William Wilson Hunter.

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the Lahore Government College, Training College, the Normal Schools,
School of Art, Law School, Veterinary School, Zanana Mission Schools,
the St. John's Divinity School (under the management of the Church
Missionary Society), the Schools of the American Presbyterian Mission,
and several schools for European children, education was carried on in


the District in 1882-83 by 378 aided and unaided schools, having an
aggregate roll of 9277 pupils, and maintained at a cost of ^6724. The
Census of 188 1 returned a total of 9815 boys and 657 girls as able to
read and write, besides 27,690 males and 917 females able to read
and write, but not under instruction. A School of Industry for the
instruction of boys in different branches of native handicrafts after
leaving their village schools, was established at Kasiir in 1874, and is
attended by a daily average of 30 pupils. A staff of master artisans is
maintained to teach the boys cloth and carpet weaving, leather work,
metal work, tailoring, and embroidery. The weaving industry is the
special feature of the institution; and the work turned out is much
sought after.

For fiscal and administrative purposes, the District is divided into the
4 tahsils or Sub-divisions of Lahore, Kasiir, Chunian, and Sharakpur.
In 1882 it contained 7 municipal towns, namely, Lahore, Kasiir, Khem
Karn, Chunian, Sharakpur, Patti, and Khudian. Their aggregate revenue
amounted to ^41,381, or 4s. 6d. per head of the total population
(181,711) within municipal limits.

Medical Aspects. — The District bears a good reputation for general
healthiness, though the heat for four or five months reaches an excessive
intensity, the thermometer sometimes ranging even at night as high as
105 F. In 1882, the recorded temperature in the shade was as follows
for three selected months: — May, maximum 116-5° F., minimum 62*8°,
mean 88-8°; July, maximum 111-5°, minimum 75*4°, mean 88*6°;
December, maximum 787°, minimum 39-5°, mean 58-6° F. The average
annual rainfall for the seventeen years ending 1882-83 was 17*8 inches
for the District as a whole, varying from a minimum of 12*4 inches in
Sharakpur, to 23-9 inches at Meean Meer, and 18 '6 inches at Lahore
city. September and October form the unhealthiest season of the year ;
and the valleys of the two great rivers are centres of endemic disease,
especially fever.

The vital statistics of 1882 show a total of 26,049 recorded deaths,
being at the rate of 28 per thousand. Of these, i7,443> or l8 ' 8 7
per thousand, were assigned to fever alone. The District contains five
Government charitable dispensaries — the Mayo Hospital in Lahore, at
Kasiir, at Meean Meer (Mian Mir), Sharakpur, and Chunian. In 1882
they gave relief to a total of 62,215 persons, of whom 2785 were
in-patients. Besides these local dispensaries there are also the Medical
College, Mayo Hospital, Veterinary School, and Lunatic Asylum, which
are all Central Provincial Institutions.

[For further information regarding Lahore, see the Gazetteer of the
Lahore District, published under the authority of the Punjab Govern-
ment in 1883-84 ; the Report on the Revised Land Settlement of Lahore
District, between 1865 and 1869 (Central Jail Press, Lahore, 1873),


by Mr. Leslie S. Saunders, C.S. ; the Punjab Census Report for 1881 ;
and the several Provincial Administration and Departmental Reports
from 1880 to 1884.

Lahore. — Tahdloi Lahore District, Punjab; occupying the north-
eastern corner of the Bari Doab portion of the District, and lying
between 31° 13' 30" and 31 44' N. lat., and between 74 2' 45" and
74 42' e. long. Area, 740 square miles, with (1881) 376 towns and
villages, 60,082 occupied houses, and 89,009 families. Total popula-
tion, 370,796, namely, males 209,164, and females 161,632 ; propor-
tion of males in total population, 56-4 per cent. Average density of
population, 501 persons per square mile ; average number of persons per
town or village, excluding Lahore city, 609. Classified according to
religion, the Muhammadans form the bulk of the population, num-
bering 234,500 in 1881 ; Hindus, 91,379; Sikhs, 40,144; Jains,
228 ; Parsfs, 92 ; Christians, 4440 ; and 'others,' 13. Of the 376 towns
and villages, 234 contain less than five hundred inhabitants, and 79
between five hundred and a thousand. The average annual area under
cultivation for the five years from 1877-78 to 1881-82 was 253,199
acres, the area under the principal crops being — Wheat, 92,241 acres;
rice, 6538 acres ; jodr, 19,268 acres ; Indian corn, 11,343 acres ; barley,
9222 acres; gram, 37,825 acres; moth, 7536 acres; cotton, 12,622
acres; vegetables, 2777 acres; and sugar-cane, 1444 acres. Total
revenue, ^20,066. The administrative staff, including the Divisional
and District head-quarters, consists of a Commissioner with an
Assistant, Deputy Commissioner with a Judicial Assistant, and six extra-
Assistant Commissioners, a Cantonment Magistrate at Meean Meer, a
Judge of the Small Cause Court, a tahsilddr, a munstf, and nine
honorary magistrates, exercising criminal jurisdiction only. These
officers preside over 14 civil and 13 criminal courts. Number of
police circles (t/idnds), 7 ; strength of regular police, 490 men ; besides
322 village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Lahore. — City and capital of the Punjab Province, and administra-
tive head-quarters of Lahore Division and District. Lat. 31° 34' 5" n.,
long. 74 21' e. Situated 1 mile south of the river Ravi, amid the
debris and ruins of the ancient city, whose area the modern town does
not nearly cover.

History and Architectural Remains. — Hindu tradition traces the origin
of Lahore to Rama, the hero of the Rdmdyana, whose two sons, Loh
and Kash, founded the sister towns of Lahore and Kasiir. The name
has probably been corrupted from Lohawar, or from a still earlier
Sanskrit form, Lohawarana. Though little can now be recovered with
regard to the date of its foundation, the absence of all mention in
Alexander's historians, and the fact that coins of the Graeco-Bactrian
kings are not found among the ruins, lead to the belief that Lahore



did not exist as a town of any importance during the earliest period of
Indian history. On the other hand, Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese Buddhist
pilgrim, notices the city in his Itinerary ; and it seems probable, there-
fore, that Lahore first rose into eminence between the 1st and 7 tli
centuries of our era. Its condition under the native Hindu and early
Musalman dynasties belongs rather to the general annals of Lahore
District. Governed originally by a family of Chauhan Rajputs, a
branch of the house of Ajmere (Ajmir), Lahore fell successively under
the dominion of the Ghaznf and Ghori Sultans, who made it the capital
of their Indian conquests, and adorned it with numerous buildings,
almost all now in ruins.

But it was under the Mughal Empire that Lahore reached its
greatest size and magnificence. The reigns of Humayiin, Akbar,
Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb, form the golden period in
the annals and architecture of the city. Akbar enlarged and
repaired the fort, and surrounded the town with a wall, portions
of which still remain, built into the modern work of Ranjit Singh.
Specimens of the mixed Hindu and Saracenic style adopted by
Akbar survive within the fort, though largely defaced by later altera-
tions. Under that great Emperor, Lahore rapidly increased in area
and population. The most thickly inhabited portion covered the site
of the existing town, but long bazars and populous suburbs spread
over the now desolate tract without the walls. Jahangir also frequently
resided at Lahore, and it was here that his son Khusru rebelled against
him. During his reign, the Sikh Guru, Arjiin Mall, compiler of the Adi
Granth, died in prison at Lahore ; and the humble shrine of the first
Sikh martyr still stands between the Mughal palace and the mausoleum
of Ranjit Singh. Jahangir erected the greater Khwabgah or ' Sleeping
Palace,' the Moti Masjid or 'Pearl Mosque,' and the tomb of Anarkalli,
still used as a station church, although a handsome cathedral church is
now (1885) in course of construction. The palace originally consisted
of a large quadrangle, surrounded on three sides by a colonnade of red
stone pillars, having their capitals intricately carved with figures of pea-
cocks, elephants, and griffins. In the centre of the fourth side, overlook-
ing the Ravi, stood a lofty pavilion in the Mughal style, flanked by two
chambers with elaborately decorated verandahs of Hindu architecture.
A garden filled the interior space of the quadrangle, with a raised
platform of marble mosaic ; while beneath the colonnade and pavilion,
underground chambers afforded cool retreats from the mid-day sun.
But Sikh and European alterations have largely disfigured the beauty
of this building, the pavilion having been transformed into a mess-room,
and the colonnades walled in to form officers' quarters.

Jahangir's mausoleum at Shahdra forms one of the chief ornaments
of Lahore, though even this has suffered somewhat from depredations.



The marble dome, which once rose over the tomb, was removed by
Aurangzeb. The tombs of Nur-Jahan, his devoted wife, and of her
brother Asaf Khan, have fared worse, having been stripped of their
marble facings and coloured enamels by the Sikhs. Shah Jahan erected
a smaller palace by the side of his father's building, the beauty of
which can still be discerned through the inevitable whitewash which
covers the marble slabs and hides the depredations of the Sikhs.
To the same Emperor is due the range of buildings to the left of
the Khwabgah, with octagonal towers, the largest of which, known
as the Saman Biirj, contains the exquisite pavilion, inlaid with flowers
wrought in precious stones, which derives its name of the Naulaka
from its original cost of 9 lakhs; together with the Shish Mahal,
afterwards the reception-room of Ranjit Singh, and interesting as the
place where Dhulip Singh made over the sovereignty of the Punjab to
the British Government.

Under Aurangzeb, Lahore began to decline in population. Even
before his time, the foundation of Jahanabad or modern Delhi had
drawn away the bulk of the classes dependent upon the court ; and
the constant absence of the Emperor contributed still more to depress
the city. Aurangzeb also constructed an embankment for three miles
along the Ravi, to prevent inundations, but with such undesirable
success that the river completely altered its course, and left the town
at a considerable distance. Among his other works, the Jama Masjid
or ' Great Mosque ' ranks first, a stiff and somewhat ungraceful piece
of architecture, which, by its poverty of detail, contrasts with the
gorgeous profuseness of Agra and Delhi.

With the reign of Aurangzeb, the architectural history of Lahore may
be said to close, later attempts marking only the rapid decadence of art,
which culminated in the tawdry erections of the Sikhs. From the acces-
sion of Bahadur Shah till the establishment of Ranjit Singh's authority
at the beginning of the present century, the annals of Lahore consist of
successive invasions and conquests by Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah, and
many less famous depredators (see Lahore District). The magnificent
city of the Mughal princes and their viceroys sank into a mere heap of
ruins, containing a few scattered houses and a couple of Sikh forts within
its shrunken walls ; while outside, a wide expanse of broken remains
marked the site of the decaying suburbs which once surrounded the

But the rise of Ranjit Singh's empire made Lahore once more the
centre of a flourishing though ephemeral kingdom. The great Maharaja
stripped the Muhammadan tombs of their ornaments, which he sent to
decorate the temple at Amritsar ; but he restored the Shalimar gardens,
erected a really beautiful bdrddari in the space between the palace and
the Jama Masjid, and also built a number of minor erections in the


very worst taste. His mausoleum, a mixed work of Hindu and Muham-
madan architecture, forms one of the latest specimens of Sikh work-

In 1846, the British Council of Regency was established at Lahore ;
and in 1849, tne young Maharaja Dhuh'p Singh transferred the govern-
ment of the Punjab to the East India Company. Lahore thenceforth
became the capital of a British Province, and a new impetus was given
to its rising prosperity. In 1849, the environs still remained a mere
expanse of crumbling ruins, and the houses of the first European
residents clustered around the old cantonment, on a strip of alluvial
lowland, south of the town, running parallel to a former bed of the
Ravi. Gradually, however, the station spread eastward ; and now a new
town covers a large part of the area once given over to ruins and
jungle, while every year sees fresh additions to the renovated capital.

General Appearance, Modem Buildings, etc. — Modern Lahore covers
an area of 640 acres, surrounded by a brick wall, which formerly rose
to a height of 30 feet, and was strengthened by a moat and other
defences. But the moat has been filled in, and the wall lowered to a
uniform elevation of 16 feet. A garden now occupies the site of the
trench, and encircles the city on every side except the north. Though
built upon an alluvial plain, the debris of ages has raised the present
town to a position upon a considerable mound. A metalled road runs
round the outer side of the rampart, and gives access to the city by
13 gates. The citadel or fort rises upon a slight but commanding
eminence at the north-eastern angle, and abuts northward on the old river
bed, while the esplanade stretches over an open space to the south and

Within the city, narrow and tortuous streets, ending in culs-de-sac,
and lined by tall houses, give Lahore a mean and gloomy appearance ;
but the magnificent buildings of the Mughal period serve to relieve the
general dulness of its domestic architecture. On the north-eastern side
especially, the Mosque of Aurangzeb, with its plain white marble domes
and simple minarets, the mausoleum of Ranjit Singh, with its rounded
roof and projecting balconies, and the desecrated facade of the Mughal
palace, stand side by side in front of an open grassy plain, exhibiting
one of the grandest coups-d'asil to be seen in India.

Outside the wall, with a general southerly direction, lies the European
quarter. From the Lohari gate, the long street known as the Anarkalli or
Sadr Bazar stretches southward, joining the native town to the civil station
and abandoned cantonment of Anarkalli. This portion of the new
quarter contains the secretariat, financial offices, chief court, and station
church. From Anarkalli the civil station now runs three miles eastward
to the Lawrence Gardens and Government House, the extension in this
direction being known as Donald Town, from the late Lieutenant-

vol. vin. 2 D


Governor, Sir Donald M'Leod. A broad road, called the Mall, cuts
through the centre of the station, and connects this growing suburb
with Anarkalli. North of the Mall, now largely built over, lies the rail-
way station, surrounded by the bungalows of its employes. South of
the Mall, again, the suburb of Muzang contains many European
residences. The chief public buildings and institutions include the
Punjab University, with its Senate Hall (endowed by several native
Rajas and Nawabs), the Oriental College, the Lahore Government
College, the Medical School, the Central Training College, Law School,
Veterinary School, the Lahore High School, the Mayo Hospital (a fine
building near the Anarkalli bazar, capable of accommodating no
patients), the Museum, the Roberts Institute for European clerks, the
Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, and the Agri-Horticultural Society.

Population. — The population of Lahore city and suburbs, includ-
ing the cantonment of Meean Meer (Mian Mir), was returned at
125,413 in 1868. By 1881 the population had risen to 149,369,
namely, males 87,743, and females 61,626, showing an increase of
2 3>956, or 19 per cent., in thirteen years. Classified according to
religion, the population of the city, suburbs, and cantonment in 1881
was composed as follows : — Muhammadans, 86,413 ; Hindus, 53,641 ;
Sikhs, 4627; Jains, 227; 'others,' 4461. Number of occupied
houses, 24,077. The military cantonment of Meean Meer (Mian
Mir) lies 3 miles east of the civil station and 6 miles from the city,
and forms the head-quarters of the Lahore Military Division. The
ordinary garrison consists of two batteries of Royal Artillery, one of
Bengal Cavalry, one regiment of British infantry, one of Native infantry,
and one of Punjab Pioneers. Total strength of garrison in July 1883,
3692 officers and men. The total population of the cantonment in
1 88 1 was 18,409. The fort of Lahore is garrisoned by small detach-
ments from Meean Meer. The 1st and 3rd Punjab Volunteer Rifles
have their head-quarters at Lahore.

Commerce, Communications, etc. — Lahore possesses comparatively
little trade, its business being almost confined to the importation of
supplies for the consumption of the inhabitants. Small manufactures
of silk and gold or silver lace form the chief source of export trade.
The total value of the commerce of Lahore in 1871-72 was — imports,
;£333> 8 34; exports, ,£12,395. By 1881-82, the imports of Lahore
had increased to ^790,7 11 ; and the exports to ^116,837. Railways
now connect the capital with most other parts of the Province, and
complete the circuit to the frontier and the sea. The terminus of
the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi line is at Lahore, and a branch to
Sher Shah on the Chenab unites the Karachi (Kurrachee) and
Kotri line with the Punjab system. The Northern State Railway
runs to Peshawar. The Grand Trunk Road also passes through


Lahore, and lines of telegraph afford communication with Ambala
(Umballa), Peshawar, and Multan (Mooltan). Up till 1881, Lahore
was chiefly dependent upon well-water for drinking purposes ; but in
June of that year, a regular system of water-works, calculated to supply
an average of 10 gallons of pure water per head of the population, was
opened ; its advantages are now much appreciated by the towns-
people, although at first there was a good deal of caste prejudice against
using the water. The thorough drainage of the city has also been
effected since 1881. Accommodation for travellers is provided by
numerous hotels ; and besides several places of business of European
tradesmen and merchants, the Bank of Bengal, Agra Bank, Simla Bank,
and Alliance Bank of Simla have all branches in Lahore. The internal
affairs of the city are managed by a municipal committee. The
income is mainly derived from an octroi duty. Municipal revenue in
1875—76, £16,558, or 2s. 6|d. per head of population (128,441) within
municipal limits. In 188 1, the population of the municipality, includ-
ing certain suburbs, but excluding the cantonment of Meean Meer,
was 138,878. Total income in 1882-83, ,£36,407, of which £24,995
was derived from octroi ; average incidence of municipal revenue, 5s.
2|d. ; incidence of taxation, 3s. 7^d. per head.

Lahori Bandar. — Village in Karachi District, Sind, Bombay Presi-
dency; situated in lat. 24 32' n., and long. 67 28' e., on the south or
left bank of the Baghiar or western branch of the Indus, 20 miles from
the Piti mouth. In consequence of the channel on which it is situated
having ceased to be navigable, Lahori Bandar has fallen into complete
decay ; but, according to Thornton, it was once the principal port in
Sind, being accessible for ships of 200 tons burden. At the close of
the last century there was an English factory here.

Lahul (Lahaul). — Sub-division of Kangra District, Punjab, lying
between 32 8' and 32 59' n. lat., and between 76 49' and 77 46' 30" e.
long.; and comprising the valley between the Chamba mountains on the
north-west, and the Kanzam range on the south-east. Area, 2255
square miles. Population (1881) 5860. Lahul is bounded on the
north-west by Chamba, on the north-east by the Rupshu Sub-division
of Ladakh, on the south-west by Kangra and Kulu, and on the south-
east by Spiti. For administrative purposes, it forms part of the Kulu

Physical Aspects. — Lahul consists of an elevated and rugged Hima-
layan valley, traversed by the snow-fed torrents of the Chandra and the
Bhaga, which take their rise on the slopes of the Bara Lacha Pass, at
an elevation of nearly 16,500 feet above sea-level. At Tandi the
sister streams unite to form the great river Chenab, here known as the
Chandra-Bhaga, which flows immediately into Chamba on its way to
the Punjab plain. On either side of the two river glens, and in the

42 o LAHUL.

triangular space between them, the mountains rise to the level of per-
petual snow, leaving only a narrow strip of wild valley fringing the
streams themselves. To the north-east, the peaks about the Bara
Lacha pass tower to a height of from 19,000 to 21,000 feet; while the
pass itself, the least elevated part of the whole range, is 16,221 feet above
sea-level. Between the two rivers, an isolated mass of mountains attains
still greater dimensions, consisting of one almost unbroken ice-field,
with, at rare intervals, impassable barriers of naked rock. South of the
highest peak, 21,415 feet above the sea, a glacier stretches downward
for 12 miles; while east and west the hills, though slightly inferior in
elevation, still reach the limits of the snow-line, and flank the valley on
every side, except along the narrow outlet of the Chenab. In such a
waste of rock and ice, villages can only be planted in a few compara-
tively favoured spots, among the lower valleys of the Chandra and the
Bhaga, from old Koksar on the former to Darcha on the latter river.
The remainder of Lahul is completely uninhabited, except for a
few weeks in summer, when the Kulu shepherds bring up their flocks
for pasturage. Picturesque knots of houses, however, nestle here and
there in sheltered nooks, amid green irrigated fields, made beautiful by
the exquisite Himalayan flora. Quaint conical buildings, erected in
honour of some saint or Lama, stand just outside the villages ; while,
on the hillside above, the white walls and flying flags of some tiny
Buddhist monastery give animation to the scene. The inhabited
portions of the Lahul valley have an estimated elevation of 10,000 feet
above sea-level. Kangser, the highest village, stands at a height of
11,345 feet. The fact that the main road to Ladakh and Yarkand runs
through the valley, from the Rohtang Pass to the Bara Lacha, lends a
certain degree of importance to this otherwise insignificant tract. The
road is now (1884) in excellent order, and is annually growing in
favour with the traders.

History. — The Lahul valley is mentioned as early as the 7th century
in the Itinerary of Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, who
notices it under the name of Lo-hu-lo, as a district lying north-east of
Kiilu. In the earliest times, it probably formed a dependency of the
Tibetan kingdom; and on the disruption of that empire in the 10th
century, it seems to have been included in the principality of Ladakh.
We have no information to show the period at which it became inde-
pendent, though reasons have been adduced for believing that that
event preceded the reorganization of Ladakh about 1580. An epoch
of native rule under petty chiefs (Thakurs) ensued, during which the
various local families appear to have paid tribute to Chamba. Four or
five of these families have survived up to the present day, and are still
in possession of their original territories, which they hold mjdgir, sub-
ject to the payment of tribute or nazardna. About the year 1700, the

LAHUL. 42 1

supremacy passed to Kiilu, in the reign of Budh Singh, son of Raja
Jagat Singh, a contemporary of Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb. Thence-
forward, Lahul followed the fortunes of Kulu, until they passed together
under British rule in 1846.

Population. — In 1855, the population of Lahul amounted to only
2535 persons. By 1868, the number had risen to 5970. In 1881, the
population was returned at 5860. The slight decrease, however, is
believed to be more apparent than real. The Census of 1868 was
taken at a time of year when the passes were open ; while that of
1 88 1 shows the winter population only, when numbers of the inhabitants
were away in Kiilu or Simla. The Thakurs form the gentry of the

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 49 of 64)