William Wilson Hunter.

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per cwt. ; bdjra, 28 sers per rupee, or 4s. per cwt.

Natural Calamities. — Lalitpur is subject to loss of crops from blight,
hailstorms, and the ravages of locusts ; but its principal enemy is
drought, to which the great famine of 1868-69 was mainly due. The


kkarif or autumn crop of 1S6S failed almost entirely, through long-
continued want of rain; and the rabi or spring harvest of 1869 pro-
duced only half its usual amount. Relief measures were commenced
in August 1868 ; and during the next thirteen months an average number
°f 5599 persons were daily assisted with work, while 2781 persons
received gratuitous relief at poorhouses. In February 1869, the total
daily average of persons relieved was over 20,000. The maximum
price of wheat and gram during the dearth was 7 sers the rupee, or
about 1 6s. per cwt. Epidemics, as usual, followed in the wake of
famine; cholera broke out in June 1869, and raged amongst the debili-
tated and starving people during the rainy season. Every effort was
made to prevent actual starvation; yet 500 deaths were reported as due
to that cause ; and there can be little doubt that these figures do not
by any means represent the real numbers. The total loss of inhabitants
by death and emigration was enormous. As much as 76 per cent of
the people relieved were women and children, the majority of whom
belonged to families whose male members had deserted them and gone
off elsewhere as soon as the failure of the crops was generally anticipated.
Even after the famine abated, distress continued for a considerable
period, as there were not enough cultivators left to till the ground, and
41 per cent, of the cattle had been lost, 95,543 head out of a total stock
amounting to 233,047 having died from starvation or other causes.
Government endeavoured to alleviate these calamities by large advances
for the purpose of buying seed and beasts ; but much of the money so
granted was really spent upon food to supply existing necessities, and
a considerable period elapsed before the land was restored to cultivation.
The communications are insufficient to avert actual famine, and many
portions of the District are in danger of isolation from floods. On the
whole, in all seasons of scarcity the condition of Lalitpur must be
considered specially critical.

Commerce and Trade. — Until recently the foodstuffs raised in Lalit-
pur were only just sufficient even in favourable seasons to satisfy the
home consumption, and there was but little export trade ; while in times of
scarcity it became necessary to import considerable quantities of grain.
The regular commerce was very small ; the only out-going products
being betel-leaves, clarified butter (g/u), lac, honey, wax, and forest pro-
duce ; and the imported articles being chiefly salt, grain, sugar, cloth, and
tobacco. As explained, however, on a previous page, a great extension
of jodr cultivation has taken place since 1877, and large exports of this
grain take place every year, principally into Gwalior territory. The
manufactures are unimportant, and belong entirely to the domestic type.
The District is still remote from all portions of the railway system.
There is one good through road, metalled throughout between JhaVisi
and Sagar (Saugor), known as the Bundelkhand road, having a length of


57 miles within this District. The other roads are unmetalled, and
in many cases unbridged, so that communications are often rendered
impossible after heavy rains. The total length of roads in the District
in 1883 was 460 miles. There are no railroads or navigable rivers.
The District does not contain any noticeable institution, and there are
no newspapers or printing-presses.

Administration. — In 1 860-61, the total revenue amounted to ^3 1,03 1,
of which ^"14,513, or nearly one-half, was contributed by the land-tax.
The expenditure at the same date was ;£ 15,808. By 1870-71 the
total receipts had increased to ,£34*677, of which ^"14,881 was made
up by land revenue; while the expenditure had decreased to ^"10,321,
or less than one-third of the receipts. The retrenchment was mainly
effected in the items of Justice and Police. In 1881-82 the total receipts
amounted to ^"40,370, of which ;£ 15,047 was made up by land revenue.
The expenditure for the same year was ,£19,055. Lalitpur suffered, like
other neighbouring Districts, from over-assessment during the native
period ; and the rates continued high before the Mutiny ; but at present
a much lighter settlement has been introduced, which will remain in
force till 1888.

Lalitpur District is administered, on the non-regulation system, by a
Deputy Commissioner, 1 Assistant, and 1 extra-Assistant Commissioner,
and 2 tahsilddrs. In 1883 they presided over 5 magisterial and 5
civil courts. There are 18 police stations, and the regular District and
town police force numbered 421 men, maintained at a cost of ^4717,
almost entirely from imperial funds. Besides these, the District contains
484 village watchmen (chaukiddrs), or 1 to every 514 inhabitants; annual
cost of maintenance, ^1750. The total machinery for the protection
of person and property accordingly consists of 905 men, giving 1 man
to every 2*15 square miles and to every 275 of the population. The
number of convictions for all offences in 1883 amounted to 529, or
1 in every 470 inhabitants. The Sahariyas, a class of professional
thieves recruited from various low castes, well known to the police
throughout India, are numerous in the District, and cause much trouble.
These people originally came from the country in the neighbourhood of
Delhi, and settled down in Bundelkhand, Gwalior State, and the
neighbouring Districts of the Central Provinces many years ago. They
are a wandering gang of persons associated for the pupose of committing
thefts, which they carry out at a distance from their homes, notably in
Gujarat (Guzerat) and the Bombay Districts. In 1883 the jail con-
tained a daily average of 75 inmates, the total number of admissions
during the year being 369.

Education during the last few years has not only failed to make
any progress in Lalitpur, but has retrograded. In i860 there were
27 inspected schools, attended by 677 pupils, and maintained at


a cost of ^182; by 1870 the number of schools had risen to 39, and
that of pupils to 1254, while ^"613 was expended on instruction. In
1883-84, however, the number of State-inspected schools was returned
at only 28, attended by 975 pupils, the cost of State education being
^516. This is exclusive of uninspected and unaided schools; but
the Census of 1881 returned only 1247 boys and 15 girls as under
instruction, besides 5563 males and 43 females able to read and write,
but not under instruction.

The District is divided into 2 tahsils and 7 pargands. The number
of revenue-paying estates in 187 1 was 641, owned by 4946 registered
proprietors or coparceners, and paying a revenue of ,£14,881; each
estate accordingly bore an average burden of £"21, 18s., and each
coparcener contributed an average share of £2, 16s. Sub-division
of property has slightly increased of late years, and in 1881-82 there
were 654 separate estates, owned by 5295 proprietors and coparceners;
each estate paying an average of ^22, 10s., and each individual pro-
prietor an average of £2, 9s. 6d. The District contains only 1 muni-
cipality, Lalitpur town. In 1883-84, its total income amounted to
^1114, and its expenditure to ^871. The incidence of municipal
taxation was at the rate of is. 7 Jd. per head of population.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Lalitpur is distinguished by a
continuous heat, though the extremes of temperature are not so marked
as in the Upper Provinces, or even in neighbouring Districts, and the
cold weather is bracing. The annual rainfall averages 38*16 inches; in
1867-68 it rose as high as 59-8 inches, while in the disastrous season of
1868-69 it fell to 13*0 inches. In 1881 the rainfall was 37*58 inches,
or 0*58 of an inch below the average. No thermometrical returns
are available. The total number of deaths reported in 1883 amounted
to 6825, or 27*43 to every 1000 inhabitants, of which one -fourth
(1553) were assigned to fever. Snake-bites and the attacks of wild
animals are set down as causing 89 deaths in 1883. The average
death-rate for the previous five years is returned as 34*55 per thousand.
Cattle-disease occurs yearly in a mild form ; and rinderpest, combined
with foot-and-mouth disease, appeared as an epidemic in 1871. The
natives consider it inevitable, and take no measures for its suppression.

[For further information regarding Lalitpur, see the Gazetteer of the
North- Western Provinces, by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, C.S., vol. i. pp. 304-
360 (Government Press, Allahabad, 1874); the Settlement Report of
Lalitpur District, by Colonel J. Davidson (1873); the Census Report of
the North-Western Provinces and Oudh for 1881 ; and the several
Provincial Administration and Departmental Reports from 1880 to

Lalitpur. — Western tahsil of Lalitpur District, North - Western
Provinces, consisting of the parga/tds of Lalitpur, Bansi, Talbehat, and


Balabehat. Area, 1059 square miles, of which only 234 square miles
were cultivated in 1881. Population (1872) 118,997; (1881) 138,516,
namely, males 72,606, and females 65,910. Total increase of population
during the nine years, 19,519, or 16*4 per cent. Classified according to
religion, there were in 1881— Hindus, 129,776; Muhammadans, 3374;
Jains, 5324; and 'others,' 42. Of the 376 villages comprising the
tahsil, 301 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land revenue
(1881), ^7614; total Government revenue, including local rates and
cesses levied on land, ^9315; rental paid by cultivators, ^17,451.
Excluding the head-quarters courts, the tahsil contains 1 civil and 1
criminal court. Number of police stations {thdnds\ 10, besides 3 out-
post stations. Strength of regular police, 120 men, with 242 village
watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Lalitpur. — Town, municipality, and administrative head- quarters of
Lalitpur District, North- Western Provinces. Lat. 24 41' 30" n., long.
78 27' 50" e. Situated on the Jhansi and Sagar (Saugor) road, close
to the west bank of the Sahjad Nadi. Many of the inhabitants are
agriculturists. Population (1872) 8976; (1881) 10,684, namely, males
5655, and females 5029. Classified according to religion, there were in
1881 — Hindus, 8256; Muhammadans, 1323; Jains, 1072; Christians,
n; and 'others,' 22. Area of town site, 1015 acres. Well-built, white-
washed masonry houses give picturesqueness to the main streets; but
the side streets consist of mere tortuous alleys. An excellent modern
bazar, built by a late Government officer, forms a good centre for the
town. Buddhist remains are built into the walls. Tahsili, jail, police
station, Government charitable dispensary. For Mutiny narrative, see
Lalitpur District. Municipal revenue in 1883-84,^1114, of which
^839 was from octroi; average incidence of taxation, is. 7^d. per head
of population within municipal limits.

Lalmai Hills. — A low range in Hill Tipperah District, Bengal, nowhere
exceeding 100 feet in height ; about 5 miles west of Comillah (Kumilla).
The range extends 10 miles north and south, with an average breadth
of about 2 miles. Densely wooded, and cultivated by the Tipperahs
on the jum system of nomadic tillage. Brown iron - ore (hydrated
sesquioxide) is found, but not abundantly, which yields i,Sh per cent, of
iron. Silver ore in small quantities has recently been found, but it is not
probable that it can be worked at a profit. The Rajd of Tipperah, to
whom the Lalmai with the Maynamati Hills were sold for £2 100 by the
British Government, has built a house for the use of Europeans on the
highest elevation, known as the Maynamati Hill. An old fort, with
statues and bas-reliefs, was found buried in the jungle. The snake
figures in the sculptures, and the presence of the pig, indicate an
aboriginal or non-Hindu origin. The range takes its name from a
princess, Lalmai, of the royal house of Tipperah.


Lalsot. — Town in Dausa District, Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputana,
situated about 40 miles south of Jaipur city. Population (1881) 8743.
Hindus number 8046; Muhammadans, 506; 'others,' 191.

Lambia. — Mountain pass in Bashahr State, Punjab, over the
Himalayan range bounding Kunawar to the south. Seldom used, on
account of the cracks and sinking snow, except during the summer
months. Lat., according to Thornton, 31 16' N., long. 78 20' e. ;
elevation above sea-level, about 17,000 feet.

Landaur (Landour). — Hill cantonment and sanitarium in Dehra
Dun District, North- Western Provinces. It forms at present a single town
with Mussooree (Masuri), but with distinct jurisdiction, which is vested
in the cantonment magistrate. Lat. 30 27' 30" n., long. 78 8' 30" E. ;
situated on the slopes of the Himalayas, 7459 feet above sea-level. A
convalescent station for European soldiers was established in 1827, the
average number of invalids being about 300 in the summer, and 100
in the winter months. The staff comprises a commandant, surgeon,
and station staff officer. The united towns of Landaur and Mussooree
have a permanent Anglo-Indian population of 408 persons, according
to the Census of 1881, largely increased by the influx of visitors from
the plains during the hot season. A special Census taken in 1880 in
September, when the population is at its height, returned the inhabitants
of Landaur cantonment at 4428, namely, Hindus, 2244 ; Muhammadans,
1457; Europeans, 679; Eurasians, 38; Native Christians, 6; and
' others,' 4. Landaur with Mussooree contains two Protestant and one
Roman Catholic church, post-office, several hotels, numerous schools,
and boarding-houses. For further details, see Mussooree.

Landaura. — Town in Riirki (Roorkee) tahsil, Saharanpur District,
North-Western Provinces, situated on the open plain, 5 miles south-east
of Rurki, and 28 miles east of Saharanpur town, in lat. 29 48' n., and
long. 77 58' 15" e. Population (1872) 5023; (1881) 5764, namely,
Hindus, 3731; and Muhammadans, 1833. Village school ; post-office;
old fort, surrounded by a ditch, now converted into a receptacle for the
sewage of the town. The inhabitants are chiefly Giijars, clansmen of the
notorious chieftain Raja Ramdayal Singh. The village was burnt for
excesses committed during the Mutiny.

Landi Khana. — The most difficult part of the Afghan end of the
Khaibar Pass, Afghanistan; about 23 miles distant from Kadam, the
eastern entrance, and about 7 miles from the western entrance. Eleva-
tion of Landi Khana village (lat. 34 3' n., long. 71 3' e.), 2488 feet ;
highest point of the pass, the Landi Kotal or fort, 3373 feet. Landi
Kotal is one of the principal stages in the pass, and has been used as a
halting-place for the different British forces when passing through
the Khdibar. The sarai, or camping ground for travellers and caravans,
at Landi Kotal is protected by a low rampart and ditch. A body of


the Irregular Levies, raised from the tribes of the pass, and under the
direction of the British Political Officer in charge of the Khaibar, is now
(1885) stationed at Landi Kotal. Just beyond Landi Kotal rises the]
peak popularly known as Pisgah, whence the British officers who held
Landi Kotal during the late Afghan war were wont to survey the plains 1
of Afghanistan as far as Jalalabad. Shortly beyond Landi Kotal,
the Pass narrows to the gorge of Landi Khana; and a few miles
further it debouches on the open country of Afghanistan. Caravans
entering the pass give up their Afghan escort, and are taken I
charge of by the Irregular Levies under British control, near Landi

Langai.— River in the south-east of Sylhet District, Assam, which I
rises beyond the frontier, and, flowing northwards, forms the boundary |
between the Lushai hills and the State of Hill Tipperah. It ultimately I
falls into the Kusiara branch of the Surma or Barak near the village
of Karimganj. It is navigable for large boats in the rains, but in
the cold season for only small boats. On its banks are forests of
jarul (Lagerstroemia Flos-Reginae) and ndgeswar (Mesua ferrea), forming
the most important forest reserve in Sylhet. The Langai has also given I
its name to a valuable elephant mahdl or hunting-ground, reserved for |
the operations of the Commissariat khedd.

Langrin (or Lang-Hn). — Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Assam,
presided over by a siem or chief called U Bor. Population (1881)
1 152 ; revenue, ^176, chiefly derived from dues levied on lime. The
products are rice, millet, chillies, turmeric ; limestone is largely quarried,
and coal has been found.

Langtarai (or more probably Laktrdi, the name of a god of the hill
people).— Hill range in the State of Hill Tipperah, Bengal ; runs through
the State in a northerly direction, gradually disappearing in the plains
of Sylhet. The principal peaks are — Pheng Pui, 158 1 ; and Sim Basia,
1544 feet. These hills, like the other Tipperah ranges, are covered
with dense bamboo jungle and huge forest timber.

Langliliya (Langala, Sanskrit; Ndgula, Telugu — 'a plough'). —
River formed by the junction of three streams rising in the Gondwana
mountains, near Kalahandi, Central Provinces. It flows south-east
across the territory of Jaipur (Jeypore), into the plains of the Madras
Presidency. In the last 30 miles of its course, the Langliliya forms the
boundary between Vizagapatam and Ganjam Districts, entering the sea
below Chicacole (in the latter District), where it is crossed by the Great
Trunk Road on a fine bridge of 24 arches, much injured by the cyclone of
1876. The whole course of the river is about 140 miles ; and on its
banks are the towns of Singapiir, Birada, and Rayagadda in Jaipur, and
Parvatipiir, Palkonda, and Chicacole in the plains. Its principal tribu-
taries are the Salur and Makkuva. The Langliliya irrigates the Palkonda


division of the Chicacole taluk, and part of the Saliir and Bobbili estates.
Its rapid current makes navigation difficult, but during the floods
bamboos are floated down from the hill forests.

Langur. — Ruined hill fort in Garhwal District, North-Western
Provinces ; situated in lat. 29 55' n., and long. 78 40' e., on a conical
hill forming part of one of the southern Himalayan ranges. Very
difficult of access, and, from a military point of view, quite valueless,
there being no water. Elevation above sea, 6401 feet.

Lanji. — Town in Burha tahsil, Balaghat District, Central Provinces ;
40 miles east of Burha town. Lat. 21 30' n., long. 8o° 35' e. Lying in
low ground dotted with tanks, and bounded on the north by dense jungle,
in which stands an old temple dedicated to Mahadeva, surrounded
apparently by the remains of the original town. The fort, now out of
repair, but once a strong place, was probably constructed by the Gonds,
circa 1700. On the edge of the moat round it, a temple has been built
to Lanjkai (the goddess Kali), from whom the town takes its name.
Population (1881) 2240, namely, Hindus, 1990; Muhammadans, 151 ;
Jain, 1 ; and aboriginal tribes, 98. Lanji has a good Government
school, and a police station \ and the District post connects it with the
imperial postal lines.

Lao-bah. — Mountain range in the District of the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills, Assam ; elevation of highest peak above sea-level, 4464 feet

Lao-ber-sat. — Mountain range in the District of the Khasi and
Jaintia Hills, Assam ; elevation of highest peak above sea-level, 5400

Lao-syn-nia. — Mountain range in the District of the Khasi and Jaintia
Hills, Assam; elevation of highest peak above sea-level, 5775 feet.

Lapha. — Zamindari estate in the north of Bildspur District, Central
Provinces, said to date from 936 a.d. Area, 272 square miles, with
72 villages and 2024 houses. Population (1881) 12,252, namely,
males 6421, and females 5831. Of the total area, only about 12,000
acres, or about 20 square miles, are cultivated. The zaminddr is a
Kunwar by caste.

Laphagarh. — Hill fortress in Bilaspur District, Central Provinces ;
25 miles north of Bilaspur town. Lat. 26 41' n., long. 91 9' e.
Crowning the Lapha Hill, which rises 3200 feet above sea-level, with
an open area on the top of 3 square miles, now overgrown with under-
wood. On this cool and pleasant plateau the Haihai Bansi rulers of
Chhattisgarh had one of their earliest seats, till they left, over a
thousand years ago, for their capital of Ratanpur. Much of the fort
wall, constructed of large slabs of hewn stone, still remains in excellent

Larawar. — Pargd?ia in the Sundarsi division of the States of Dhar
and Dewas, under the Bhopal Agency, Central India. Area, 30 square


miles; estimated population (1881) 3000; estimated revenue, ^700.
This pargdna, comprising 6 villages, was held mjdgir by Ram Chandra
Rao Puar ; on whose death in 1880 it lapsed to the above-named States.
His nephew, Vithal Rao Puar, receives a subsistence allowance of
^20 a month, viz. £16, 13s. from Dhar, and £$, 7s. from Dewas.

Larkhana. — Sub-division of Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presi-
dency, lying between lat. 27° 16' 30" and 28 4 30" N., and between long.
67 15' and 68° 32' 30" e. In 1881 this Sub-division comprised five
taluks, namely, Larkhana, Labdarya, Kambar, Rato Dero, and Sijawal.
Since then Government has sanctioned the formation of a new taluk,
to be formed of part of the taluks of Rato Dero, Sijawal, and Kambar.
The new taluk is to he named Shahdadpur, and to form part of the
Upper Sind Frontier District. The following paragraphs treat of
Larkhana Sub-division as it stood before these transfeis took place.

Area, 1894 square miles. Population (1881) 281,717. Bounded on
the north by the Frontier District and the territory of the Khan of
Khelat ; east by the Indus and the Sukkur (Sakhar) and Shikarpur Sub-
division ; south and west by Mehar, Khelat, and the Khirthar range.
With the exception of the western portion, which borders on the Khir-
thar Mountains, the general aspect of the country is singularly flat and
uninteresting. Those parts of Larkhana lying between the Indus and
the western Nara, and again between the latter stream and the Ghar
Canal, are one dead level of rich alluvial soil, well cultivated, and,
on the whole, thickly populated. They form one of the most typical
examples of high-class cultivation in Sind. In other parts of the
Sub -division stretch vast plains of kalar or saline soil, while in
the vicinity of the Indus broken patches of sandy waste or low
jungles of tamarisk and babul occur. Canals are numerous, and
afford great facilities for irrigation. The principal Government
canals in the Sub-division are the Western Nara, 30 miles long, and
100 feet wide at its mouth; the Ghar, 22 miles long and 80 feet
wide; the Naurang, a continuation of the Ghar canal, 21 miles long
and 90 feet wide; the Bire-ji-kiir, 27 miles long and 48 feet wide;
and the Edenwah, 23 miles long. Of the zam'mddri or private canals,
the Shah-ji-kur and Date-ji-kiir, both 22 miles long, and the Mir, 20
miles long, are the most important. The Western Nara, navigable by
boats from May to September, is very tortuous in its course, and may
be regarded as a river artificially improved. After flowing through
portions of the Larkhana, Rato Dero, and Labdarya taluks, it enters
the Mehar Sub-division, and falls eventually into the Manchhar Lake.
The Ghar, which is also supposed to be a natural channel, is very
winding, broad, and deep, with level banks. It flows through the
Larkhana and Rato Dero taluks, and enters Mehar by the Nasirabad
taluk. The Government forests in Larkhana cover an area of from


9000 to 10,000 acres. The chief trees are the nim, si'sst/, babul, pipal,
and karil. The tamarisk is occasionally met with of a large growth ; it
is very plentiful, and valuable as firewood. The principal minerals are
coarse salt and saltpetre. Alum and sulphur occur in the hills to the
west. The wild animals include the tiger, hog, antelope, hyaena, jackal,
wolf, fox, porcupine, and ibex.

Population. — The total population of Larkhana Sub-division was
returned in 1856 at 148,903 ; by 1872, the number of inhabitants had
risen to 234,575, of whom 202,008 were Muhammadans, 32,381 Hindus,
and 186 of other nationalities. In 1881, the number of inhabitants
was returned at 281,717, namely, 152,512 males and 129,205 females,

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 54 of 64)