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war, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 4 villages, with 3 proprietors.
Area, 7 square miles. Population (1881) 1839. The town of Limra
is situated 18 miles west-north-west of Songad, 37 west of Bhaunagar,
and close to Jalia station on the Dhoraji branch of the Bhaunagar-Gondal
Railway. Estimated revenue, £2500 ; tribute of £93, 8s. is paid to
the Gaekwar of Baroda, and £27, 16s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.
The railway station is 1 J miles from Limra town.

Limri {Limbadi). — Native State in the Jhalawar /ra «/ or division of
Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency, lying between 22 30' 15" and
22 37' 15" n. lat., and between 71 44' 3°" and 7*° 5 2 ' I 5" E - lor) g-
Area, 344 square miles, with 1 town and 43 villages. Population (1872)

472 LIMRI-L10.

40,186; (1881) 43,063, namely, 22,274 males and 20,789 females,
dwelling in 9677 houses. Hindus number 33,556; Muhammadans,
4632; and 'others,' 4875. The country is flat, and the soil, in
some parts black and others red, is generally sandy. The Bhogawo
river flows through the State, but, like some of the smaller streams, it
becomes brackish in the hot weather. The territory of Limri or Limbdi
is peculiarly liable to inundations, and suffered severely from their
devastations in the year 1878-79, the road between Limri and Wadhwan
having been breached in many places. As regards the relations of
landlord and tenant, the State is said to be reverting, like other
States in Kathiawar, to the levying of rent in kind rather than in
money. The climate of Limri, though hot, is healthy. The prevailing
diseases are fever and bowel complaints. Cotton and grain are culti-
vated, and coarse cloth is manufactured. Before the opening of the
Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway, the produce was exported chiefly from the
port of Dholera.

Limri is one of the Kathiawar ' second-class ' States, the chief of
which executed the usual engagements in 1807. The succession
follows the rule of primogeniture ; there is no sanad authorizing
adoption. The present (1884) chief is Thakur Sahib Jaswant Singhji
Fatesinghji, a Hindu of the Jhala Rajput caste. He has power
to try his own subjects only for capital offences, without the
express permission of the Political Agent ; and he is entitled to a
salute of 9 guns. He received his education at the Rajkumar College
at Rajkot; and on 1st February 1876, on attaining his majority, he
was permitted to assume full jurisdiction as a ' second-class ' chief.
Estimated gross revenue ^"22,137 ; tribute of ^4553, 6s. is paid jointly
to the British Government and to the Nawab of Junagarh. The chief
maintains a military force of 160 men. Works for irrigation are in
course of construction. There were in 1882-83, 17 schools, with a
total roll of 1 31 7 pupils. No transit dues are levied in the State.

Limri. — Chief town of Limri State, Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 22 34' n., long. 71 53' e. Population (18S1) 12,873, namely,
6569 males and 6304 females. Hindus number 8221 ; Muhammadans,
T 37 2 ; Jains, 3271 ; Parsis, 6; and Christians, 3. On the north bank of
the Bhogavo river, Limri is 14 miles south-east of Wadhwan and
90 north-west of Bhaunagar. Telegraph and post offices ; dispensary.
Formerly fortified, and once a populous place.

Lingana.— Hill fort in Kolaba District, Bombay Presidency; 14
miles north-east of Mahad. An ascent of 4 miles leads to the summit,
which is nearly 3000 feet high. Formerly a penal settlement for
prisoners under the Marathas. No fortifications now remain.

Lio— Village in Bashahr State, Punjab. Lat. 31 53' N., long. 78°
37' e.; situated on a small rocky height in Kunawar, on the right bank


of the Spiti river, at its confluence with the Lipak. Ruined fort crowns
an isolated rock east of the village. Population consists of Buddhist
Thibetans. Elevation above sea, 9362 feet.

Litar Gotra.— Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency,
situated on the banks of the Mahi river ; one of the Koli group of Pandu
Mehwas States. Area, if square mile. Estimated revenue, ^63 ;
tribute of ^20 is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda. The State is ruled
by 3 Kotwals. Although most of the land is covered with brushwood,
the village of Gotra has some importance from lying on the main road
between Gujarat and Malwa and commanding one of the best of the
Mahi fords.

Little Baghmati. — River of Bengal. — See Baghmati, Little.

Little Gandak. — River of the North- Western Provinces. — See
Gandak, Little.

Little Ranjit. — River of Bengal. — Sec Ranjit, Little.

Loan. — Tract of country, Raipur District, Central Provinces. — See

Lodhika. —Petty State in Hallar prdnt or division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of 1 2 villages, with 2 proprietors. Area,
15 square miles. Population (1881) of the State, 4655, and of Lodhika
village, 1S10. Estimated revenue in 1882,^2500; tribute of ^128, 14s.
is paid to the British Government, and ^40, 10s. to the Nawab of Juna-
garh. Fifteen miles south-west of Rajkot and 15 miles north-west of

Lodhikhera. — Town and municipality in Sausar tahsil, Chhindwara
District, Central Provinces ; situated in lat. 21 35' n., and long. 98 54'
e., on the Nagpur road, 38 miles from Chhindwara town. Population
(1872) 52T9; (1881) 4602, namely, Hindus, 3225; Kabirpanthis, 913;
Muhammadans, 376; Jains, 39; and aboriginal tribes, 49. Muni-
cipal income (1882-83), ;£555> of wmch ^"419 was realized from
octroi duty; incidence of taxation, is. 9|d. per head. Chief manu-
factures, excellent brass and copper utensils, and coarse cotton cloth.
The town has a charitable dispensary, school, and sard/.

Lodhran.— Southern tahsil of Multan (Mooltan) District, Punjab,
situated between 29 21' 45" and 29 48' n. lat., and between 71 4
and 71 51' e. long.; consisting chiefly of an arid upland tract, lying
along the bank of the river Sutlej (Satlaj). Area, 781 square miles,
with 179 towns and villages, 13,913 occupied houses, and 20,987
families. Population (1881) 98,203, namely, males 53,3 8 7> an d
females 44,816. The Muhammadans, who form the great majority of
the population, number 83,259; Hindus, 14,405; Sikhs, 471; and
Christians, 68. Of the 179 towns and villages comprising the tahsil,
1 1 5 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. The average annual
area under crops for the five years 1877-81 was 86,801 acres, the chief


crops being— wheat, 5r,ooo acres; jodr, 7805 acres; indigo, 5480
acres; cotton, 5062 acres; barley, 1806 acres; bdjra, 1137 acres; and
rice, 1 194 acres. Total revenue, ,£16,634. The tahsil is in charge of
a tahsilddr, who presides over 1 civil and 1 criminal court. Number of
police circles (thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular police force, 84 men ;
village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 220.

Loghassi.— State in Bundelkhand, North-Western Provinces. — See

Lohagara. — Town in Jessor District, Bengal. Lat 23 11' 45" N.j
long. 89 41' 40" e. Seat of an extensive manufacture of sugar, which
is exported chiefly to Calcutta and Bakarganj ; the gur or molasses
being imported from Khajura and other places in exchange for rice.
The sugar made is for the most part J>dhd (refined).

Lohaghat (or Rikheswar). — Cantonment in Kumaun District, North-
Western Provinces. Lat. 29° 24' 15" n., long. 8o° f 10" e.; situated on
the left bank of the little river Loha, at an elevation of 5562 feet above
sea-level, and enclosed on almost every side by precipitous mountains.
Bdzdr, stores, bungalows, and other buildings for the accommodation
of the troops. The cantonment was formerly at Champawat, 3 miles
south, but was removed to the present site for sanitary reasons. It
is, however, now (1883) unoccupied by troops. A tea plantation has
been established here. Population (1881) 154. Distant from Almora,
54 miles south-east.

Lohara. — Zaminddri estate in Dhamtari tahsil, in the south-east
of Raipur District, Central Provinces, comprising 120 villages,
Area, 364 square miles, chiefly hill and jungle, gradually sloping
towards the north. The mountain known as Dalli Pahar attains a
height of nearly 2000 feet. The country is well watered, being bounded
on the east and west by the rivers Tendula and Karkara, while nume-
rous streamlets descend from the hills. Little remains of the once
abundant teak; but the jungles still contain a good deal of kusam,
mahud, bijesdl, and similar trees, and yield abundance of lac, wax,
and honey. The hemp and cotton are bought up by Banjaras for
exportation. Iron also is smelted. Population (1881) 30,134, namely,
males 15,313, and females 14,821. Average density of population,
82*8 persons per square mile. Lohara village contains a grant-in-aid
school, zaminddri police station, and a good garden. The zaminddr
is a Gond ; and the estate was originally granted in 1538, in return for
military service, by one of the Ratanpur Rajas.

Lohara Sahaspur. — Zaminddri estate in Drug tahsil, Raipu
District, Central Provinces. Area, 197 square miles, with 85 villages,
and 5485 houses. Population (1881) 19,748, namely, males 9787
and females 9961. Average density of population, 100*2 persons
per square mile. The greater part lies below the Saletekri Hills,



and is exceedingly fertile and well cultivated ; the rest consists of hill
and jungle. The zaminddr is related to the Kawarda and Pandaria

Lohardaga (Lohardvggd). — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship
of Bengal, lying between 22 20' and 24 39' n. lat., and between
S3 22' and 85 55' 30" e. long. Area, 12,045 square miles. Popula-
tion (1881) 1,609,244 persons. Lohardaga District forms the central
and north-western portion of the Chutia Nagpur Division. It is
bounded on the north by Hazaribagh, Gayd, and Shahabad Districts,
from which it is separated by the Son (Soane) river ; on the north-west
and west by Mirzapur District in the North-Western Provinces and by
the Native States of Sargiija, Jashpur, and Gangpur : and on the south-
east and east by the Districts of Singbhiim and Manbhiim. A portion
of the eastern boundary coincides with the course of the Subarnarekha
river. The administrative head-quarters are at Ra:\xhi.

Physical Aspects. — Lohardaga comprises three tracts of country,
differing essentially in their physical conformation — Chutia Nagpur
proper, the Five Parganas, and the Sub-division of Palamau.

Chutia Nagpur proper, as distinguished from the administrative Divi-
sion of that name, is an elevated table-land, forming the central and
southern portion of Lohardaga District. To the west, this plateau rises
and stretches away towards Central India, to meet the Satpura mountains.
Its average elevation is about 2000 feet. On the north, it is connected
with the central plateau of Hazaribagh by a narrow neck of high land
passing through Ton pargand. The surface of the Chutia Nagpur
plateau is undulating, and the slopes of the depressions lying between
the ridges are cut into terraces covered with rice.

The tract commonly called the Five Parganas, consisting of parganas
Silli, Rahi, Bundu, Barauda, and Tanas, lies east of the central plateau,
below the ghats, and in most respects resembles the adjoining District
of Manbhiim. The southern portion of pargand Bassia, with the whole
of pargand Biru on the south, and pargand Tori in the north of Chutia
Nagpur proper, also lie below the central plateau, at an average eleva-
tion of 1200 feet.

Palamau Sub-division, which forms the north-western portion of
the District, consists on the east and south of spurs thrown off from
the plateaux of Hazaribagh and Chutia Nagpur, while the remainder
of the tract is a tangled mass of isolated peaks and long irregular
stretches of broken hills. The general run of these hill ranges
is from east to west, but the relations of the minor ridges are very
involved. The average elevation of the country is about 1200 feet
above sea-level, but some of the higher peaks rise to more than 3000
feet. The two highest peaks in the District are — Saru, 3615 feet, west
of Ranch! \ and Marang Baru, 3445 feet, north of Ranchi. The


Palamau Sub-division is wider and more rocky than Chutia Nagpur
proper, and contains no level areas of any extent, except the valleys of
the North Koel and Amanat rivers, to which rice cultivation is confined.
The principal rivers of Lodardaga are the Subarnarekha, and the
North and South Koel. The main confluents of the Subarnarekha
are the Kanchi and Karkari, both rising on the central plateau. The
chief feeders of the North Koel are the Amanat, which rises in Hazari-
bagh, and the Auranga, a picturesque stream of Chutia Nagpur. The
Karu, the Deo, and many minor streams fall into the South Koel. The
highest hills are— in Chutia Nagpur, Sam (3615 feet) and Baragai or
Marang Buru (3445 feet) ; and in Palamau, Bulbul on the south-eastern
boundary (3329 feet), Buri on the south-western boundary (3078 feet),
and Kotam (2791 feet). Throughout the District, the hills are, as a
rule, covered with tree jungle or a scrubby undergrowth, consisting of
wild plum or her tree (Zizyphus Jujuba) and stunted palds (Butea

Jungle Products.— The entire surface of Lohardaga was probably at
one time overgrown with dense forest, but the forest area has been
dwindling, owing to the spread of cultivation and the practice of
girdling the sal tree for resin. Three different kinds of timber are
exported from the Palamau forests. First, large sal timber is exported
from the forests around Barasaud, partly by land, and partly by water
down the Koel ; secondly, small timber averaging 2 feet in girth and
from 12 to 15 feet in length is carted from the north-east of the
District into Gaya j and thirdly, very large quantities of bamboos are
cut in the forests around Barasaud, and transported down the Koel
to Shahabad, Patna, and Gaya Districts. The chief jungle products
are as follow:— (1) The corollas of the mahua tree (Bassia latifolia),
which are eaten by the poorer classes, and from which an intoxicating
spirit is distilled ; (2) the seeds of the sal tree, which are roasted, and
either mixed with mahud flowers or eaten alone; (3) the berry of
the jdmun tree (Eugenia Jambolana), eaten as food; (4) the bean
of the karanja tree (Pongamia glabra) ; (5) lac ; (6) tasar silk ;
(7) catechu; (8) resin; (9) honey; and (10) arrowroot. Throughout
the Palamau Sub-division, the quantity of cleared and cultivated land
bears a very small proportion to the uncleared waste ; and the south
and south-western portions form one vast pasture ground. A consider-
able number of cattle are bred on the spot ; and during the dry months
of the year, large herds are driven in to graze from the neighbouring
Districts of Gaya and Shahabad.

Minerals. — Iron in a nodular form, and three varieties of iron-ore,
are found in the District ; lime and soapstone are obtained in small
quantities ; and copper has been found in several places in Palamau,
though not in sufficient quantity to allow of profitable working. Gold


is washed by the poorest classes from the sands of the rivers in the
south of the District, especially in the valley of Sonapet, bordering on
Singbhum. There is one important coal-bearing tract situated to the
north of Daltonganj, known as the Daltonganj Coal-field. It covers
an area of nearly 200 square miles, lying partly in the valley of the
Koel river and partly in that of the Amanat, and extending altogether
a distance of 50 miles from east to west. A portion of the south
Karanpura coal-field extends into pargand Tori.

The District contains two picturesque waterfalls, known as Hundrug-
hagh and Dasamghagh. The former is situated in pargand Jashpur,
about 25 miles east-north-east of Ranchf, and is caused by the Subar-
narekha river rushing down a rocky chasm, as it passes from the second
to the lowest plateau in its course towards the Delta of Bengal. The
measured height of the fall is 320 feet, but this does not represent a
sheer drop, except in the rains. Dasamghagh waterfall, about 22 miles
to the south-east of Ranchf, is formed by the Kanchi river falling over
a ledge of rock in a perpendicular descent of 1 14 feet.

Ferce Naturce. — The large sorts of game met with in Lohardaga"
District are the tiger, leopard, bear, wild boar, wolf, hysena, antelope,
spotted deer, ravine deer, sdmbhar, and nilgai. A few bison are to be
found in the south of Palamau, and packs of wild dogs are occasionally
seen in the northern and western parts of that Sub-division. The small
game comprise hares, quail, snipe, grey partridge, duck, teal, ortolan,
plover, and pigeon. In Palamau are found, in addition to these, pea-
fowl, jungle-fowl, black partridge, floriken, curlew, and heron. The
superior sorts of fish are the ma/idsir, several kinds of trout, the rit/ii,
Mt/d, ptttid, garai, c/ial/iawd, etc.

History. — The only materials, even for conjecture, regarding the
early history of the District are the legends of aboriginal races. From
these, it would appear that while the country was still covered with
unbroken forest, and retained its ancient name of Jharkhand, or ' the
forest tract,' the Mundas, and subsequently the Unions, effected a
settlement on the central table-land. Although the two races did not
intermarry, and in many respects remained distinct, they adopted a
uniform system of government by par/ids, or village communes. The
hilly country now comprised in the Chutia Nagpur Division remained
independent, both in name and in fact, during the Muhammadan
period, until the Mughal governors of Bengal and Behar failed in their
attempts to push their conquests farther to the east, and therefore
turned their arms towards the west and south.

The earliest Musalman inroads (circa 16 16 a.d.) were directed
against Kokrah or Chutia Nagpur proper, which was celebrated at
the Delhi court for the diamonds found in its rivers. The Musalmans
afterwards (1640-60) made several invasions into Palamau ; and at the



end of 1660 occurred the attack on Palamau fort, and its capture by
Daud Khan, which forms the subject of a large picture (30 feet by 12)
preserved by Darid's descendants. This picture, which is of consider-
able interest, has been recently photographed, and is described in
detail by Colonel Dalton in the Journal of 'the Asiatic Society for 1874.
Colonel Dalton's description is quoted in the Statistical Account of
Bengal, vol. xvi. pp. 464-468.

From the date of the capture of Palamau fort until 1722, the annals
of Palamau are blank. In the latter year, the ruling Raja, Ranjit Rai,
was murdered, and Jaikissen Rai, descended from the younger son of a
former Raja, was placed upon the State cushion (gadi). A few years
afterwards, Jaikissen was shot in a skirmish, and his family fled to Megra
in Behar, and took refuge with one Udwant Ram, a kdnungo, who in
1770 took Gopal Rai, grandson of the murdered Raja, to Patna, and
presented him to Captain Carnac, the Government Agent, as the
rightful heir to the Palamau Raj. Captain Carnac promised the assist-
ance of the British Government, and, after defeating the troops of the
ruling Raja, gave a sanad for five years to Gopal Rai and two of his
cousins, and then left the country.

Palamau thus became part of the British District of Ramgarh. A
year or two later, Gopal Rai was sentenced to imprisonment at
Patna for being concerned in the murder of the kdnungo, Udwant
Ram, who had helped him to power. He died at Patna in 1784,
and in the same year died Bassant Rai, who had succeeded to the
gadi on his imprisonment. Churaman Rai succeeded; but by 1813 he
kid become insolvent, and Palamau was sold for arrears of revenue
and bought in by Government for the amount due. In 1816 the
estate was granted to Fateh Narayan Singh, Raja of Deo in Gaya, for
services rendered to the Government. But his management was so
oppressive as to rouse the people into open rebellion ; and in 1818,
Government revoked the deed of grant, allowing the Raja a remission
of ^300 a year from the revenue of his Behar estates by way of com-

Under Government rule, Palamau remained quiet, and continued
so during the outbreak of the Kols in Chutia Nagpur proper in
1 83 1, which was not quelled till March 1832. This outbreak arose
from the oppression of the aboriginal population by the relations and
followers of the Maharaja of Chutia Nagpur proper, who exercised no
authority whatever in Palamau. An account of the causes which led
to this insurrection, and of the measures taken to put it down, will be
found in the Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvi. pp. 451-454. Not
before several villages had been plundered and burned, and many lives
sacrificed to the enraged Kols, did the leaders surrender. The changes
in administration which followed this insurrection will be found noticed


in the article on Hazaribagh District. A rising of the Chero and
Kharwar tribes in 1832 was soon put down ; and there were no further
troubles until the Mutiny of 1857, when the Kharwars, headed by the
Bhogtas, rose against their Rajput landlords ; and the mutineers of the
Ramgarh Battalion, taking refuge in Palamau, made common cause
with Nilambar and Pitambar Singh, two malcontent landholders. The
26th Madras Native Infantry, and a portion of the Ramgarh Battalion
which had remained loyal, defeated the insurgents at the Satbarwa
forts. Nilambar and Pitambar Singh were taken prisoners and hanged.

Population. — The first attempt at an enumeration of the people of
Lohardaga was made at the time of the Topographical Survey of
Chutia Nagpur proper in 1868. One hundred and twenty-eight houses,
in different villages, and belonging to men of different castes, were
taken at random, and the average number of persons per house thus
ascertained was multiplied by the total number of houses in the
District. The result arrived at was a population of 1,412,956, the
area of the District at that time being 11,404 square miles. According
to an experimental Census in 1869, the population was returned at
1,396,474 persons.

A regular Census was taken for the first time in 1871-72. Owing
to the sparseness and ignorance of the population, no attempt at
a simultaneous enumeration was made ; the work was done gradually
by a special salaried agency. This Census disclosed a total popu-
lation, on the area of the present District of 12,045 square miles, of
1,237,123 persons, inhabiting 6486 villages and 240,843 houses. In
1 88 1, a simultaneous Census taken over the whole District returned
the population at 1,609,244, showing an apparent increase over the
enumeration of 1872 of 372,121, or 30*08 per cent., in nine
years. This increase, however, is only apparent, and is due to
the defective enumeration of 1872, which was only approximate, and
partook rather of the character of a survey of the population than
of a systematic Census. Lohardaga is one of the great recruiting
Districts for coolie emigrants to other parts of India and to the West
Indies and Mauritius, and immigration into it from outside is almost
nil. It is considered, therefore, that about 15 per cent, of the apparent
increase is due to imperfect enumeration in 1872.

The results of the more careful and simultaneous Census of 1881
may be summarized as follows : — Area of District, 12,045 square miles,
with 4 towns, 12,126 villages, and 289,886 occupied houses. Total popu-
lation, 1,609,244, namely, males 796,657, and females 812,587 ; pro-
portion of males, 49-5 per cent. Average density of population, 133*6
persons per square mile; number of towns or villages, i'oi per square
mile ; persons per town or village, 133; houses per square mile, 24-49 ;
inmates per house, 5-55. Classified according to age, there are,


under 15 years of age — males 375> 26 3> females 356,310; total chil-
dren, 731,573, or 45-5 per cent, of the population : 15 years of age
and upwards— males 421,394, females 456,277; total adults, 877,671,
or 54-5 per cent. The large proportion of children is said to be
due to the fact that the aboriginal races are unusually prolific. The
returns of the Chutia Nagpur Division, and of the District of the
Santal Parganas, display a proportion of children to the total popula-
tion bearing a direct ratio to the relative strength of the aboriginal
element. Classified according to religion, the Census Report returned
the population as follows : — Hindus, 868,842 ; Muhammadans, 77,403 ;
Christians, 36,281 ; Jains, 56; Buddhist, 1 ; tribes professing aboriginal

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 56 of 64)