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The number of cultivators returned in 188 1 was 1S61, a majority
of whom dwelt in the Amindivi group. The soaking of coir and the
other processes connected therewith are almost entirely conducted by
the women, who in 1881 were employed thus to the number of 4638.
The men convey the produce, coir, cocoa-nuts, jaggery, copra, vindia
(a sweetmeat), besides tortoise-shell and cowries, to the mainland — from
the northern islands to Mangalore ; from the southern islands to the
Malabar ports and Ceylon, the Maldives, and Calcutta. The annual
value of the total exports is about ^17,000.

Medical Aspects. — The climate is healthy on the whole, but the last
European officer who visited Minikoi (1881) suffered with his establish-
ment from malarious fever. Cholera has once visited Kalpeni, and
formerly small-pox was the most dreaded disease of the islands. The
practice, however, of both vaccination and inoculation has greatly
reduced the mortality from this cause. Leprosy prevails ; but the
islanders have traditional sanitary laws, such as separate burial-grounds
for small-pox and cholera deaths, and are otherwise careful in their
habits. Cyclones, travelling up the Malabar coast, for a time submerge
some of these islands ; notably the storm of April 1847, which destroyed
above 1000 people. More than one-sixth of the adult male population
of Minikoi perished in a cyclone in 1867.

Lachhmangarh. — Town in the Shaikhawati District, Jaipur State,
Rajputana. Population (1881) 8713. Hindus numbered 7262;
Muhammadans, 1330; and 'others,' 71.. Belongs to the Sikar chiefship
(a feudatory of Jaipur), and named after Rao Raja Lachhman Singh, a
former Sikar chief, by whom the place was founded in 1806. The town
is fortified, and is built after the model of the city of Jaipur. It con-
tains many handsome edifices, occupied principally by the banking
class. Post-office.

Lachmangarh. — Town in the Native State of Alwar (Ulwar),
Rajputana. Population (1872) 3779; number of houses, 996; not
returned in the Census of 1881. Twenty-three miles south-east of
Alwar city. The original name was Taur, but the fort was re-named
by Partab Singh. Najaf Khan besieged the place.

Ladakh. — In its restricted but more correct sense, the name of

I.ADAKIf. 397

Ladakh is applicable only to one of the three outlying Governorships
under the Maharaja of Kashmir (Cashmere), — the other two being
Baltistan and Gilgit. It is of extremely irregular outline ; but, speaking
broadly, it may be described as comprising the valley of the Indus,
and also of most of its tributaries, from 32 to 35 n. lat, and from
75 29' to 79 29' e. long. The different Districts of Central Ladakh,
Riipshu, and Neobra, besides the bleak and almost uninhabited plateaux
of the Kuen-lun and Linzhithang plains, together make up the Province.
The area of Ladakh is estimated by General Cunningham at about
30,000 square miles ; but this includes Zanskar, and some other Districts
which do not belong to it in a political sense. Mr. F. Drew is the most
recent authority on Ladakh ; his return of the population, as ascertained
by the Census of 1873, is 20,621 ; the 168,000 given by Cunningham,
the 165,000 of Moorcroft (1822), and the estimate of 200,000 furnished
by Dr. Bellew in 1873, °f course apply to the more extended area.

Lying as it does at the back of the great central range of the Himalayas,
it may be readily understood that Ladakh is one of the loftiest of the
inhabited regions of the globe. The valleys and plateaux vary between
9000 and 1 7,000 feet, while many of the peaks attain altitudes of 25,000
feet. The chief rivers of Ladakh are the Indus, and its tributaries the
Shayak, Neobra, Chanchengmo, and Zanskar. There are several salt
lakes, the more important of which are the Pang Kong and Cho-moriri.

The climate is characterized by remarkable extremes, burning heat
during the day being succeeded by piercing cold at night, while vegeta-
tion is parched by the excessive dryness of the air. The general aspect
of the country is that of a somewhat complicated series of gigantic
mountains, many of which rise to the limit of perpetual snow, inter-
spersed with occasional valleys and deep ravines, where a few acres of
ground available for cultivation are usually to be found. These support
a few cereals, fruit-trees, poplars, and willows. The slopes of the
mountains and the lofty table-lands in the north-east of the Province
are, with the exception of occasional forest growth, almost destitute of
vegetation. The wild animals comprise the kiang or wild ass, sheep,
goat, marmot, and hare ; snow-pheasant, red-legged partridge, eagle,
and water-fowl ; while the principal domestic animals are ponies, asses,
oxen, sheep, goats, and dogs. The sheep are most useful, as nearly
the whole of the traffic of the country is transported on their backs.
General Cunningham relates that in one day he saw as many as from
five to six thousand sheep laden with shawl and common wool, borax,
sulphur, and dried apricots, all making their way to the hill Provinces
on the south-west. The common domestic goat of Ladakh is the well-
known shawl goat, the wool of which is exported to Kashmir, Nepal, and
British India. In 1853, General Cunningham estimated the amount of
wool produced in Ladakh at about 2400 maunds.

3f;8 LADAKH.

The trade of the country in home produce is confined to four articles,
viz. wool, borax, sulphur, and dried fruits. The total value of this
trade was estimated by Cunningham at ^£8000. But the fact of Leh
being an important entrepot for trade between Kashmir and Hindu-
stan on the south, and Yarkand, Khotan, and Tibet on the north and
east, has probably contributed more to the wealth of the country.
The chief imports from Chinese territories are wool (sheep and
^oats), tea, gold dust and coins, silver, silk, and charas (an intoxicating
preparation of hemp) ; while those from India consist of cotton goods,
hides, skins and leathers, grain, guns, pistols, etc., brocades, and tea.
In 1877, the foreign imports and exports into Leh were valued at
^112,817 and ^89,618 respectively, while the local imports and
exports amounted together to ^3573- The trade in wool with the
Punjab in 18S2-83 was valued at ^83,509. The intermediate position
of Riipshu has induced many travelling merchants to come that way,
the two chief routes from thence into British India being over the Bara
Lacha and Parang Passes to Lahul and Simla respectively. The Lhasa
tea merchants pass through Riipshu on their way to Leh, with their
ventures of brick-tea.

The Ladakhis are a short, strong, but ugly race of Turanian origin,
and Buddhists in religion. They are a settled and cultivating people,
living in villages, which vary from 9500 to 13,500 feet above the sea.
They are cheerful, willing, and not quarrelsome, unless excited by their
intoxicating drink, chang; simplicity and clumsiness are in a measure
their chief characteristics. On the other hand, authorities agree in
remarking that the Ladakhis far excel the Indian munshis, or learned
men, in one point, i.e. the understanding of a map. The man's dress is
a wide and long woollen coat {c/wga), confined at the waist by a woollen
kamarband or scarf, thick boots, and felt gaiters. The women wear a
gown, the skirt gathered into plaits, a sort of sheepskin shawl over the
shoulders, and for head-dress a strip of cloth ornamented with shells or
rough turquoises. The shoes are the same for both sexes, and the
dress of neither varies with the season of the year. Almost all the
Ladakhis are engaged in agriculture, and the area cultivated by one
family is from 2 to 4 acres. The grain which is most prolific, and
which is sown to the greatest extent, is a loose-grained and hardy
barley ; besides this, wheat, peas, and common barley grow at lesser
altitudes. The food is generally barley-meal made into a porridge, or
else into a sort of dough with butter-milk ; chang (a light beer) and tea
among the better-to-do classes are the usual drinks. They are very
dirty in person, but extremely hardy, and carry great weights with
facility and endurance. The women have much social liberty, and do
a large share of the manual labour. Except among the few richer
people, polyandry, or plurality of husbands, is quite general \ the

LADAKIf. 399

practice having no doubt arisen from the limited extent of cultivable
land, and the general inelasticity of the country's resources.

In nearly every village there is a monastery, which sometimes holds
but one or two Lamas or monks, sometimes hundreds. These
monasteries are, as a rule, conspicuously built on a spur of the
mountain or isolated rock, and always somewhat apart from the village
itself. The supply of priests is kept up by one boy in each family being
usually devoted to the profession. The religious tone of the inhabitants
is further exemplified by colossal figures of deities carved in the rock,
stone-heaps or walls covered with inscriptions, and miscellaneous sacred

The earliest mention of Ladakh is probably to be found in the
description of Kie-chha by the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hian (300 a.d.).
It appears to be referred to again in the Akhassa Regio of Pliny, and
in the Mo-lo-pho or San-pho-lo of Hiuen Tsiang (middle of the 7th
century). Originally it formed one of the Provinces of Tibet, governed
as to temporal matters by an independent prince, and in spiritual
affairs by the Grand Lama of Lhasa. In the 10th century, when the
empire of Great Tibet was finally broken up, several of the outlying
Districts were erected into independent kingdoms, and Palgyi-Gon
occupied Ladakh. At the beginning of the 17th century, all the records
of the temples and monasteries were destroyed by All Sher, chief of
Skardo, which has occasioned a deplorable gap in the history of the
country. The dominion of Ladakh was much enlarged by Siunge
Namgyal, who defeated the chief of Balti, although aided by Jahangir
Shah. A series of wars between the Sokpos and Ladakhis ensued,
but eventually in 1688 the Sokpos were driven out of Ladakh with the
assistance of the Muhammadans from Kashmir, and received Rudokh
as a concession. The Raja of Ladakh then became a Muhammadan,
and from that time Ladakh appears to have paid tribute to Kashmir.

About the time of Moorcroft's visit to Ladakh, in 1822, the Gyalpo, or
ruler, made an offer of his allegiance to the British Government, which,
unfortunately for the prosperity of Ladakh, was refused. In 1834,
Ladakh was invaded by the Dogra troops of Ghulab Singh, ruler of
Kashmir, under the leadership of Zorawar Singh, and, with the neigh-
bouring Province of Balti, was conquered after two campaigns. Elated
at these successes, the same commander invaded Rudokh ; but here the
combined power of the Chinese and the piercing cold led to the practical
annihilation of his army, in the very same month of the same year
that a British division of about equal strength was destroyed in Afghan-
istan. By a treaty of the 16th March 1846, Kashmir and its depend-
encies were handed over to Ghulab Singh by the British Government,
to whom they had passed on the conquest of the Punjab.

In 1867, Dr. Cayley was specially deputed to Ladakh, to report on


the trade; and in 1870, a treaty was concluded between Lord Mayo
and the Maharaja of Kashmir, providing for the appointment of two
Joint Commissioners, one British and one native, for supervising the
through trade; since which date annual reports on the subject have
been duly submitted. Very full information will also be found in Dr.
Aitchison's Trade Products of Leh (1874).

Ladole (or Ldtol). — Town in Vijapur Sub-division, Baroda State
(Gaekwar's territory). Population (1881) 5761.

Ladwa. Town and municipality in Pipli tahsil, Ambala (Umballa)

District, Punjab; situated on the unmetalled road from Pipli to
Radaur, 33 miles south-east of Ambala town, in lat. 29 59' 30" n., and
lon<*. y7° 5' e. The town was formerly the capital of a small native
State, which was confiscated in 1846, owing to the conduct of its ruler,
Raja Ajit Singh, during the first Sikh campaign. The fort, the former
residence of the Raja, still exists, and is a substantial old building.
Population (1868) 4400 5 (1881) 4061, namely, Hindus, 3100;
Muhammadans, 916; Sikhs, 44; and Jain, i. Number of houses,
690. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^398, or is. 8Jd. per head of
the population. Police station and primary school.

Lahar.— Fortified town in Gwalior State, Central India ; situated in
lat. 26 11' 50" n., and long. 78 59' 5" e., 6 miles east of the right or
east bank of the river Sind; 50 miles east of Gwalior fort, and 85
south-east of Agra. Lahar is chiefly noteworthy as the scene of a
memorable and desperate assault by a British force in 1780. 'Captain
Popham, in command of 2400 infantry, a small body of cavalry, and a
detail of European artillery, with a howitzer and a few field-pieces,
besieged this fort, which was found to be much stronger than had
been fallaciously represented by the Rana of Gohad, who was anxious
to have it captured from the Marathas. It was imperfectly breached ;
and as the light field-pieces could produce no further effect on the
defences, the British commander determined to make a desperate
attempt at storming. By extraordinary efforts, a lodgment was made
in the place. Dreadful slaughter ensued on both sides. The enemy
defended themselves with desperation ; and it was not until the
garrison, which had consisted of 500 men, was reduced to their kiladdr
and a few of his dependants, that quarter was demanded. The British
lost 125 men.'

Laharpur. — Pargand in Sitapur tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh ;
bounded on the north by Kheri District; on the east and south by
fargands Biswan and Tambaur ; and on the west by pargands Hargam
and Khairabad. Principal mart, Kesriganj, 2 miles west of Laharpur
town. The pargand is divided into two portions by a ridge of land
from 10 to 30 feet in height, the lands to the north of which are known
as tardi, the soil being a stiff matidr ; while to the south the soil is a


fine do mat Population (1869) 84,730; (1881)88,418, namely, males
45,988, and females 42,430. Area (at time of Settlement in 1872),
192 square miles, or 122,880 acres, of which 81,825 acres were
cultivated, 22,415 acres cultivable, 1460 acres revenue-free (mudfi), and
16,996 uncultivable waste. Incidence of land-tax, is. r iojd. per acre
of total area; 2s. 2|d. per acre of assessed area, or 2s. 10-J-d. per
acre of cultivated area. The pargand was formed by Raja Todar Mall
in the reign of Akbar, out of the lands of 13 tappds, containing 765
villages. It contained at the time of the Settlement 176 villages, held
under the following tenures : — Tdhikddri, 104, and zaminddri, 72. The
principal castes among the landed proprietors are Gaur and Jan war
Rajputs, the former holding 105 villages and the latter 13. The
Gaurs are descendants of Raja Chandra Sen, who invaded Sitapur
during the anarchy which ensued on the death of the Emperor
Aurangzeb in 1707. The Janwars are known as Saindurias, from
their original village of Saindur in parga?id Kursi, whence they came
into Laharpur before the invasion of the Gaurs. In addition to the 13
villages which they hold direct from the State, they also possess several
villages in sub-settlement.

Lah&rpur. — Town in Laharpur pargand, Sitapur District, Oudh ;
situated 17 miles north of Sitapur town, on a road leading to Mallapur
on the Gogra. Lat. 27 42' 45" n., long. 8o° 56' 25" e. A town of
considerable extent, having a population in 1869 of 10,890, divided
almost equally between Hindus and Muhammadans. Population
(1881) 10,437, namely, Muhammadans, 5595 ; Hindus, 4827 ; and Jains,
15. Area of town site, 418 acres. Laharpur contains 1590 mud huts
and 104 masonry buildings, the number of the latter steadily increasing,
the banker caste being the principal builders. The public buildings
consist of the usual police, post, and registry offices, with a well-attended
school, and a sardi. Thirteen mosques, 4 Musalman tombs, 4 Hindu
and 2 Sikh temples. Good daily bazars, the sales at which amount to
about ^4000 per annum. No manufactures. The town is surrounded
by extensive groves, and numerous fine trees are interspersed among
the houses. Excellent and shady camping ground. Large fair held in
the month of Rabi-us-sani ; and the Muharram festival is celebrated
with great splendour. The town was originally founded by, and named
after, the Emperor Firoz Tughlak in 1370 a. d., when on his way to the
shrine of Sayyid Salar Masaiid at Bahraich. Thirty years afterwards, one
Lahuri, a Pasi, took possession of it, and changed its name to Laharpur.
The Pasis were exterminated in 141 8 by a Muhammadan army from
Kanauj, under Shaikh Tahir Ghazi. Subsequently the Muhammadans
were ousted in 1707 by the Gaur Rajputs, who still possess most
of the land in the pargand. Laharpur is famous as the birthplace of
Raja Todar Mall, Akbar's great finance minister and general.

vol. viii. 2 c


Lahaul.— Valley in Kangra District, Punjab.— See Lahul.

Lahore. — A Division (under a Commissioner) in the Punjab, lying
between 30 8' and 32 33' N. lat, and between 73 11' 30" and 75 27'
e. long., and comprising the three Districts of Lahore, Firozpur,
and Gujranwala, each of which see separately. It is bounded on the
north by Shahpur and Gujrat Districts; on the east by Sialkot and
Amritsar Districts, by Kapiirthala State, and by Jalandhar District ; on
the south by Patiala State ; and on the west by Sirsa, Montgomery, and
Jhang Districts. Area (1881), 8987 square miles, containing 26 towns
and 3845 villages, with 323,296 occupied houses. Population (1868)
1,888,945; (1881) 2,191,517, namely, males 1,201,277, and females
990,240. Total increase for the thirteen years 1S68-1881, 302,572,
or 16-0 per cent. Number of families, 453,547. Average density
of population, 244 persons per square mile. Classified according to
religion, there were, in 1881 — Muhammadans, 1,362,669, or 62-1 per
cent, of the total population; Hindus, 489,286, or 22*3 per cent.;
Sikhs, 330,566, or 15*1 percent.; Jains, 2358; Parsis, 101 ; Christians,
6524; and 'others,' 13. The prevailing castes or tribes are the Jats,
518,225, and Chuhras, 225,841. The former of these tribes are now
almost entirely Muhammadans by conversion, and the latter is about
equally divided between Muhammadans and Hindus. Indeed, in
almost every caste or tribe mentioned below, there is a greater or
less Muhammadan element. The principal of these tribes or castes
are the following : — Rajputs, 130,599; Arams, 167,747; Julahas,
82,406; Tarkhans, 79,305; Aroras, 76,521; Kumbhars, 73,709;
Khattrfs, 63,445; Mucin's, 59,173; Machhis, 55,773. The Muham-
madan population by race, as distinguished from the descendants of
converts, includes — Shaikhs, 33,216 ; Khojahs, 18,257; Sayyids, 17,403;
Kashmiris, 19,482; Baluchi's, 9813; Pathans, 11,010; and Mughals,

Lahore Division contains a large urban population, numbering
342,587, or 15-6 per cent. Deducting Lahore city, however, the urban
population numbers 193,218, or 8 '8 per cent. Of the 3845 villages
comprising the Division, 2713 contain less than five hundred
inhabitants, and 689 from five hundred to a thousand. The average
area under crops for the four years ending 1881, was 4365 square
miles. Average annual land revenue, 1877 to 1881, ,£168,155;
average annual gross revenue, including land, tribute, local rates, excise,
and stamps, ^247,892. For further details see the articles on the
separate Districts of Lahore, Firozpur, and Gujranwala, which comprise
the Division.

Lahore. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab,
lying between 30 37' and 31 54' n. lat, and between 73 40' 15" and
75° i* E- long. Area (1881), 3648 square miles. Population, 924,106.



Lahore forms the central District of the Lahore Division. It is
bounded on the north-west by Gujranwala ; on the north-east by
Amritsar; on the south-east by the river Sutlej (Satlaj), which
separates it from Firozpur District ; and on the south-west by Mont-
gomery District. It is divided into four tahsils, of which Sharakpur
comprises the trans-Ravi portion of the District ; and Chunian the
south-western half of the tract between the Ravi and the Sutlej. The
north-eastern half is divided between Lahore tahsil, which lies along
the Ravi ; and Kasiir tahsil, along the Sutlej. Lahore stands eleventh
in order of area, and third in order of population, among the thirty-two
Districts of the Province, comprising 3*42 per cent, of the total area,
4-91 per cent, of the total population, and 3*88 per cent, of the urban
population of British territory. The administrative head-quarters are at
Lahore City, the capital of the Punjab.

Physical Aspects. — Lahore District comprises an irregular square of
territory, stretching from the Sutlej (Satlaj) to the Ravi, and extending
beyond the latter river far into the heart of the Rechna Doab. Its
surface, though mainly level, like the remainder of the Punjab plain,
consists of parallel belts, having various degrees of fertility, which follow
the general direction of the rivers Sutlej, Ravi, and Degh. The valleys
of these three principal streams, with their intervening dorsal ridges,
demarcate the country into several well-recognised tracts.

Between the Sutlej and the Ravi stretches an upland region, known as
the Manjha, the original home of the Sikhs, broad and fairly cultivated
towards the north, but contracting towards the south, and becoming
more and more desert, till it becomes at last, in parts not reached by
canal water, a mere barren steppe, interspersed with low bushes, afford-
ing forage to camels, and in favourable seasons covered with long grass
much prized as pasturage for cattle. Villages only occur at rare
intervals ; but ruins of tanks, wells, towns, and forts prove that this
desolate upland once formed the seat of a flourishing people. A
high bank, running due east and west from the Sutlej, bounds the
Manjha to the south ; and between this bank and the river lies a fertile
triangular wedge of lowland, known as the Hitar. The Ravi has only
a small fringe of fruitful alluvium, from two to three miles in breadth,
beyond which a tract of jungle runs north-westward to the Degh.

Except along the banks of rivers and in the canal tract described
below, Lahore District is sadly wanting in fertility, owing to scarcity of
water. Wherever wells can be sunk, or where water has been obtained
from canals or other artificial sources, the out-turn of crops is in no
way inferior to that of the neighbouring Districts, though not equal to
that of the more highly favoured Districts of Sialkot, Hoshiarpur, or

The Ravi traverses the District throughout its whole length, passing

4 o 4 LAHORE.

within a mile of Lahore city, and dividing in places into numerous
branches, which reunite after short courses. The Beas (Bias) and
the Sutlej, which now meet just above the boundary of the District,
once flowed in separate channels till they fell into the Indus ; and
the old bed of the Beas may still be distinctly traced close to the
high bank of the Manjha. According to the villagers, the change
took place about the year 1750, in consequence of the curse of
a Sikh Guru, whose hermitage the irreverent river had destroyed.
The towns of Kasiir and Chunian, besides many large villages, stand
upon the edge of the ancient bank. Several important irrigation works
fertilize the land throughout the District.

The Bart Doab Canal runs down the high backbone between the
Sutlej and the Rdvi. The main line enters the District near Badhana,
and runs south-westwards to Wan Khara in the Chunian tahsil, whence
a permanent escape has been dug to the Ravi at Alpa. The Lahore or
northern branch of the same canal enters the District at Wahgeh, passes
between Lahore city and the cantonment of Mian Mir, and joins the
Ravi at Niaz Beg, a large village eight miles south-west of Lahore.
The Kasiir branch, south of the main line, enters the District at
Mughal, and terminates at Algun Hardo near the line of the Punjab
Northern State Railway^ The Sobraon branch waters a small portion
of the south-eastern corner of the District, and has its escape into the
Sutlej. The Hasli Canal, constructed by Ah' Mardan Khan, the famous
engineer of Shah Jahan, which formerly provided water for the gardens
and fountains at Shalimar, near Lahore, now also feeds the Bari Doab

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 47 of 64)