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Canal; while three inundation cuts from the Sutlej, known as the
Katora, Khanwah, and Sohag, spread fertility over the triangular belt
between the Manjha bank and the river.

The only trees indigenous to the District appear to be the kikar
(Acacia arabica), sin's (Albizzia Lebbek), tut or mulberry (Morus
indica), and in a few places in alluvial soil, the palm tree. The ja?id
(Indigofera atro purpurea), wana (Vitex Negundo), phuldhi (Acacia
modesta), karil (Capparis aphylla), a camel thorn, are more properly
shrubs, though the first three sometimes attain the growth of trees.
Shisham or sissu (Dalbergia Sissoo), amb or mango (Mangifera indica) ?
bakai?i (Melia Azedarach), amaltds (Cassia fistula), barna, pipal (Ficus
religiosa), bor (Ficus bengalensis), all require planting and tending for
the first three or four years. Government has reserved several large
tracts of waste land as fuel plantations for the railway, or grazing
places for the horses employed by the military authorities, the total
area under the Forest Department being 227,824 acres.

Wolves are still to be found in the wilder portions of the Manjha
and the trans -Ravi tract, but they are now nearly exterminated
The opening of the Bari Doab Canal has made this tract fertile and

. LAHORE. 405

fairly populous, many new villages having been founded quite recently.
Leopards and nilgai are occasionally met with, and antelope, ravine-
deer, wild hog, hares, quails, sand-grouse, and pea-fowl are plentiful,
especially in the forest plantations. Ducks, geese, cranes, wading birds,
and pelicans abound along the banks of the Sutlej and its backwaters.
The principal fishes found in the rivers are the malisir, katld, mori t
saul f sanghari, gawalli, khagga, bachwa, and banam. Snakes and
scorpions are common. The Sutlej and the Ravi swarm with the
gharial, or long-nosed crocodile ; the maggar, or snubnosed crocodile,
is also found in the former river.

History. — Numerous ruins of cities and wells, scattered over the
now almost uninhabitable portions of the District, show that at some
early period the general level of water must have stood much higher
than now, and so permitted the existence of a comparatively high
civilisation. Few traces, however, can be recovered of this pre-historic
age ; and the annals of the District coincide in the main with those of
the great city from which it takes its name. Situated on the high road
from Afghanistan, Lahore has been visited by every western invader
from the days of Alexander onward. It long formed the centre of
a confederation which repelled the advancing tide of Islam ; it next
became the capital of the Ghazni dynasty, and at a later period,
stood for a short time as the head-quarters of the Mughal s ; while in
modem times it has seen the rise of Ranjit Singh, and finally settled
down into the administrative centre of a British Province.

At the time of Alexander's invasion, Lahore was probably a place of
little importance ; but in the 7th century, Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese
Buddhist pilgrim, mentions it as a great Brahmanical city, which he
passed on his way to Jalandhar (Jullundur). At the period of the first
Muhammadan invasion, towards the end of the same century, Lahore
was ruled by a Chauhan prince of the Ajmere (Ajmfr) family. For
three hundred years longer, the native Rajas held their own against all
Musalman attacks; but towards the end of the 10th century, Subuktugin,
Sultan of Ghazni, ' like a foaming torrent, hastened toward Hindustan,'
and defeated Jai Pal of Lahore, who burnt himself to death in despair.
Shortly after, the more famous Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India,
defeated Anang Pal, son of Jai Pal, at Peshawar, and after pushing his
conquests farther into Hindustan, returned thirteen years later to
occupy Lahore, which remained thenceforth in the hands of one 01
other Muhammadan dynasty until the Sikh reaction.

During the reigns of the first eight Ghazni princes, Lahore was
governed by viceroys; but about the year 1102, the Seljaks drove the
Ghazni Sultan to India, and Lahore then became the capital of their
race. It remained the capital of the Musalman Empire till Muhammad
Ghori transferred the metropolis to Delhi in 1193. Under the Khiljf

4 o6 LAHORE.

and Tughlak dynasties, Lahore makes little figure in history. In 1397,
when Timiir invaded India, it fell before one of his lieutenants ; but
the fact that the Mughal conqueror did not himself sack it in person,
shows that it must then have sunk into comparative insignificance. In
1436, Bahlol Lodi, afterwards Emperor, seized upon Lahore, as a first
step to power. Under his grandson Sultan Ibrahim, Daulat Khan, the
Afghan Governor of Lahore, revolted, and called in the aid of Babar,
who marched upon the city in 1524. Ibrahim's army met him near
Lahore ; but Babar defeated them with ease, and gave over the city to
be plundered.

In 1526, Babar once more invaded India; and after the decisive
battle of Panipat, took possession of Delhi, and laid the foundation
of the Mughal Empire. Under that magnificent dynasty, Lahore
remained at all times more or less of a royal residence, and still retains
many splendid memorials of its imperial inhabitants {see Lahore
City). Nadir Shah passed through almost unresisted on his way to
overturn the Mughal power in 1738; and the success of his invasion
gave a fresh impetus to the rising enthusiasm of the Sikhs, whose tenets
had been slowly spreading through the Punjab ever since the days of
Nanak. In 1 748, Ahmad Shah Durani took Lahore ; and a period of
perpetual invasion, pillage, and depopulation set in, which lasted up to
the establishment of Ranjit Singh's rule. During the thirty years which
followed Ahmad Shah's final departure in 1767, the Sikhs remained
practically unmolested, and Lahore District fell into the hands of three
among their chieftains, belonging to the Bhangi misl or confederacy.
In 1799, Ranjit Singh took his first step toward the sovereignty of the
Punjab by obtaining a grant of Lahore from the Afghan invader, Shah
Zaman. His subsequent rise to mastery over the whole Province, and
the collapse of his artificial kingdom under his successors, form a
chapter of imperial history {see Punjab). In December 1846, the
Council of Regency was established, and the British Resident became
the real central authority at Lahore. On 29th March 1849, on tne
conclusion of the second Sikh war, the young Maharaja Dhulfp Singh
resigned the government to the British, and the District has ever since
been constituted upon the usual administrative model.

During the Mutiny of 1857, a plot among the native troops at Meean
Meer, for seizing the fort of Lahore, was fortunately discovered in
time and frustrated by the disarming of the mutinous regiments under
the guns of a battery of horse artillery, supported by a British infantry
regiment. Throughout the rebellion, Lahore continued in a disturbed
state. In July, the 26th Native Infantry regiment mutinied at Meean
Meer, and, after murdering some of their officers, succeeded in effecting
their escape under cover of a dust storm. They were, however, over-
taken on the banks of the Ravi, and destroyed by a force under the


command of Mr. Cooper, Deputy-Commissioner of Amritsar. The
strictest precautions were adopted in and around Lahore City until the
fall of Delhi removed all further cause of apprehension.

Population. — The Census of 1868 returned the population of Lahore
District at 789,666, or 788,409 upon the area comprising the District
as at present constituted. In 1881, the population was returned at
924,106, showing an increase of 135,697, or 17-2 per cent, in thirteen
years. This increase is attributable to a large influx of traders, artisans,
etc., and the formation of new villages resulting from the extension of
canal irrigation and of the railway system through the District since
1868. The general results of the Census of 1881 may be briefly sum-
marized as follows : — Area, 3648 square miles, with 9 towns and 1477
villages ; number of houses, 194,834, of which 160,296 were occupied,
and 34,538 unoccupied. Total population, 924,106, namely, males
510,353, and females 413,753; proportion of males, 55-2 per cent.
Average density of population, 253 persons per square mile ; number
of towns or villages per square mile, 42 ; persons per town or village
(excluding Lahore City), 521. Number of houses per square mile,
53 ; inmates per house, 5*8. Classified according to age, there were —
under 15 years of age, males 191,041, and females 159,808; total
children, 350,849, or 37*9 per cent, of the population ; above 15 years,
males 319,312, and females 253,945 ; total adults, 573, 2 57> or 62<I
per cent. As regards religious distinctions, Muhammadans form the
great majority of the population, numbering 599,477? or 6 4' 8 P er
cent. Hindus numbered 193,319, or 20-9 per cent.; Sikhs, 125,591,
or 13*6 per cent.; Christians, 4644; Jains, 970; Parsis, 92; and
• others,' 13.

Among the ethnical divisions, the Jats come first (1575670), and form
the leading agricultural community. More than half of them (84,174)
retain the ancestral creed of their Sikh or Hindu forefathers; the remainder
have embraced Islam. The other principal castes and tribes are as
follow. In almost all of them there is a greater or lesser Muhammadan
element, descendants of converts from Hinduism — Chuhras, 99,025 ;
Arains, 94,964; Rajputs, 54,577; Julahas, 35>74 2 ; Aroras, 33> 1 3 6 ;
Khattris, 32,970; Kumbhars, 31,524; Tarkhans, 31,009; Machhis,
24,747; Telis, 23,066; Jhinwars, 20,941 ; Brahmans, 20,813; Mochis,
18,527; Kambohs, 17,694; Dhobis, 15,596; Nais, 13,840; Lohars,
13,767; Mirasis, 11,747; Labanas, 10,116; Mahtams, 955 1 ; Sonars,
8317 ; Gujars, 7079 ; and Dogras, 6733. The Muhammadan popula-
tion by race, as distinguished from descendants of converts, consists of
—Shaikhs, 17,853; Khojahs, 12,313; Kashmiris, 11,659; Sayyids,
7930 ; Pathans, 6976 ; Baluchi's, 5247 ; and Mughals, 3676. According
to sect, the Musalmans are returned as follows: — Sunni's, 578,201 ;
Shias, 3032; Wahabis, 241; 'others' and unspecified, 18,003. The


Christian population includes 3252 Europeans or Americans, 632
Eurasians, and 760 natives. According to sect, the Christian popula-
tion comprises— Church of England, 2535 ; Roman Catholics, 1001 \
Church of Scotland, 208; Baptists, 233; Wesleyans, 53; Protestant
but otherwise unspecified, 417; Armenian Church, 20; 'others' and
unspecified, 177.

Instruction, both religious and secular, is afforded by a number
of schools attached to the American Baptist Mission, and by the
Zanana and girls' schools. A Divinity School is maintained by the
Church Missionary Society for the training of Native Christians as
clergymen and catechists; also a female Normal School for training
girls as teachers, and a Zanana Mission. A branch of the Methodist
Episcopal Mission was established in Lahore in 1881 ; but it mainly
confines its efforts to out-door preaching, and up to 1883 had no church
or schools or community of native Christians attached to it. The
Punjab Religious Book Society, in connection with the London
Religious Tract Society, was established in 1863, and has its central
depository in the Anarkalli bazar. A number of colporteurs are

Town and Rural Population. — Lahore District contains eight towns
with a population exceeding five thousand, namely, Lahore City and
suburbs, including the civil station and sadr bdzdr, 130,960; Meean
Meer (Mian Mir) cantonment (included with Lahore City in the
Census Report), 18,409; Kasur, 17,336; Chunian, 8122; Patti,
6407; Khem Karn, 5516; Raja Jang, 5187; and Sur Singh, 5104.
Two other towns are municipalities, with a population of less than
five thousand, namely, Sharakpur, 4595, and Khudian, 2917.
Total urban population, 204,553, or 22*1 per cent, of the District
population. Deducting Lahore City and Meean Meer cantonment,
however, the urban population amounts to only 55,184, or 7*1 per
cent., as against a rural population of 719,553, or 92-8 percent. Of
the i486 towns and villages in the District, 465 are returned
as having less than two hundred inhabitants; 559 from two to five
hundred; 279 from five hundred to a thousand; 138 from one to
two thousand; 25 from two to three thousand; 13 from three to five
thousand ; 5 from five to ten thousand ; 1 from fifteen to twenty
thousand ; and 1 upwards of fifty thousand inhabitants.

The villages generally possess a common site, on which all the
habitations of the residents are gathered together in a cluster of mud
huts. A deep pond, out of the excavations of which the huts have
been built, lies on one side of every village ; the water out of the pond
being used for the cattle to drink from, for the village clothes to be
cleaned in, and sometimes even for drinking purposes. In addition
to this, there is generally a tall pipal or other tree affording shelter for


village assemblies, or the accommodation of travellers ; also a takia or
viasjid for religious observances. The houses and courtyards arc
generally huddled together, with narrow lanes between them ; dirty
and badly drained, and often the receptacles for all dirt and filth.
The house, even of a prosperous agriculturist, looks but a poor abode,
built of mud or clay, with a thatched roof in the neighbourhood of
the villages, but in other places with flat mud roofs. The house
generally consists of one or two small dark rooms, with no opening
but the door ; having a large courtyard in front, where the family live
and follow their occupations all day long, while the head of the house-
hold is away in his fields.

The food of the cultivating classes consists of the commoner grains,
such as gram, moth, Indian corn, china, etc., ground and kneaded
with water, and made into round flat cakes or chapdtis. Before the
opening of the Bari Doab Canal, wheat was seldom eaten save as a
luxury, or on occasions of festivity. Since the introduction of irrigation,
the cultivation of this crop has increased so much that it will probably
soon become the staple food of the people. Rice is too expensive to
be much used by the poorer classes, for it has to be brought from a
distance. Meat, particularly the flesh of the goat and kid, is eaten by
those who can afford it. The people are very fond of curds, whey, and
butter-milk, and for vegetables they use the leaves of the mustard plant.
Salt is an indispensable accompaniment to every meal, and is also
largely given to the cattle. Among the cultivating classes, the Rajput
Musalmans are, as a rule, deeply in debt ; but the Jats are more inde-
pendent of the village banker in Lahore than in many other Punjab
Districts, and are more economical. They, however, resort to the bankers
on every occasion of want. As regards the commercial and industrial
classes, it may be said generally that a large proportion of the artisans
in the towns are extremely poor ; while those in the villages are scarcely-
less dependent on the harvest than are the agriculturists themselves,
their fees often taking the form of a fixed share of the produce.

As regards occupation, the Census Report of 18S1 returned
the adult male population under the following seven classes : —
(1) Professional class, including all Government officials, civil and
military, and the learned professions, 21,113 ; (2) domestic and menial
class, 36,508; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders,
carriers, etc., 10,716; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including
gardeners, 117,975; (5) industrial and manufacturing class, 79^53;

(6) indefinite and non-productive class, including labourers, 37,973 5

(7) unspecified, 15,874.

Agriculture. — According to the Punjab Administration Report for
1883-84, out of a total District area of 2,364,887 acres, 1,156,385
acres were under cultivation, 159,545 acres were g razin S lanc ^» 73 8 > I 5 6


acres were cultivable, and 310,801 acres were uncultivable waste. Of
the cultivated area, 548,688 acres were artificially irrigated, 239,808
acres from Government works, and 308,880 acres by private individuals
from wells, etc. The great crop of the District is the rdbi or spring
harvest. The principal staples of this harvest, and their area in
1883-84, are as follow :— Wheat, 393>°7° acres, now the great agricul-
tural product of the District since the opening up of the formerly
sterile tract of the Manjha by the Bari Doab Canal. The best variety
is grown in the villages around Lahore city. Gram occupies 188,459
acres; barley, 34,597 acres; mustard seed, 13,729 acres; and
vegetables, 10.626 acres. The kharif or autumn harvest is mainly
devoted to inferior grains and fodder for cattle. Rice occupies 15,609
acres, the best kinds being grown along the banks of the Degh, and
in the b&rigar tract of Sharakpur tahsil. Jodr is the principal kharif "crop,
and occupies 62,809 acres; Indian corn, 46,643 acres; moth, 34,793
acres. Of non-food crops, cotton is the most important, and is culti-
vated on 33,961 acres. It is grown in the lowlands of Chunian and
Kasiir between the old bed of the Beas and the Sutlej. It is, however,
of inferior quality, and is mainly employed for home consumption.
The principal fruits cultivated in the District are— mangoes, peaches,
oranges of superior quality, mulberries, plums, loquats, melons, guavas,
pine-apples, phalsa (an acid berry), pomegranates, sweet limes, and

The average out-turn per acre for the different crops is thus returned
in 1883-84 :— Rice, 1033 lbs.; wheat, 749 lbs.; gram, 941 lbs.;
barley, 726 lbs. ; bdjra, 378 lbs. ; jodr, 477 lbs. ; inferior grains,
488 lbs.; cotton, 393 lbs.; tobacco, 689 lbs.; oil-seeds, 366 lbs.;
and fibres, 264 lbs. The use of manure hardly extends beyond
the lands immediately adjacent to the villages. Round the city of
Lahore, however, it is employed with great effect, as many as three
crops being sometimes taken from the same field within the year.

The village tenures fall under the three ordinary Punjab types, but
that known as pattiddri prevails in a large majority of cases. The
peasant proprietors in most instances cultivate their own lands. At the
time of the Settlement of 1869, 76,147 proprietors owned 1,703,187
acres; and 57,715 tenants held 336,851 acres. The final results of the
Settlement, as regards tenant-right, were as follows : — Tenants with rights
of occupancy, 13,119 holdings; tenants holding conditionally, 3214
holdings ; tenants-at-will, 34,700 holdings. Cash rents hardly exist, and
rentals mainly depend, not upon free competition, but upon custom
and the caste of the tenant. Cash rates are now becoming more
common, being forced up by competition. The rates current at the
Settlement of 1869 are thus described: 'Of 51,715 tenants, 27,798
cultivating 182,995 acres pay their rent in produce, and only 23,917


holding 153,856 acres pay in cash, or are free of rent. Of the land
held by tenants paying their rent in kind, there are as many as 1 15,856
acres, which yield one-fourth produce to the landlords; 11,084 acres,
paying half; 6745 acres, paying two-fifths; and 49>3 IO > paying one-
third.' On unirrigated land, half or one-third of the gross produce
forms the average rate ; on irrigated land, one-fourth may be regarded
as a fair proportion.

Prices of food-grains ruled as follows in 1880 :— Wheat, 16 sers per
rupee, or 7s. per cwt. : barley, 17 sers per rupee, or 6s. 4& per cwt. ;
gram, 20 sers per rupee, or 5s. 7d. per cwt. ; bdjrd, 19 sers per rupee,
or 6s. per cwt. These prices were exceptionally high. On the 1st
January 1884, the ruling rates for food-grains were as follows: —
Wheat, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; barley, 40 sers per rupee,
or 2s. iod. per cwt. ; gram, 38 sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; jodr, 38
sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; and bajra, 26 sers per rupee, or 4s. 4cl.
per cwt. Skilled labourers are paid at the rate of from 6d. to is. a
day, and unskilled labourers, from 3d. to 6d. a day.

Natural Calamities. — Famines, due to drought, occurred before the
British occupation in 1759, 1783, 1813, and 1833. Since the British
assumed administration, the greatest scarcities have taken place in i860
and 1867 ; but Lahore District suffered comparatively little, except
from the exportation of its produce to other quarters. Grain rose to
7 sers per rupee, or 16s. per cwt. Poorhouses and famine relief works
were set on foot, but they proved useful chiefly to the starving refugees
from Malwa, Hissar, and the eastern Districts. The construction of
the Bari Doab Canal will probably serve in future to protect the
naturally fertile uplands of Lahore from drought. Hail-storms, locusts,
and rats sometimes cause considerable damage to the standing crops.

Commerce, Trade, etc. — The trade of the District centres mainly in
the city of Lahore. The chief manufactures comprise silk, cotton,
wool, and metal work, none of them of more than local importance.
The agricultural produce formerly did not suffice for local consumption,
and large quantities of grain were imported to supply the city. Since
the opening of the Bari Doab Canal, however, enormous quantities
of wheat and oil-seeds are exported from the Manjha uplands. The
main line of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway terminates at Lahore,
and has stations at Meean Meer and Jallo. A section of the Indus
Valley Railway runs to Sher Shah on the Chenab, below Miiltan
(Mooltan), and is continued to Karachi (Kurrachee) and the sea ; and
a branch line, constructed in 1883, connects Raiwind, a station on the
Karachi branch of the railway, with Ganda Singhwala on the Sutlej
opposite Firozpur. On the other side, the Northern Punjab State
Railway leads towards Peshawar and the north-west frontier. The
Grand Trunk Road enters the District from the east, crosses the Ravi


and the Sutlej by bridges of boats, and from Lahore turns nearly due
north on its way to Peshawar. Other roads connect the capital with
surrounding cities and with the lesser towns of the District. The total
length of communications is returned as follows :— Navigable rivers,
104 miles; railways, 144 miles ; metalled roads, 113J miles ; unmetalled
roads, 703 miles. Lines of telegraph run to Ambala (Umballa), Pesha-
war, and Multin (Mooltan), besides the railway wires, which last are
also open to the public.

Administration.— Lahore District is under the Commissioner of the
Lahore Division, who is assisted by an Additional Commissioner.
The District staff ordinarily comprises a Deputy Commissioner, with 1
Judicial Assistant, 2 Assistant and 3 extra-Assistant Commissioners,
besides the usual fiscal, constabulary, and medical officers. In 1882-83,
18 civil and revenue judges and 22 magistrates dispensed justice. The
imperial revenue in 1872-73 amounted to ,£95,285, of which sum
.£61,031, or nearly two-thirds, was contributed by the land-tax. In
1882-83, the total revenue was returned at ^121,537, of which ^7 2 >9 6 5
was contributed by the land-tax, fixed and fluctuating, the other chief
items being stamps, ,£26,360; excise, ,£15,701; and local rates, ^65 10.
The District fund showed an income (derived from provincial rates), in
1882-83, of .£7660; the expenditure, mainly on education, public works,
medical services, post-office, etc., being ,£4054- In 1882-83, tne
regular police force numbered 843 officers and men, supplemented by a
municipal constabulary of 447 men, and a cantonment police of 67 men
at Meean Meer (Mian Mir), besides a few constables supplied to private
companies. The total machinery, therefore, for the protection of person
and property amounted to 1357 policemen, being at the rate of 1 man
to every 581 of the population and every 2*68 square miles of area. In
addition to this force, there is a village watch of 1077 chaukiddrs,
receiving a pay of 6s. per month, derived either from a description of
octroi, or from a small house tax. The total number of persons brought
to trial for all offences committed within the District in 1882 was 12,195.
The central jail at Lahore serves as a receiving jail for long-term con-
victs from other parts of the Province. In 1882 it contained a daily
average of 2004 prisoners. During the same year, the female peni-
tentiary, also a Provincial prison, had a daily average of 193 inmates.
The District jail in the same year contained an average of 556

Including the Oriental College affiliated to the Punjab University,

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 48 of 64)