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ravaged the District in recent years, seems to pass over Europeans. In



43 8 LAKHIMPUR SUB-DIVISION.

1861, more than 15 per cent, of the total population were estimated to
have been attacked by cholera, and about 10 per cent, to have died.
Increased cultivation, and the clearance of jungle through the enter-
prise of tea planters, have favourably influenced the general health
of the District ; and conservancy arrangements now receive careful
attention in the town of Dibrugarh. Cattle diseases of a very fatal
character have made their appearance in the District several times in
recent years, having been apparently imported from Bengal.

[For further information regarding Lakhimpur, see the Statistical
Accoutit of Assam, by W. W. Hunter, vol. i. pp. 291-420 (London,
Triibner & Co., 1879) ; A Descriptive Account of Assam, by W. Robin-
son (1841) ; Report on the Province of Assam, by A. J. Moffat Mills
(Calcutta, 1854) ; the Assam Census Report for 1881 ; and the several
Provincial Administration and Departmental Reports from 1880 to
1884.]

Lakhimpur (or North Iakhi?npur). — Sub-division in the north of
Lakhimpur District, Assam, lying between 27 and 28 N. lat., and
between 94 and 95° e. long. The administrative head-quarters are at
the village of Lakhimpur. The Sub-division is bounded north by the
Daphla and Mfri Hills, and south by the Brahmaputra. Estimated
area, about 7750 square miles; number of villages, 403; occupied
houses, 9409. Total population (1881) 53,750, namely, Hindus, 43,137 ;
Muhammadans, 1795; and 'others,' 8818. North Lakhimpur is
watered by the Subansiri and its tributaries, in most of which gold is
found by washing. In former times caoutchouc was abundant in the
jungles, but now it can only be collected beyond the frontier. The
most valuable wild products are a scarlet root called asu, used for dyeing,
and the bark of a tree called udal, which yields a fibre equal in strength
to flax. Apart from the cultivation of rice, the only indigenous industry
is the weaving of silk from the mugd and erid worms. The mugd worm
feeds in the open on the leaves of the sam tree (Artocarpus Chaplasha) ;
the erid worm requires to be carefully reared in-doors on the leaves of
the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis). It is calculated that about
328 cwts. of silk cloth are annually produced in North Lakhimpur,
valued at £3036.

Tea cultivation and manufacture are largely conducted with
pAiropean capital and under European supervision. The chief
difficulty of the planters lies in the scarcity of labour. The country
is very sparsely populated, and the natives are too well off and indepen-
dent to care to work regularly on the gardens. In 1871, the value of
the exports from the Sub-division was estimated at ,£22,000, chiefly
tea, caoutchouc, silk cloth, and rice; the imports were valued at
£16,000, chiefly oil, salt, and cotton cloth. The inhabitants principally
belong to aboriginal and semi-Hinduized tribes — Ahams, Doras,



LAKHIMPUR— LAKHIPUR. 439

Chutias, Kochs, Kalitas, Cacharis, Saraniyas, and Mins. In 1884
the Sub-division contained 1 civil and 2 criminal courts, with a police
force of 83 men.

Lakhimpur (or North Lakhimpur). — Village in the north of Lakhim-
pur District, Assam ; on the Gariajan river, a tributary of the Subansiri.
Lat. 27 14' 5" n., long. 94 7' 10" fe. The head-quarters of North Lakhim-
pur Sub-division and a centre of local trade. Population (1872) 577 ;
(1881) 899, namely, Hindus, 560; Muhammadans, 314; 'others,' 25.
The place is the residence of an Assistant Commissioner, who is the
sub-divisional officer, and an extra-Assistant Commissioner. A small
military and frontier police force is also stationed here, occupying a
strong masonry fort. The Gariajan is only navigable during the rainy
season. The public buildings include a lock-up and a charitable
dispensary.

Lakhimpur.— Tahsil or Sub-division of Kheri District, Oudh, lying
between 27 47' 15" and 28 29' 30" N. lat, and between 8o° 20'
and 8i° 4' e. long. Bounded on the north and east by Dhaurahra
tahsil; south by Sitapur District ; and west by Muhamdi tahsil,
and Shahjahanpur District in the North-Western Provinces. The
tahsil comprises the 5 pdrgands of Kheri, Srinagar, Bhur, Paila,
and Kukra Mailani. Area, 1078 square miles, of which 463 are
under cultivation. Population (1869) 298,338; (1881) 33°>7°7,
namely, males 175,987, and females 154,720. Hindus numbered
285,161 in 1881; Muhammadans, 45,468; 'others/ 78. Of the 666
villages comprising the tahsil in 1881, 424 contained less than five
hundred inhabitants each. Land revenue, ^34,749- In l88 4> the
Sub-division contained 2 civil and 6 criminal courts, with two police
circles {thdnds), and a police force of 244 men, besides a village police
of 8 1 8 chankidars.

Lakhimpur.— Chief town of Kheri District, Oudh, and head-
quarters of Lakhimpur Sub-division ; picturesquely situated about a
mile south of the Ul river. Lat. 27 56' 45" n., long. 8o° 49' 20" e.
A rising town with a population in 1869 of 1654; and in 1881 ot
7526, namely, Hindus 5461, and Muhammadans 2065. Municipal
income in 1883-84, ^447, o f which £*9 2 was derived from taxa-
tion, and ^255 from rents, fees, and fines; average incidence of taxa-
tion, 6£d. per head. The town contains the usual public offices and
court-houses, besides a high school and dispensary maintained partly
by private aid. Masonry houses are increasing, and trade is rapidly
extending. Daily markets, and also special bi-weekly ones, are held
in the bazar.

Lakhipur (Lakshmipur).— Village in the south of Goalpara District,
Assam. Lat. 26 2' 5" N., long. 90 20' 50" e. ; near the north foot of
the Garo Hills. The residence of the wealthy zaminddrs of Mechpara,



44 o LAKHIPUR— LAKHNADON.

who maintain efficient schools for boys and girls, and contribute largely
to a charitable dispensary, and other works of public utility. The
zamindars own extensive sal forests near the village, the timber of
which is annually sold at their own depot to Bengali traders.

Lakhipur {Lakshmipur).— Village in the east of Cachar District,
Assam, at the confluence of the Jhiri river with the Barak. A thdnd
or police station, and the chief centre of trade with the State of Mani-
pur. The bazar is frequented by Manipurfs and other hillmen, who
bring down cotton, caoutchouc, and beeswax, to barter for salt, iron
tools, dried fish, and betel-nuts. The population of the Lakhipur
thdnd jurisdiction amounted in 1881 to 39,74 2 , of whom 21,276 re-
presented the population of 28 flourishing tea-gardens, lying on both
sides of the Barak. The number of Manipuris residing within the
thdnd jurisdiction was returned at 7579. The village contains a post-
office, and close by is a revenue court (kachhdri) of the Maharaja of
Manipur, who owns much land in the neighbourhood.

Lakhi Sarai. — Railway station in Monghyr District, Bengal.— See

LUCKEESERAI.

Lakhmia. — An offshoot of the Brahmaputra, Bengal ; which river it
leaves at Tok, a village on the northern border of Maimansingh Dis-
trict. It then flows southwards and empties itself into the Dhaleswari
(lat. 23 34' n., long. 90 34' e.), about 4 miles from its junction with the
Meghna in Dacca District. Narayanganj, the port of Dacca District,
is situated on this river. The Lakhmia, with its high and well-wooded
banks, is one of the most beautiful rivers in Eastern Bengal ; it is also
remarkable for the purity and coolness of its waters. For five months
of the year, it is a tidal stream ; but it is only fordable at Ekdala.
Owing to the silting up of the Brahmaputra, the waters of the Lakhmia
are gradually decreasing.

Lakhna. — Town in Bharthna ta/isi/, Etawah District, North-
western Provinces. Lat. 26 38' 55" n., long. 79° n' 30" e. Situated
2 miles south of the Etawah and Kalpi road, 14 miles south-east of
Etawah town. Population (1872) 2857; (1881) 3551, namely, males
2081, and females 1470, chiefly Brahmans and Marwarfs. The con-
servancy and watch and ward of the town are provided for by the
proceeds of a house-tax. Residence of the late Raja Jaswant Singh,
C.S.I., who built a temple to Kali Kaji from the proceeds of a religious
fair established by himself. Considerable trade in ghi and cotton. A
school-house occupies the site of the former tahsiti, removed to
Bharthna in 1863.

Lakhnadon. — The northern tahsil or revenue Sub-division of Seoni
District, Central Provinces. Area, 1583 square miles, with 770
villages and 28,604 occupied houses. Population (1872) 126,034;
(1881) 138,716, namely, males 70,164, and females 68,552. Total



LAKHNA UTI—LAKHTAR. 44 1

increase of population in nine years, 12,682; average density, 87*63
persons per square mile. Total adult agriculturists (male and female),
56,554, or 4077 per cent, of the tahsil population. Average area
available per head of the agricultural population, 10 acres. Of the
total area of 1583 square miles, 482 square miles are held revenue
free. Area assessed for Government revenue, 1101 square miles, of
which 434 square miles are cultivated, 372 square miles cultivable,
and 295 square miles uncultivable waste. Total Government assess-
ment, including local rates and cesses paid on land, ^6922, or an
average of 6d. per cultivated acre. Rental paid by cultivators, including
cesses, ,£19,306, or an average of is. 4jd. per cultivated acre. In
1883, the Sub-division contained 1 criminal and 2 civil courts, with 3
police stations (thdnds) and 6 outposts. Total strength of regular
police, 86 officers and men, besides 557 village watchmen {chaukiddrs).

Lakhnailti. — Decayed town in Nakur tahsil, Saharanpur District,
North-Western Provinces. Lat. 29 46' n., long. 77 16' e. Situated
on the Karnal road, 26 miles south-west of Saharanpur town, and close
to the high bank leading down to the Jumna (Jamuna) lowlands. Popu-
lation (1872) 3998; (1881), 4312, namely, males 2250, and females
2062. Sanitation, and the watch and ward of the town, are provided
for by a house-tax, which yielded ^£89 in 1881 ; average incidence of
local taxation, 5d. per head. The town contains a fine specimen of
an old native fort. Village school, branch post-office. This and five
neighbouring villages belong to a colony of Turkomans, in the last
stages of poverty. During the last century, however, it possessed con-
siderable strength. In 1794, Bapu Sindhia, the Maratha governor of
Saharanpur, was long engaged in reducing it ; and the commandant
did not surrender until reinforcements arrived under George Thomas,
and a practicable breach was effected.

Lakhtar {Than Lakhtar). — Native State in Kathiawar, Province
of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency, situated between 22° 49' and 23 n.
lat., and between 71 46' and 72 3' e. long. The estate consists of
two distinct portions, Than and Lakhtar, together with some outlying
villages within Ahmadabad District. Population ( 1 881) 23,155 ; number
of villages, 41 ; area, 247 square miles. There are some rocky
tracts in the State, but neither rivers nor hills of any size. The
climate is hot and dry, but healthy, the only endemic disease being
fever. Cotton and the usual grains are cultivated. Dhers and Musal-
mans of the Borah class weave coarse cloth, and the potters of Than
have a name throughout Kathiawar for the excellence of their work.
Lakhtar is one of the ' third-class ' Kathiawar States, and the ruler
entered into the usual engagements in 1807. The present (1884)
chief is Thakur Karan Singhji, a Hindu of the Jhala Rajput caste.
He administers his State in person. Estimated gross revenue,



442 LAKHTAR—LAKI.

£l5°° ; tribute of ^735, 2S. is paid jointly to the British Govern-
ment and to the Nawab of Junagarh. The family of the chief holds
no title authorizing adoption; the succession follows the rule of
primogeniture. There were in 1882-83, 8 schools in the State, with
a total of 384 pupils. Military force in 1882-83, 4°° men. The State
does not levy transit dues.

Lakhtar. — Chief town of Lakhtar State, Kdthiawar, Bombay
Presidency; situated on the Ahmadabad - Wadhwan branch of the
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway; 13 miles north-east of
Wadhwan, 20 miles north of Limbdi, and 376 miles from Bombay.
Lat 22 51' n., long. 71 50' 10" e. Population (1881) 4132. The
railway station is a mile from the town, and contains a dharmsdld or
rest-house for passengers. Post-office, school, and dispensary.

Laki.— Tahsiloi Bannu District, Punjab, lying between 32 16' and
32 51' n. lat., and between 70 25' 15" and 71° 18' 45" e. long.;
comprising the southern portion of the basin drained by the Kuram
and the Tochi. This tahsil is generally named Marwat by the people,
owing to the majority of the inhabitants belonging to that clan ; but it
is called Laki in official reports after the head-quarters town. The
greater part of the area consists of sand or sandy loam, sloping down
to the Gambila river from the hills on its southern boundary. There
is no irrigation in this tract, except from small hill torrents after rain.
In the less sandy parts, it is usual to leave waste the higher portions
of the lands of each village, often more than half its area, and to lead
the rain-water falling thereon to the lower tracts by drainage channels
and embankments. Most villages have small tanks for drinking pur-
poses, at which they also water their cattle ; but these tanks are
often dry for months together, necessitating water being brought from
the Gambila, or some pool in the hills often 10 to 15 miles distant.
This work is done by the women with donkeys and bullocks.

Area, 1269 square miles, with 140 towns and villages, 12,801
occupied houses, and 14,504 families. Total population (1881) 75,581,
namely, males 40,045, and females 35,536 ; proportion of males, 53
per cent. Classified according to religion, the population consisted
of — Muhammadans, 70,015; Hindus, 5496; Sikhs, 69; and Chris-
tian, 1. Of the 140 towns and villages, 119 contain less than five
hundred inhabitants. The average annual area under cultivation for
the five years 1877-81 was 177,793 acres, the chief crops being —
Wheat, 92,341 acres; gram, 47,869 acres; bdjra, 24,539 acres;
barley, 7379 acres ; Jodr, 1766 acres; moth, 1409 acres; Indian corn,
1547 acres. Total revenue, ^"10,906. The administrative staff con-
sists of a tahsilddr and munsif, presiding over 1 criminal and 2 civil
courts. Number of police circles {thd?ids\ 3 ; strength of regular
police, 91 men, besides 120 village watchmen (chaukidd? s).



LAKI—LAKSHMANTIRTHA. 443

Laki. — Town and municipality in Bannu District, Punjab, and
head-quarters of Laki or Marwat tahsil. Lat. 2> 2 ° 36' 45" n., long. 70
57' e. Situated on the right bank of the Gambila, 32 miles from
Edwardesabad. The original town, by name Ihsanpur, on the opposite
bank of the river, sprang up around a small fort which was built in
1844 by Fateh Khan Tewana, a revenue collector for the Sikh
Government. It continued to be the capital of Marwat until 1864, when,
owing to a flood in the Gambila, and the plague of mosquitoes in-
separable from its situation near the marshy apex of the Kuram and
Gambila Doab, the District officer had the public buildings removed
to the sands on the higher right bank of the Gambila. Here were
three villages, Minakhel, Khoedadkhel, and Sayyidkhel. The people
of Ihsanpur settled in them, and helped to mould the three villages
into the one town of Laki. Population (1881) 4068, namely, Muham-
madans, 2906; Hindus, 1146; and Sikhs, 16. Number of occupied
houses, 727. Laki is now a thriving little town, with a good bazar,
tahsili, police station, charitable dispensary, dak bungalow, sard/,
school-house, post-office. Considerable trade in grain and other
country produce ; large exports of food-stuffs down the Indus to Dera
Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Sukkur (Sakhar). Municipal
revenue in 1875-76,^146; in 1883-84, ^226, or is. id. per head
of municipal population.

Laki. — Mountain range and village in Karachi (Kurrachee) District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Lakhi.

Laki. — Town in Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See
Lakhi.

Lakshmantirtha. — Tributary of the Kaveri (Cauvery), in Southern
India ; rises at the village of Kurchi in the Brahmagiri Hills in the
Kiggat-nad taluk of Coorg, and flows north-east into Mysore State,
through the District of Mysore, to join the Kaveri at Sagarkatte. It
is a perennial stream, and much used for irrigation in Mysore, being
crossed by 7 dams, which give water to channels 126 miles in length,
yielding a revenue of .£3381. The Hanagod dam alone takes off 335
cubic feet of water per second, and irrigates 13,400 acres. The Laksh-
mantirtha in its descent over an almost perpendicular wall of the
Brahmagiri Hills forms a celebrated cataract, which is invested with sin-
cleansing virtue, and is visited in February by thousands of devotees.
The way to the bathing-place is romantic, with steep hills to the right,
and the winding stream to the left. ' Every few steps a beggar is
encountered, exhibiting his deformities or sores. Here lies a fanatic,
as if dead, with a wooden nail through his cheeks ; there a boy with a
lancet through his outstretched tongue, and a smoking chatti on his
stomach ; here another man with a long knife across his throat, and a
horrible corpse-like appearance.'



444 LAKSHMES WAR—LALBA GH.

Lakshmeswar.— Town in Miraj State, South Maratha Agency,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 15° 7' 10" N., long. 75 30' 40" e. Popula-
tion (1881) 10,274, namely, 501 1 males and 5263 females, of whom
8530 are Hindus, 1597 Muhammadans, and 147 Jains.

Lakshmipur. — Ghat or pass in Vizagapatam District, Madras
Presidency, leading from the low country via Parvatipur into Jaipur
(Jeypore) ; height about 3000 feet above sea-level. Lat. 19° 6' nJ
long. 83 20' e.

Lakshmipur. — Villages in Goal para and Cachar Districts, Assam.
— See Lakhipur.

Laktrai. — Range in the State of Hill Tipperah, Bengal. — See
Langtarai.

Lakvalli. — Taluk or Sub-division of Kadiir District, Mysore State.
Area, 504 square miles. Population (18S1) 23,701, namely, 12,786
males and 10,915 females, inhabiting 799 villages. Hindus numbered
21,503; Muhammadans, 2072 ; Christians, 125 ; and 'others,' 1. The
south of the taluk is occupied by the Chandra Drona or Baba Budan
Mountains. The Baba Budan was the first site of coffee cultivation in
Southern India ; and the slopes of the entire range, as well as south of
the forest-bound valley of Jagar, are occupied by coffee-gardens, both
European and native. Throughout the west, up to Lakvalli village,
forests stretch along both sides of the Bhadra river, containing some of
the most valuable teak timber of the State. Areca-nut gardens are
numerous in the north-west of the taluk ; eastward, rice is the principal
crop. Of the 540 square miles, 358 are cultivated, 78 cultivable, and
204 uncultivable waste.

Lakvalli. — Village in Kadiir District, Mysore State. Lat. 13° 42'
40" n., long. 75 41' 40" e. Population (1881) 1211. Has given its
name to a taluk with head-quarters at Yedehalli, situated close to the
site of Ratnapuri, the ancient capital of Wajra Mukuta Raya.

Lalatpur. — District, tahsil y and town, North- Western Provinces. — •
See Lalitpur.

Lalbagh. — Sub-division of Murshidabad District (called also the
City of Murshidabad Sub-division), Bengal, lying between 24 6' 45"
and 24 23' n. lat, and between 88° 3' 15" and 88° 32' 45" e. long.
Area, 250 square miles, with 600 towns and villages, and 33,559
occupied houses. Population of the Sub-division on its present area
(1872) 154,512; (1881) 147,007, namely, males 70,407, and females
76,600. Total decrease in nine years, 7505, or 4*86 per cent, of the
population. Classified according to religion, Hindus number 74,382 ;
Muhammadans, 71,506; Jains, 644; Christians, 54; Santals, 177;
other aborigines, 244. Average number of persons per square mile,
588; villages per square mile, 2-4; persons per village, 297; houses
per square mile, 144; inmates per house, 4-4. This Sub-division



LAL BAKYA—LALGULI FALLS. 445

comprises the 6 police circles {t hands) of Mdnullabazar, Shahnagar,
Bhagwangola, Sagardighi, Mohimapur, and Asanpur, the three latter
being of minor importance and ranking merely as outposts. In 1884
the Sub-division contained 1 civil and 1 criminal court ; strength of
regular police, 227 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 339.

Lai Bakya. — Tributary of the Baghmati river in Tirhut, Bengal.
It joins the main stream near Adauri. Flat-bottomed boats can get
up as far as Murpa in the rains.

Lal-darwdza {^ Red Door'). — Mountain pass across the Siwalik
range, between the Districts of Dehra Dun and Saharanpur, North-
western Provinces. Lat. 30 13' n., long. 77 58' e. ; elevation above
sea, 2935 feet.

Lalganj. — Important river mart on the east bank of the Gandak in
the Hajipur Sub-division of MuzafTarpur District, Bengal; 12 miles north-
west of Hajipur town. Lat. 25 51' 45" n., long. 85 1 2' 50" e. The bazar
lies on the low land adjoining the river, but is protected from inunda-
tion by the Gandak embankments. Population (1872) 12,338 ; (1881)
16,431, namely, males 7631, and females 8800. Classified according
to religion, Hindus numbered 14,533; and Muhammadans, 1898.
Municipal income in 1882-83, £$° l '> average incidence of taxation,
3|d. per head. The importance of Lalganj as a trading centre led
to its being selected in 1875 as a point for the registration of river
traffic ; the total river-borne trade for the first quarter of that year
was ^3 6, 93 5. A different system of trade registration has since been
introduced, and the Lalganj registration station abolished. Principal
exports — hides, oil-seeds, saltpetre ; imports — food-grains (chiefly rice),
salt, and piece-goods. The shipping ghat lies a mile to the south of
the town, and is called Basanta. Roads to Sahibganj, MuzarTarpur.
and Hajipur. Police station, several schools, post-office.

Lalganj. — Formerly a tahsil or Sub-division of Rai Bareli District,
Oudh, which since 1876 has been known as the Dalmau tahsil from
the name of the head-quarters town. — See Dalmau.

Lalganj. — Town in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ;
situated about 10 miles south-west of Dalmau, on the road from Bareli
to Bhitari Ghat in Fatehpur District, North- Western Provinces. Lat.
26 9' 50" n., long. 8i° o' 49" e. A flourishing market town, with a
population (1869) of 2602; (1882) 2568, namely, Hindus, 2334; and
Muhammadans, 234. Bi-weekly market for the sale of agricultural
produce. Hindu thdkiirdwdra dedicated to Kishanji or Krishna.

Lalguli Falls. — Rapids and cascade 8 miles north of Yellapur
on the Kalinadi, Yellapur Sub-division, North Kanara District, Bombay
Presidency. The fall of water is between 200 and 300 feet. Near
the falls is a fort from which, according to local tradition, the Gonda
chiefs used to throw their prisoners into the gorge beneath.



44 6 LALIAD—LALITPUR.

Laliad. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division, oxprdnt, of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of i village, with 2 proprietors. Area,
4 square miles. Population (1881) 783. Estimated revenue (1881),
^285, of which ^36, 4s. is paid as tribute to the British Government.
The estate is situated about 3 miles north-east of Chuda station, on
the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway.

Laling.— Fort in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. — See
Dhulia.

Lalitpur. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the
North- Western Provinces, lying between 24 9' 30" and 25 14' n. lat.,
and between 78° 12' 20" and 79° 2 15" E. long. Area, 1947 square
miles. Population in 1881, 249,088 persons. Lalitpur is the southern
District of the Jhansi Division. It is bounded on the north and west
by the river Betwa ; on the south-west by the river Narayan ; on the
south by the Vindhyachal Ghats and Sagar (Saugor) District of the
Central Provinces ; on the south-east and east by Orchha State and
the river Dhasan ; and on the east and north-east by the river Jamuni.
The administrative head-quarters are at Lalitpur town.

Physical Aspects. — The District of Lalitpur forms a portion of the hill
country of Bundelkhand. Its general appearance is that of an undulating
plain, bounded on the south by the Vindhyan range, and sloping
gradually northwards, till it descends by a series of low, thickly-wooded
ridges into the valleys of the Betwa and the Jamuni, whose streams
unite to form its northern limit. In the two hilly tracts to the north



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