 8o° 20' e. Notable
only as being the stream on which the City of Madras stands. It
flows from a tank in the Kanchipur taluk, and in the upper portion of
its course it is utilized for irrigation ; but within Madras municipal
limits it is little more than a large open sewer.


Kwa. — Small river of British Burma, forming a portion of the
boundary between the Arakan and Irawadi Divisions. It takes its rise
in the western slopes of the Arakan Yoma range. After a south-south-
west course of about 20 miles it turns to the west for about 10 miles,
and then north-north-west for 10 more, when it opens out into the Bay
of Bengal, a short distance below the village of Kwa. Its mouth
forms a good harbour; but the entrance is rendered difficult by
a bar of sand, on which during the ebb there are not more than 2 J
fathoms of water. It is affected by the tide as far as Than-ga-ta-ywa
during neap, and Pein-ne-gon-ywa during spring tides, and small boats
can ascend as high as the former with the flood. Larger boats cannot
go farther up than On-min-ywa, which can be reached in one tide.

Kwa. — Township in Sandoway District, British Burma. There are
14 villages in the township. Area under cultivation (1881-82), 1024
acres, of which 902 acres were occupied by rice ; other crops, sugar-
cane, tobacco, cotton, and sesamum. Agricultural stock — horned cattle,
809 ; boats, 44 ; ploughs, 41. Gross revenue, ^"263.

Kwa. — Head-quarters of the southern township of Sandoway District,
British Burma ; on the right bank of the Kwa river, about a mile above
its mouth. Lat. 1 7 34' n., long. 94 39' e. It has been much improved
of late years, and is well laid out with broad straight roads, crossing at
right angles, one of which has been extended to the neighbouring village
of Ta-man-gon. The one or two tidal creeks which run up into the
village are crossed by wooden foot-bridges, built principally by the
people themselves, who also made the roads. The village is buried in
a grove of fruit-trees — mango, tamarind, jack, cocoa-nut, etc. The
houses are generally large and good, with timber posts, mat walls, and
thatched roofs. A little trade during the favourable seasons of the
year is carried on by sea with parts of Bassein District farther south,
and Chinese junks occasionally anchor off the village. Court-house
and police station. The population, including that of the adjoining
villages of Ta-man-gon, Alay-ywa, and Khyin-tsu, was 2044 in 1881 (of
whom nearly all were Burmese, with a few Chinese and natives of India,
and only 9 Arakanese).

Kwon-chan-gOIl. — Village in the Pyawbwe township, Hanthawadi
District, Pegu Division, British Burma. Pots, used in the manufacture
of salt, are made here in considerable quantities. Population (1881),
with the adjacent hamlet of Taw-pa-lwe, 1257.

Kyaik-kauk. — A pagoda standing on the Than-lyin Kiin-dan, or
stretch of low laterite hills, which extend from Than-lyin, or Syriam,
to Kyouk-tan in British Burma. This pagoda, 131 feet in height and
1200 feet in circumference at the base, is constructed almost entirely
of large blocks of laterite. It was built to enshrine two hairs, locally
supposed to have been given by Gautama himself to a hermit on the

KYAIK- Til AX-LAN- K YA T. 383

Martaban Hills, who afterwards presented them in 5S0 B.C. to Ze-ya-
the-na, King of Than-lyin. In 223 B.C., eight Rahanda or Buddhist
monks visited Than-lyin, bringing as offerings to Baw-ga-the-na, the last
independent sovereign, a bone of Buddha's forehead and a tooth, one
of which relics was enshrined in Than-lyin by the pious monarch.

Kyaik-than-lan. — The chief pagoda in Maulmain, Amherst Dis-
trict, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Founded in 875 a.d. by a
hermit named Tha-gnya or Thi-la, and supposed to contain one of
Gautama's hairs. Height, 152 feet; circumference at base, 377 feet.

Kyaik-ti-yo. — A peak, 3650 feet high, on the crest of the main
dividing range between the rivers Sittaung and Salwin, in British
Burma. Its most remarkable features are the numerous granitoid
boulders scattered about the summit, some being balanced in a marvel-
lous manner on the most prominent rocks. On the more striking of
these, pagodas have been built, among which the Kyaik-tf-yo-ga-le and
the Kyaik-ti-yo are the principal. The latter, about 15 feet high, is
built on a huge egg-shaped boulder perched on the apex of a shelving
and tabular rock which it actually overhangs by nearly one-half. Pious
Buddhists believe that the pagoda is retained in its position solely
by the power of the hair of Gautama enshrined in it. This relic
is fabled to have been given to a hermit living on the mountain by
Gautama himself.

Kyaik-to. — Town in the Kyaik-to-bi-lin township, Shwe-gyin
District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Lat. 18 n., long. 96*
50' e. Head-quarters of Sittaung Sub-division ; centre of a busy trade
in cattle, unhusked rice, areca-nuts, fish, salt, piece-goods, cotton twist,
and hardware. Court and circuit houses, police station, and good
market. Population (1881) 191 7. Local revenue (1881), in addition to
imperial taxes, ^287.

Kyan-kin. — Township in the extreme north of Henzada District,
Irawadi Division, British Burma. Lat. 1S n' to 18 30' n., and long.
94 56' to 95° 20' e. Extends westwards from the Irawadi to the crest
of the Arakan Yoma range, which separates it from Sandowav, a
District of Arakan. The greater portion of the country is hilly, and
covered with dense forest. The township is divided into 7 revenue
circles, containing in 1881 a total population of 34,618 persons; gross
revenue, ^7533; area under cultivation, 22,882 acres.

Kyan-kin. — Town in Henzada District, Irawadi Division, British
Burma; situated in lat. iS c 19' n., and long. 95 ° 17' e., on the right
bank of the Irawadi (Irrawaddy). Head - quarters of an Assistant
Commissioner; contains a fine market, police station, and Public
Works Department inspection bungalow. Considerable trade in rice.
Population (1881) 7565. Local revenue (1881-82), ^72.

Kyat. — River in British Burma.— See Taung-GNYO.


Kyauk-chaing-gale. — Village in the Lem-yet-ya township, Bassein
District, Irawadi Division, British Burma ; situated on a river of the
same name, a tributary of the Bassein. Population (1881) 875.

Kyauk-gyi. — Township in the north of Shwe-gyin District, Tenas-
serim Division, British Burma. Traversed from north to south by the
Sittaung river; high mountainous country in the east: to the west
extensive rice plains stretch between the hills and the river. Chief
streams — the Kwiin, the Youk-thwa-wa, and the Kyauk-gyi, all feeders
of the Sittaung. This township is divided into 8 revenue circles.
Total population (1881) 36,447. In 1881-82, the land revenue was
^3256 ; fishery revenue, £698 ; capitation-tax, ^2672 ; net-tax, £\\ ;
and local cess, ^406; total gross revenue, ^7°43- Tne township
contains 177 villages. Area under cultivation, 25,016 acres, of which
23,462 are under rice, 126 under sesamum, 23 under tobacco, and 17
under sugar-cane. Agricultural stock (1881-82) — horned cattle, 1 1,866 ;
carts, 1531; and boats, 70.

Kyauk-gyi. — Village in the circle of the same name, Shwe-gyin
District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Lat. 18 20' n., long.
96 40' e. A busy town, but the dense forest and lofty rocks surrounding
it give it a dreary and desolate appearance. Under native rule, Kyauk-
gyi was a fortified place, and traces of the old stockade still remain ;
in 1809, it was attacked' and destroyed by the Zeng-mai Shans. Popu-
lation (1881) 1002.

Kyauk-pyu. — District in the Arakan Division, British Burma, lying
between 18 55' and 19 22' n. lat., and between 93 25' and 94 e.
long. Bounded on the north by Akyab District, and on the farther side
of the Arakan Yoma Hills by Independent Burma ; south by Sandoway ;
and on the west and south-west by the Bay of Bengal. Area, 4309
square miles. Population (1881) 149,303 persons. The administrative
head-quarters are at Kyauk-pyu Town.

Physical Aspects. — Kyauk-pyu District consists of (1) a strip of the
mainland extending from the An Pass, across the main range, to the
Ma-i river, and (2) the large islands of Ramri and Man-aung, with
many others to the south, lying off the coast of Sandoway. The
mainland in the north and east is highly mountainous and forest-clad,
and the lower portion is cut up into numerous islands by a network of
tidal creeks. Between the mainland and Ramri lies a group of islands
separated by deep, narrow, salt-water inlets, forming the north-eastern
shore of Kyauk-pyii harbour, which extends for nearly 30 miles along
Ramri in a south-easterly direction, and has an average breadth of 3
miles. In this harbour are several rocks — known as the ' Pagoda Rock,'
the 'Terribles,' the 'Brothers,' the 'Sisters,' etc.— rising abruptly from
the sea, and possessing no cultivable area.

The principal mountains in Kyauk-pyii District are the Arakan


Yomas, which send out spurs and sub-spurs almost to the sea-coast.
This range is crossed within the limits of the District by two passes,
the Da-let and the An. (See An Town.) The former, during the
first Burniese war, was proved to be impassable by troops ; and, owing to
the precipitous nature of its ascents and descents, it is but little used
by the inhabitants of the country. The An Pass, an important trade
route, rises to a height of 4664 feet above sea-level ; on the east
side it falls 3777 feet in 8 miles. A chain of low hills traverses Ramri
Island from north-west to south-east, the highest point being 3000 feet.
There are no rivers of any importance in Kyauk-pyii District, but
numerous small streams drain the larger islands ; and the Da-let and
the An, the chief streams on the mainland, are both navigable by large
boats, the former for 25 and the latter for 45 miles of its course.
Above these distances they become mere mountain torrents. The most
important timber trees found in the District are — pyin-gado (Xylia
dolabriformis, Beiith.); ka-gnyin (Dipterocarpus alatus, Roxb.), furnish-
ing wood -oil; three species of kok-ko (Albizzia procera, Benth., A.
Lebbek, Benth., and A. stipulata, Boivin.), used for boats ; kyan (Ter-
minalia myriocarpa, Heurch. and Miill-Arg.), and ban-bwe (Careya
arborea, Roxb.), used for house-posts. The estimated area of uncul-
tivable forest land is about 3740 square miles.

Kyauk-pyii contains numerous mud 'volcanoes,' from which marsh
gas is frequently discharged. Occasional issues of flames rise to a
great height, and illuminate the country around for miles. The
largest ' volcano ' is situated in the centre of Cheduba Island. Earth-
oil (petroleum) wells exist in several places in the District, and
for some years were farmed out by the State. The industry has of
late received a fresh impulse from European capital and steam power.
In 1880, the Boringa Company was formed, with steam machinery for
sinking wells and pumping oil, a large refinery, and a staff of English
and Canadian artificers. In 1883-84 the Company had 24 wells, the
deepest of which is over 1200 feet. During 1883-84 the Company
pumped from 10 wells a total of 234,300 gallons of crude oil.
Of this, 65,450 gallons were refined, and the rest sold in the crude
state. The gross yield of the Company's sales was about £6000.
Another association, the Arakan Company, started during 1883-84 with
steam machinery, and sank seven wells, the deepest of which was
400 feet. Five of these wells yielded in 1883-84 an output of
107,800 gallons, all of which was sold on the spot in the crude state.
A smaller Company, called the Patrolia Company, obtained in 1S83-S4
a prospecting licence, and sank 10 wells, some to the depth of 400 and
500 feet. Unfortunately all these wells have yielded no oil. The
natives, who own rights in several wells, do not use steam boring
apparatus ; but with windlasses, sheers, and local boring tools they



have sunk holes 250 and 350 feet deep. One Arakanese worker
had a total output of 24,090 gallons, at an outlay of £76 for the year.
Another Arakanese obtained 20,075 gallons, at an outlay of ^34
for the year. The total output of the field, including the Boronga
Company's wells, was 404, 3 25 gallons in 1883-84. The other mineral
products of Kyauk-pyu District include limestone, iron, and coal.

Population, etc. — By the Census of 1872, the population of Kyauk-
pyu District was found to number I44>i77 persons; in 1873-74 it had
risen to 145,665; and in 1876-77,10 149,035. The Census of i88r
returns a population of 149,303 ; so that during the ten years ending
1 88 1 there has been an increase of 5126. This increase is only part
of a general increase which has taken place over the whole of Burma
since British occupation. The number of males in 1881 was 74,476;
females, 74,827 : the whole inhabiting 937 towns and villages, and
occupying 28,691 houses. Density of population, 34-6 persons per
square mile ; villages per square mile, '2 ; houses per square mile, 7 ;
persons per occupied house, 5*2.

In 1881 the population was thus divided — Arakanese, 118,944;
Burmese, 14,907 ; Khyins, 11,617 \ Muhammadans, Hindus, etc., 3835.
The Arakanese inhabit mainly Cheduba, Ramri, and the coast of the
mainland ; the Burmese, the valley of the An ; and the Khyins, the hill
country. The Khins or Chins trace their origin to the neighbourhood
of the Chin d win river. Only in Thayet-myo District are there more
Chins than in Kyauk-pyu. Their habits and superstitions have been
described already. {See Burma.) The most remarkable of their customs
is the habit of tattooing the faces of their young girls so completely as
not to leave the eyelid free from the blue-black tracing. The Muham-
madans are of mixed blood, descendants of the captives made by the
Arakanese kings in their incursions into Bengal, and of the remnant of
the followers of Shah Shuja, the brother of Aurangzeb.

Classified according to age, there were, under 15 years — males, 28,792 ;
and females, 27,351; total, 56,143. The analysis of the population
shows that at every period up to 50, except between 12 and 20, the
males exceed the females in number; but above 50, the proportion is
reversed. Classified according to religion, there were — Buddhists,
I 33?73 2 i Nat - worshippers, 11,042; Muhammadans, 4246; Hindus,
229; Christians, 54. As regards occupation, the Census distributes
the male population into the following six main groups: — (1) Pro-
fessional class, including all State officials and members of the learned
professions, 1433 ; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers,
214; (3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, carriers, etc.,
2532; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including shepherds, 28,170;

(5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and artisans, 4827 ; and

(6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general labourers,



male children, and persons of unspecified occupation, 37,300. The
District does not contain a single town with 5000 inhabitants. Of its
937 villages, 711 have less than two hundred inhabitants; 199 from
two to five hundred; 21 from five hundred to one thousand; 4 from
one to two thousand ; and 2 from two to five thousand. Kyauk-PYU,
the head-quarters, situated on Ramrf Island, has a population of 3747 ;
Ramri, 3461 ; Man-aung, 512; An, 1492; Mye-bon, 546.

Agriculture, etc.—OvX of 4309 square miles, the total area of the
District, no less that 3740, including the surface covered by streams
and creeks, are returned as absolutely uncultivable ; and in 1882-83,
only 163 were actually under tillage. There are 390 square miles of
cultivable waste. The area under the principal crops in 1882-83 was—
rice (including fallow land), 90,105 acres; sugar-cane, 1362; tobacco,
1828 ; dam, 2684 ; indigo, 65 ; fibres, 50 ; plantains, 960 acres. The rice
land is not very productive, the average yield per acre being only 880
lbs.; the quantity exported varies considerably — in 1873-74, 1234 tons
were shipped, and in 1881-82 only 1 cwt. The tobacco is grown
chiefly for home consumption, and that produced in Cheduba is con-
sidered the finest. This is the only District of British Burma, except
Akyab, in which indigo is grown. There are two pluckings for each
sowing; and an acre of land sown with about 32 lbs. of seed will
produce about 15 cwt. of dye. The selling price per lb. in the local
markets is 2d., and the annual profit per acre is estimated at from ^£11
to £12. Cotton and sesamum are cultivated in the taungya or hill

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 45 of 64)