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dwelling in 433 villages and 3 towns, and occupying 40,516 houses.
Muhammadans numbered 243,664; Hindus, 14,649; Sikhs, 23,242;
aboriginal tribes, 126; Christians, 24; Buddhists, 6; Parsis, 5; and
Jews, 1. Density of population, 149 persons per square mile. The
chief Musalman tribes are the Chandias, Jamalis, Abras, and Jats. It is
from the first that this part of the country obtained the name of Chan-
duka or Chandko. The Jamalis are a Baluch race living on the borders
of the desert ; the Abras inhabit the south-west of Larkhana ; the Jats
are found dispersed all over the Sub-division, and are mainly cultivators
and cattle-breeders. The chief towns are Larkhana (the head-
quarters), Rato Dero, and Kambar. Among the few antiquities of
Larkhana, the principal are the old fort in Larkhana town, the tomb of
Shahal Muhammad Kalhora (built about 150 years ago), and of his
minister Shah Baharah. Shahal Muhammad was the grandson of Adam
Shah, the celebrated fakir (religious mendicant), whose descendants
eventually became monarchs of Sind.

Agriculture. — Larkhana contains a portion of one of the finest alluvial
tracts in the whole Province, viz. that lying between the Indus, the
Kara, and the Ghar. There is, perhaps, no part of Sind so admirably
suited for irrigation ; and the soil is so productive as to have procured
for this tract the name of the ' Garden of Sind.' Three principal crops
are raised during the year, viz. — pes/iras, sown in March and reaped in
July ; kharif sown in June and July, and reaped in November and
December ; and rabi, sown in September and October, and reaped in
April and May. The peshras crop includes cotton, sugar-cane, and
vegetables ; the kharif— joar, bdjra, til, rice, indigo, pulses, and hemp ;
the rabi — wheat, barley, oil-seeds, gram, peas, and tobacco. Mangoes,
plantains, dates, limes, pomegranates, and other fruits are grown exten-
sively. The first revenue settlement of the Sub-division was made by
Major Goldney, in 1847 ; it was for seven years, and expired in 1853-54.
The rates were heavy, rabi land being assessed as high as 5 rupees 1
anna (10s. ijd.) per acre, and kha r if and pes lira s lands at 3 rupees 1
anna (6s. ijd.). In 1S55-56, the rates in Larkhana and Kambar taluks


were reduced according as the cultivation was by wheel or well. The •
average rate on assessed cultivable land in Larkhana is now 2s. 6y\d.
per acre. In 1882-83, the area assessed to land revenue was 352,205
acres ; and the area under actual cultivation was 306,467 acres.

Tenures.— Before the conquest of Sind by the British in 1843, this
part of the Province was known as the Chandko pargand, and the
ownership of the entire lands in each village seems then to have been
vested in the zaminddrs and their heirs in perpetuity. They cultivated
a portion themselves, leaving the rest to men who appear to have
possessed a hereditary right to occupy, as the lands could not be taken
from them at pleasure ; but they paid Idpo, or rent, to the zawinddr,
generally in kind, at so many kdsas per bighd. Besides this there was
a fee called wdjah zaminddri, claimed by the head-man, and leviable
on the produce of the lands. When a portion of the land was sold, the
purchaser became entitled to the Idpo, but the wdjah was still given to
the head-man. The zaminddr, in fact, only transacted business with
Government or the contractor, and he made his own collections from
the tenants. The villagers paid him great respect, and his advice was
generally acted upon in all the agricultural affairs of the community.
The jdgir land in this Sub-division, cultivable and uncultivable, com-
prises in all about 84,000 acres, of which Ghaibi Khan Chandia's estate
in the Kambar tdluk takes up 75,966 acres.

Natural Calamities. — Larkhana is subject to floods or lets, which at
times cause great destruction to life and property. In 1874, the Kash-
mor let, starting from the town of the same name in the Frontier
District, conjointly with the Jhali let, originating in the Sukkur and
Shikarpur Sub-division, inundated nearly 100.000 acres of waste and
cultivated land, besides destroying in a greater or less degree 53
villages. Strong embankments or bandhs have been raised, but hitherto
without any permanent effect.

Manufactures, etc. — The manufactures of Larkhana consist principally
of coarse cotton cloth, salt, paper ; working in metals, such as culinary
utensils, etc. ; shoes, native saddles, and other leather work. There is
also a small paper manufactory at the town of Larkhana. Dyeing forms
an important industry. The Sub-division carries on an extensive trade.
The exports comprise grain of sorts, wool, cotton, and other agricultural
products ; the imports — English piece-goods, silks, and fruits. Larkhana
town is one of the chief grain marts of Sind. The total length of roads
in the Sub-division is above 400 miles. The main road is that from
Larkhana to Shikarpur, southwards to Mehar. There are 17 ferries,
most of which cross the Indus or the West Nara Canal. Post-offices at
the towns of Larkhana, Kambar, and Rato Dero.

The revenue of the Sub-division in 1881-82 was ,£93,709; being
,£S8,ii2 imperial, and £sS91 Jocal, derived from the following


sources :— Imperial — land-tax, ^80,772; abkdri or excise, ^2510;
drugs and opium, ^1070 ; stamps, ^3274; registration, ^381 : Local
— cesses on land, ^5019 ; percentage on alienated lands, ^46; ferry
funds, ^125 ; fisheries, ^378 ; fees and licences, £ig. There are 3
municipalities in Larkhana, viz. Larkhana, Rato Uero, and Kambar,
with a total revenue in 1881-82 of ^"3322. Dispensary at Larkhana
town. The number of Government schools in 1882 was 22, with 934
pupils. In 1884 the Sub-division contained 1 civil and 9 criminal
courts; police stations (thdnds), 20; regular police, 154 men.

The average annual rainfall at Larkhana is returned at 5*17 inches.
Fevers, rheumatism, and ophthalmia are prevalent.

Larkhana. — Taluk of Larkhana Sub-division, Sind, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 290*6 square miles. Population (18S1) 97,140, namely,
52,796 males and 44,344 females, dwelling in 75 villages and towns,
and occupying 13,378 houses. Muhammadans numbered 82,341 ;
Hindus, 5579; Sikhs, 9208; Christians, 7; Jews, 1; and Parsis, 5.
The area assessed to land revenue in 1882-83, 94,012 acres; area
under actual cultivation, 90,717 acres. Revenue in 1881-82, ^£41,450,
being ^39,104 imperial and ^2346 local. In 1884, the taluk
contained 1 civil and 3 criminal courts, 5 police stations (thdnds),
and 58 regular police.

Larkhana. — Chief town and municipality of the Larkhana Sub-
division, Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency. Situated in lat.
2 7 33' n., and long. 68° 15' e., on the south bank of the Ghar Canal ;
40 miles south-west of Shikarpur town, and ^6 north-east of Mehar.
The country surrounding Larkhana is fertile and populous, and perhaps
the finest tract in the whole of Sind. The spacious walks, well laid-out
gardens, and luxuriant foliage, have gained for Larkhana the title of the
'Eden of Sind.' The principal buildings are the civil court, and the
usual public offices, Assistant Collector's and travellers' bungalows,
dispensary, 3 bazars. In the time of the Talpur Mirs the fort served
as an arsenal, and afterwards, under British rule, it was turned into an
hospital and jail. The population in 1881 was returned at 13,188,
namely, 7155 males and 6033 females. Muhammadans numbered
7402; Hindus, 1699; Parsis, 5; Christians, 2; and 'others,' 40S0.
Larkhana is one of the most important grain marts of Sind, and is
famous for a species of rice called sugddsi. Large local traffic in metals,
cloth, and leather. The principal manufactures are cloth of mixed
silk and cotton, coarse cotton cloth, metal vessels, and leather goods.
The antiquities consist of the old fort already mentioned, and
the tomb of Shah Baharah. The income of the municipality in
1882-83 was ^£2230 ; and the incidence of taxation, 2s. 5 jd. per head
of population.

Lashkarpur.— Village in the south-west of Sylhet District, Assam,


4 66


on the Kwahi river. Lat 24° 16' 25" n., long. 91° 30' 3°" e. The
village is celebrated for several handicrafts. A little colony of Musal-
mans manufacture talwdrs or swords, and ddos or hill knives, skilfully
damascening the blades with silver and brass. In the neighbourhood,
lac is collected from the branches of trees of the fig order, and worked
up into a variety of elegant articles known as pukdld work. In some
cases, the lac is tastefully inlaid with the blue feathers of the king-
fisher, and with talc. Bracelets are also made of lac by Muhammadan


Laswari (or Ndswdri).— Village in Alwar (Ulwar) State, Rajputana.

Lat. 2 7 ^ 30" n., long. 76 54' 45" e. ; situated 8 miles south-east of

Ramgarh and about 20 miles south-east of Alwar city. Famous as

the scene of the great battle of the 1st November 1803, which

destroyed the Maratha power in India. The battle is thus described

by Marshman: — 'He (Lord Lake) had received an unfounded

report that the Maratha army was endeavouring to avoid him, and,

with his usual impetuosity, started at midnight in search of it

with his cavalry alone, leaving orders for the infantry to follow.

He came up with the encampment of the enemy at daybreak on the

1 st November, at the village of Laswari, and found them, as usual,

entrenched in a formidable position, with their guns drawn up in the

front. The general led his cavalry up in person to the attack ; a fearful

discharge of grape and double-headed shot mowed down column after

column, and rendered the fiery valour of the troops useless. To

prevent their utter extinction, the general was obliged to withdraw

them from the conflict, to await the arrival of the infantry, who had

marched 65 miles in the preceding forty-eight hours, and 25 miles

since midnight. After a brief rest and a hasty meal, they were launched

on the enemy's guns and battalions. The engagement was the severest

in which the Company's troops had ever been engaged, not excepting

that of Assaye. Sindhia's Sepoys fought as natives had never fought

before. They defended their position to the last extremity, contesting

every point inch by inch, and refusing to give way while a single gun

remained in their possession. But they were at length overpowered,

and lost their ammunition and camp equipage, together with 71 pieces

of cannon. It was even reported that one-half their number was left

on the field, killed or wounded. On the British side, the casualties

amounted to 824, one-fourth of which belonged to the 76th Regiment,

which bore the brunt of the action.' [For fuller details of the battle,

see the interesting account given in Appendix iv. pp. 302-309 of The

Rdjputd?ia Gazetteer, vol. iii. (Simla, 1880).]

Lathi. — Native State in the Gohelwar prdnt or division of Kathia-
war, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency, lying between 21 41' and 21 45'
30" n. lat., and between 71 23' to 71 32' e. long. Population (1881)


6804 ; area, 4S square miles ; number of villages, 8. The territory is
hilly in parts, and the soil black. The climate is hot and dry, and
fever is the most prevalent disease. The usual cereals, sugar-cane and
cotton, are grown. The nearest port is Bhaunagar. Lathi is one of
the Kathiawar 'fourth-class' States. Its chiefs are descended from
Sarangji, second brother of the founder of the Bhaunagar line. One
of the Thakurs of Lathi wedded his daughter to Damaji Gaekwar, and
gave the estate of Chabharia, now called Damnagar, in dowry, being
exempted from tribute in return. He now yearly offers a horse. In
1807, the Gaekwar became security for the Thakur's engagements to
keep order in his territory. The present (1882-83) chief is Bapubha, a
Hindu of the Gohel Rajput caste. He administers his State in person,
and enjoys an estimated gross yearly revenue of ^7311. He pays a
tribute of ^200, 14s. jointly to the Gaekwar of Baroda and the Nawab
of Junagarh, and maintains a military force of 79 men. The family
of the chief hold no sanad authorizing adoption. The succession
follows the rule of primogeniture. There were in 1882-83, 4 schools,
with 160 pupils. No transit dues are levied in the State.

Lathi.— Chief town of Lathi State, Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 21 43' 20" n., long. 71 28' 30" e. A railway station on the
Dhoraji branch line of the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway. Contains a
dharmsdla, dispensary, post and telegraph offices, and school. The
railway station is a mile out of the town, which is 55 miles west of

Lathia.— Village in Ghazipur District, North- Western Provinces ;
distant from Zamaniah 1 mile south-east. Contains a very ancient
monolith column, 26 feet in height above the ground, with a richly-
carved capital. Two female figures, which originally surmounted it,
now lie at the base.

Laun {Loan). — A fertile tract of country in Raipur District, Central
Provinces, east of Simga; occupying an area of about 800 square miles,
with 423 villages. The tract is watered by the Seonath and Mahanadi.
West of the latter river, the land is generally well cultivated, producing
large quantities of rice. To the east, the country consists of low hills,
covered with bamboos and thatching grass, whence most of the villages
of the District are supplied. Along the extreme eastern boundary,
there are fine sal forests.

Laur. — The old name for one of the three Divisions of Sylhet
District, Assam. The division of Gor or Sylhet proper was conquered
by the Muhammadans in the 14th century, but Laur retained its inde-
pendence until the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. The last
Hindu Raja of Laur, Gobind, was summoned to Delhi, and there
became a Musalman. His grandson, Abid Reza, abandoned Laur, and
built the town of Baniachang in the beginning of the 18th century. It


was not till the rule of All Vardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal, that the
estate became subject to a money payment of land revenue.

Lawa.— Town in Talagang tahsil, Jehlam (Jhelum) District, Punjab.
Situated near the western border of the District, a few miles north of
the Salt Range and Mount Sukesar, in lat. 32 41' 45" n., and long.
o g , 3Q v R L£ wa is a i arg e Awan village, with numerous hamlets,
but of no commercial importance, and its inhabitants are almost
exclusively agriculturists. The population is mainly concentrated in
the central village, though the dhoks or outlying hamlets, which are
included in the Census of the town, are very numerous, and scattered
over an area of 135 square miles which makes up the village domain.
Population (1868) 5259; (1881) 6236, namely, Muhammadans, 4174;
Hindus, 1205; Sikhs, 845; and 'others,' 12. Number of houses,
684. There are several head-men (chaudharis) attached to the village,
and party faction prevails. Police station, subordinate to that at
Pind Dadan Khan.

Lawa.— Native State in Rajputana. Area, 18 square miles. Popu-
lation (1881) 2682, namely, 1360 males and 1322 females. Density
of population, 149 persons per square mile; number of houses, 591;
houses per square mile, 32-8; persons per house, 4-5. Hindus
numbered 2470; Muhammadans, 136; and Jains, 76. Lawa consists
of a single town with broad lands attached; situated about 20 miles
north-east of Tonk. The Lawa chiefship was originally granted by the
Jaipur (Jeypore) family to a relative, and eventually fell to the Maratha
"leader Amir Khan. In recent times the Thakurs of Lawa have been
dependent on the Chief of Tonk, but the connection was severed by the
British Government in 1867.

Lawar. — Town in Meerut (Merath) tahsil, Meerut District, North-
western Provinces ; situated 1 2 miles north of Meerut city. Population
(1872) 2784; (1881) 5258, namely, Hindus, 2945; and Muham-
madans, 2313. Area of town site, 57 acres. There is a fine house
here called the Mahal Sarai, built about 1700 a.d. by a merchant
named Jawahir Singh, who also constructed the Siiraj-kund or great
tank near Meerut. The gardens attached to it are in ruins.

Layada.— Range of hills in Chutia Nagpur Division, Bengal, running
from east to west, and throwing out numerous rocky spurs into
Singbhum District.

Lebong. — Mountain range in Kumaun District, North - Western
Provinces, forming part of the Himalayan system. Lat. 30 20' x.,
long. 8o° 39' e. It runs between the Bians and Dharma valleys,
and is crossed by a difficult pass, covered with snow throughout the
year. The crest of the pass has an elevation of 18,942 feet above

Le-gnya. — Township in Mergui District, Tenasserim Division,


British Burma. It contains the two circles of Le-gnya and Butpyin,
with head-quarters at Le-gnya. Le-gnya is a mountainous and forest-
covered tract, but little cultivated. Population (1881) 3717, chiefly
Malays, Siamese, and Chinese; gross revenue, ^623. The number of
villages is 19. The land revenue in 1881-82 was £z\ Y \ capitation-
tax, ^231 ; fishing licences, £\$ ; local cess, ^36. Area under culti-
vation, 2924 acres, mostly of rice. Agricultural stock — horned cattle,
2620 ; pigs, 315 ; ploughs, 212 \ and boats, 104.

Leh. — Chief town of Ladakh, Kashmir State, Punjab; situated
about 3 miles from the northern bank of the Indus, at an elevation
of 11,538 feet above sea-level Lat. 34 10' n., long. 77 40' e. ;
estimated population, 4000. Leh stands in a small plain, between the
river Indus and a chain of mountains ; a wall with conical and square
towers surrounds the town, and runs up to the crest of the range.
Whitewashed three-storied houses, with wooden balconies. Conspicuous
but simple palace of the late Raja, deposed by Gulab Singh of Kash-
mir. The streets are disposed without any order, and the houses are
built contiguously. Fort about a mile south-west of town. Entrepot
for the trade between the Punjab and Chinese Tartary, being the
principal mart for the shawl-wool imported from the latter country.

Lehra. — Small village and outwork of Pandaul indigo factory,
Darbhangah District, Bengal ; situated on the main road from Mad-
hiiban to Bahera. Small bazar. Population (1881) i49 8 > namely,
males 730, and females 768. In the neighbourhood are three large
tanks— one called Ghordaur, 2 miles long, but only containing water at
one end. Sheo Singh, an early Raja of Tirhiit, is said to have lived
near this tank ; and a space of about 4 acres, covered with bricks and
jungle, is pointed out as the site of his palace.

Leiah.— South-eastern tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab,
lying between 30 35' 45" and 31° 25' N. lat., and between 70 49' and
71 52' 30" e. long. ; comprising the southern portion of the sparsely-
inhabited cis-Indus tract, which consists of two parts, the thai or
prairie-like uplands, and the kachi or alluvial lands in the bed of the
Indus lying to the east of the main stream. The former tract is very
sandy, and has but little cultivation except in the immediate vicinity
of the wells, of which, however, there are great numbers. The thai,
though very sandy, affords, in good years, excellent pasturage for cattle
and camels. The kachi tract lies on a much lower level than the thai,
and its cultivation is entirely dependent on the inundation of the
Indus, branches of which intersect it in every direction. The kachi is,
on the whole, a pleasant country ; about half its area is cultivated, the
remainder being overgrown with tall munj grass, and near the river
with low tamarisk jungle.


Area of Leiah tahsil, 2428 square miles, with 103 towns and villages,
21,611 occupied houses, and 22,693 families. Population (1881)
102,612, namely, males 55,670, and females 46,942. The Muham-
madans form the great bulk of the population, numbering 88,888 ;
Hindus number 13,257 ; Sikhs, 465 ; and Christians, 2. The average
annual area under cultivation for the five years 1877-81 was 92,471
acres, the chief crops being — Wheat, 57,679 acres; barley, 6333 acres;
jodr, 3749 acres; bdjra, 3678 acres; gram, 3942 acres; and cotton,
2616 acres. Total revenue, ;£i 1,1 13. The administrative staff consists
of 1 tahsilddr, and 1 tnunsif presiding over 1 criminal and 2 civil courts.
Number of police circles (thdnds), 4 ; strength of regular police, 48
men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 158.

Leiah. — Town and municipality in Dera Ismail Khan District,
Punjab, and head-quarters of Leiah tahsil. Situated on the old left
bank of the Indus, somewhat to the east of the present bed, in lat 30
57' 30" n., and long. 70 58' 20" e. The town was founded probably
during the 16th century by Kamal Khan, a Baluch of the Mahrani
family of Dera Ghazi Khan. His descendants ruled the surround-
ing country for about 200 years, having their capital at Leiah, till they
were supplanted by the Kalhora kings of Sind. On the establishment
of Muhammad Khan Sadozai in 1792, Leiah gave place to Mankera
as the capital of the new ruler. Under the Sikh Government, the town
once more became the centre of administration for the neighbouring
tract; and on the British occupation in 1849, lt rose f° r a tniie t0 tne
rank of head-quarters of a District. In 1861, however, the District
was broken up, and Leiah, together with Bhakkar, became a part of
Dera Ismail Khan. Population (1S68) 5446; (1881) 5S99, namely,
Muhammadans, 2913; and Hindus, 2986. Number of houses,
1490. The municipal area includes a number of outlying hamlets
with a total population of 18,449. Municipal income (1882-83),
^637. Leiah carries on a considerable trade in local produce ;
and a through traffic with Afghanistan. The town contains a dak
bungalow, charitable dispensary, and a good middle school, besides
the ordinary Government courts and buildings.

Le-mro (' Four Towns'). — River of British Burma. Its sources,
which have not yet been explored, are situated among the mountains
which occupy the northern part of Arakan. It flows in a direction
generally from north to south, and is joined by several large streams
before it reaches the plains in Akyab District. It enters Hunter's
Bay by numerous mouths, all inter-connected by tidal creeks.

Le-myet-hna. — Township in Bassein District, Irawadi Division,
British Burma. Bounded on the west by the Arakan mountains, in
places 1900 feet high, which send down their well-wooded spurs east-
wards, leaving a line of plain country between their lower slopes and the


Bassein river. This gradually passes into low swampy ground. The
township includes the 8 circles of Sin-pywun, Le-myet-hna (North),
Le-myet-hna (South), Khyauk-shay (or Chauk-se), Mye-nu, Thaung-dan,
Kwon-pyin, and Dan-yin-daing. Population (1881) 49,577; gross
revenue, ,£11,957.

Le-myet-hna.— Head-quarters of Le-myet-hna township, Bassein
District, Irawadi Division, British Burma ; situated on the Nga-wun
or Bassein river, in lat. 17 34' 50" n., and long. 95 13' 40" e. When
the river is high, the streets are two or three feet under water. Contains
a court-house, market, and police station. Population (1881) 5355.

Leilgjut. — Village on the Nowgong border of the Jaintia Hills,
Assam. The weekly market is frequented by Khasi and Synteng
(Jaintia) traders, who bring down the produce of their hills to ex-
change for rice, cotton goods, salt, etc.

Li. — River in Kangra District, Punjab. — See Spiti.

Lidar (Ladar). — River in Kashmir State, Punjab ; one of the head-
waters of the Jehlam (Jhelum). Rises in lat. 34 8' n., long. 75 48' e.,
on the southern slope of the mountains bounding the Kashmir valley
on the north-east, at an elevation of 14,000 feet above sea-level. Falls
rapidly till it reaches the valley, and joins the Jehlam, in lat. 33 45' N.,
and long. 75 15' e., about 5 miles below Islamabad, after a course of
45 miles,

Likhi. — Petty State under the Mahi Kantha Agency, Bombay
Presidency. The Thakur is a Mukwana Koli. Population (1881)
1307 ; revenue, £150. Area under tillage, 1900 acres. The Thakur
pays no tribute. His family hold no deed allowing adoption ; in
matters of succession they follow the rule of primogeniture.

Lilaj an.— River of Hazaribagh District, Bengal, which, with the
Mohani, drains the north-western portion of the District. The two
streams unite in Gaya District, 6 miles south of Gaya town, and con-
tinue their course together towards the Ganges, under the name of

Limra. — Petty State in the Gohelwar prdnt or division of K£thia-

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 55 of 64)