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religions, 626,661.

The aboriginal Kols form the majority of the population, those
still professing their primitive faiths, as apart from those who have
accepted some form of Hinduism, or have been converted to
Christianity, being returned at 591,858. The word Kol is popu-
larly employed in a vague way as including not only the Mundas
of Chutia Nagpur proper and the Larkas or Hos of Singbhiim, but
all Kolarian aborigines wherever found. For a detailed account of
these tribes, their origin, customs, etc., the reader is referred to Colonel
Dalton's valuable Ethnology of Bengal, quoted at considerable length
in the Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvi. pp. 266-279, and vol.
xvii. pp. 36-59. Colonel Dalton thinks there can be no doubt of the
remote north-eastern origin of the Kolarian tribes, but little is to be
found in their folk-lore to throw light on the early history of the race.
The families that rank highest among them have lost their native
traditions in the hazy fables invented for them by the Hindus. The
lower classes, as a rule, declare themselves to be autochthones ; and
even the chiefs found their claims to be of noble birth on miracles
that took place in the country which they call their fatherland.
Besides the Kols, the Census Report includes 34,803 other aboriginal
tribes still outside the pale of Hinduism. The Uraons or Oraons are,
excluding the semi-Hinduized aborigines, the strongest Dravidian tribe
in Bengal. They are the people known in the plains as Dhangars
(hillmen), and are found in great numbers throughout the Chutia
Nagpur Division. Although they are not returned separately in the
Census Report, they are probably included in the ' other aborigines '
mentioned above. According to Colonel Dalton, the tribe has
gradually migrated from the western coast of India — probably from
Gujarat or the Konkan. A detailed account of the Uraons will be
found in the Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvi. pp. 278-294.
The most numerous of the semi-Hinduized aboriginal tribes in Lohar-
daga are — the Bhuiyas, of whom there are 58,419; the Kharwars,
77,341; the Dosadhs, 37,034; and Gonds, 1389, besides 58,452


'others.' The foregoing figures give a total aboriginal population (by
race as apart from religion) of 859.296, or 53*4 per cent, of the total
District population.

Of high -caste Hindus, the Brahmans number 42,439; Rajputs,
47,471 ; Babhans, a class of agricultural Brahmans, who are supposed
to have lapsed from ceremonial purity, 9406 j Kayasths, 6690 ; and
Baniyas, 17,556. Of lower classes or Siidra castes, the most numerous
are— the Goalas or Ahirs, a pastoral caste, 78,677; the Kurmis, the
great agricultural caste of the Chutia Nagpur Division, 43,766 ; Kahars
(domestic servants and water-carriers), 34,700; Kamars (blacksmiths),
34,341 ; Telis (oilmen), 32,835 ; Chamars (skinners and workers in
leather), 27,276; Koeri's (cultivators), 23,540; Kumbhars (potters),
19,568; Napits (barbers), 17,439; Barhdis (carpenters), 11,447;
Dhobis (washermen), it, 021 ; and Mallahs (boatmen), 10,924.

The Native Christian population is much larger in Lohardaga than
in any other Bengal District. The total number of Christians in 1881
was — males 18,205, anc * females 18,076; total, 36,281, or 2*2 per
cent, of the total population. This includes Europeans, Eurasians,
etc., to the number of 289, leaving a balance of 35,992 for the native
Christians. Of these, about three-fourths are baptized converts, and
the remainder, though not baptized, are 'inquirers,' and call themselves
Christians. Nearly all the Christians are Mundas or Uraons, and belong
to the agricultural classes. Most of them are poor, but they possess con-
siderable influence notwithstanding, and are said to be rising in public
esteem. The District has been, since the founding of the original
Chutia Nagpur Mission in 1844 by the Bavarian Gossner, the most
successful field of missionary labour in Bengal, and the great majority
of the Christian population (23,245) belong to the Lutheran Church.
There are two missions at work in the District, one sent out from
Germany and the other from England. These two bodies, styled the
German Lutheran Evangelical Mission, and the Church of England
Mission, now work side by side with much success. A detailed account
of the separate development of the two missions, together with an
inquiry into the various causes affecting the progress of Christianity in
Chutia Nagpur generally, will be found in the Statistical Account of
Bengal, vol. xvi. pp. 423-444.

Town and Rural Population. — The population of Lohardaga is
almost wholly rural. The civil station of Ranch 1, itself little more
than a collection of villages, has (1881), including the cantonment of
Doranda, lying to the south of the town, and separated from it by a
small stream, a population of 18,443 inhabitants. The other towns in
the District deserving notice are — Daltonganj, administrative head-
quarters of the Palamau Sub-division (population 7440) ; Garwa, on
the north Koel river, the chief trading centre of Palamau Sub-division



(population 6043) ; Lohardaga, 45 miles west of Ranchi town, till
1840 the administrative head - quarters of the District (population
3461); and Chutia village, 2 miles east of Ranchi (whence the
name Chutia Nagpur). Ranchi is a municipality; while Doranda,
Garwa, and Lohardaga have been formed into chaukiddri or police

At Jagannathpur village, 3 miles south-west of Ranchi, stands
on a high rock the largest temple in the District, built on a plan
resembling that of the great temple at Purf. Doisa is the site of a
ruined palace once inhabited by the Rajas of Chutia Nagpur; and
at the small village of Tilmi are the remains of a ruined fortress,
formerly the seat of the Thakurs, a subordinate branch of the
Chutia Nagpur family. Chokahatu, a village in the south-east of the
District, is interesting as containing a large burial-ground still used by
the Mundas. Annual fairs are held at Chutia and Daltonganj.

The Census Report of 1881 thus classifies the villages and towns.
Of the 12,130 villages in the District, no less than 9895 have less than
two hundred inhabitants; 1932 from two to five hundred; 261 from
five hundred to a thousand ; 3 1 from one to two thousand ; and 1 1
upwards of two thousand inhabitants.

With regard to occupation, the male population are divided into
the following six classes : — (1) Professional class, including all Govern-
ment servants, civil and military, and the learned professions,
4970; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers, etc.,
24,293 ; (3) commercial class, including bankers, traders, carriers, etc.,
11,098; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners,
295,046 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial class, including artisans,
52,816; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising general
labourers, male children, and persons of unspecified or no occupation,

Agriculture. — The system of agriculture followed in Lohardaga
District is determined by the physical conformation of the country,
particularly in the case of rice, which forms the principal product of
Chutia Nagpur proper, while in Palamau its cultivation is confined to
the more fertile parts of the Koel and Amanat valleys.

The rice crops of the District are divided into three classes — viz.,
tewdn, or lowland rice, comprising both an early and an autumn crop ;
gord, or upland rice ; and don, which includes two autumn crops, and
the great winter rice crop of the year. A more general and more
correct classification of the crops will be found in the article on
Hazaribagh District. The method of rice cultivation described
in that article is also followed in Lohardaga; but rice of the
highest quality is not grown to any extent in this District, although
the soil is so well suited for the finest varieties that zaw'mddrs, who


cultivate both here and in Behar, import rice from Chutia Nagpur for
their own consumption in preference to that of Behar.

Other crops of Lohardaga are wheat, barley, Indian corn, millets,
peas, gram, mustard, and other oil-seeds, pan, cotton, and tobacco.
Cotton, sown in July and cut in November, and til (Sesamum orientale)
form the staple export crops of the Palamau Sub-division • the area
under the former crop in 1870 was estimated at 9600 acres — total yield,
949 tons of raw cotton. Tobacco, which is confined to Chutia Nagpur
proper, covers only about 200 acres, the maximum out-turn, under
favourable circumstances, being 28 J cwts. an acre. Opium cultivation
was introduced into Chutia Nagpur proper in 1869. In that year,
the area cultivated was 387 acres, and the out-turn was 60 cwts.
By 1873-74, the area under opium had risen to 1848 acres, and the
out-turn to 245 cwts. The opium agency, however, was abolished in
1878. Tea cultivation has received a considerable impetus of late
years. In 1870 there were but two small tea plantations in the Dis-
trict. By 1883 the number of gardens had increased to 30, with a
total area of 1407 acres under mature and 1345 acres under immature
plant; the total out-turn of leaf in the year being 249,364 lbs., or
an average of 156 lbs. per acre of mature plants.

Condition of the Peasantry. — In Chutia Nagpur proper, a farm of
upwards of 33 acres, containing 22 acres of low land and n acres of
upland, is considered a very large holding for a single husbandman ;
and anything below 3J acres, consisting of if acres low land and if
acres upland, a very small one. A farm of 13 acres, of which 8
acres are low land and 5 acres upland, is a fair-sized comfortable hold-
ing for the support of a cultivator and his family. But in Palamau
the proportion of upland cultivated is far larger than in Chutia Nag-
pur proper ; and there, a farm consisting of 13 acres of low land and
26 acres of high land is considered a large one ; and a holding of
one-third of an acre of low land and 3J acres of upland a very small
one. A fair-sized comfortable holding in Palamau is about 4 acres of
low land, with from 8 to 10 acres of upland. A cultivator with a
middling-sized household can support himself and his family, from
the proceeds of a holding of 13 acres, on the same scale as a man
drawing Rs. 8 or 16s. a month in money wages. In Chutia Nagpur
proper, an ordinary pair of bullocks can plough from 5 to 7 acres of
land ; and in Palamau 5 acres. In Palamau a cultivator who has no
plough-bullocks of his own, hires them on what is called the bhua
system, that is, for every bullock hired, the cultivator has to deliver 2
maunds, or 1^ cwts., at each of the three harvests. If he fails to pay,
the value of the grain is converted into money, and the transaction
treated as a loan. Throughout Palamau, the cultivators, especially
those belonging to aboriginal races, are hopelessly in debt to the rural


money-lenders (mahdjan or sdku). In Chutia Nagpur proper, it may
be inferred from the general consumption of fermented liquors, and
the large sums spent in litigation by the agricultural classes, that their
material condition is at present fairly prosperous. Wages and prices have
risen considerably of late years throughout the District. Coolies and day-
labourers who in 1856 received ij&, now earn from ifd. to 2jd. ; and
smiths, bricklayers, and carpenters, whose wage in 1856 was 3d. to 4|d.,
obtain 4?>d. to 6d., or even 7 |d. In 1870, the price of common rice
was 4s. 2d. per cwt, as against 2s. 8d. in 1859 ; and the price of the
best cleaned rice was in 1870, 5s. 9d. per cwt., as against 3s. 9d. in
1859. In 1883, the average price of common rice was 5s. 6d. per
cwt., and of wheat, 7s. 4d. per cwt.

Natural Calamities. — Mildew and a variety of blights caused by
insects and worms occasionally attack the crops, and failure in the
local rainfall sometimes causes drought; which, however, seldom affects
any considerable area. Such partial failures are more common in
Palamau than in Chutia Nagpur proper. Floods are rendered almost
impossible, except for a very short time, and within the narrowest
limits, by the physical conformation of the country, and the extremely
rapid discharge of surface drainage. The great famine of 1866 did not
seriously affect the District. The highest prices reached were — for
best rice, ns. 6d. per cwt., and for coarse rice, 10s. 6d. per cwt. If
in Chutia Nagpur proper the autumn crop were to fail, and the price
of rice were to rise to 6s. iod. a cwt. immediately after the winter crop
was off the ground, there would be reason to fear that the price would
rise to 13s. 8d. a cwt. in March or April, rendering relief operations

Co?n??ierce and Trade, etc.- — The principal seats of trade in Lohardaga
are Ranchi, Lohardaga town, Palkot, Govindpur, Biindu, Garwa, Nagar,
Untari, Satbarwa, and Maharajganj. Markets are held once or twice a
week according to the importance of the neighbourhood supplied. The
principal trading place in the District is Garwa in Palamau, which forms
the distributing centre for the surplus produce of great part of Sargiija,
of the Tributary States farther west, and of Palamau Sub-division itself.
The Garwa market is held during the dry season in the sandy bed of
the North Koel river, and is perhaps the largest in the Chutia Nagpur
Division. Stick-lac, resin, catechu, cocoons of tasar silk, hides, oil-
seeds, gki, cotton, and iron are there collected for exportation ; rice and
other food-grains, brass vessels, piece-goods, blankets, broad cloth, silk,
salt, tobacco, spices, drugs, and beads are brought to market for local
consumption. A large amount of business is done by travelling mer-
chants, who buy up the produce from the cultivators. Few manufactures
of importance are carried on in the District. Shell-lac is manufactured
in considerable quantities, a factory at Ranchi turning out on an average


292 tons of the article annually. There are also two factories at Biindu.
The manufacture of lac-dye which was formerly carried on to a con-
siderable extent, has now ceased, the natural product being completely
supplanted by aniline dyes. Inferior articles of brass and iron work,
coarse cloth, rough blankets, mats, baskets, rope, and rude pottery
utensils are also made. The total length of roads in the District is
1024 miles, of which 56 miles are maintained from Provincial funds, at
a cost of £394, and 968 miles are maintained from the District road
cess funds at a cost of £2038.

Administration. — No returns are available of the revenue and
expenditure previous to 1858-59. In that year, the revenue of the
District, which then contained the same area as at present, with the
exception of two pargands recently transferred from Gaya, amounted
to £13,681, and the civil expenditure to £15,440. This excess of
expenditure over income was, however, quite abnormal, being caused
by payments (amounting to £4059) made on account of the Mutiny.
In 1870-71, the net revenue amounted to £29,900, and the total
expenditure to £22,563. In 1883-84, the total of six principal
items of District revenue, imperial, local, and municipal, was returned
at .£60,035, made up as follows: — Land revenue, £11,512; excise,
,£29,694; stamps, £9522; registration, £772; road cess, £7375 ;
municipal taxes, £1160. Total civil expenditure, including police,
£25,674. The expansion of revenue is due for the most part to the
re-settlement of Palamau at enhanced rates, and to an increase under
excise and stamps. The land-tax forms a smaller proportion of the
revenue of the District than in Bengal generally. In 1858-59 it amounted
to £4474, or only one-third of the entire revenue of the District ; by
1870-71 it had risen to £7067, but formed a still smaller proportion of
the entire revenue, while in 1883-84 it was £11,512, or only one-fifth.

There were in 1860-61, 5 magisterial and 5 civil and revenue
courts in Lohardaga ; in 1883 the number had increased to
10 magisterial and 7 civil and revenue courts. The number of
covenanted European officers at work in the District in 1860-61
was three, and in 1883, two. For police purposes, the District is
divided into 21 thdnds (police circles), with 25 outposts. The District
regular police force, including municipal and town police, numbered
501 men of all ranks, in 1883, maintained at a total cost of £9087.
There is also a rural police or village watch of 3297 men, maintained
by the landlords and villagers at an estimated cost, including rent-
free service lands, of £8600. The total machinery, therefore, for the
protection of person and property consisted in 1883 of 3798 officers
and men, giving 1 man to every 3-2 square miles of the area or to
every 424 persons of the population. The estimated total cost was
£17,687, equal to a charge of £1, 9s. 4jd. per square mile, and about

4 86


<2^d. per head of population. The number of convicted prisoners
confined in the two jails of the District in 1881 was 659 ; number dis-
charged, 702 ; daily average prison population, 182, of whom 5 were
females. The Reports of the Director of Public Instruction show that
in 1856-57, and again in 1860-61, there was only one Government in-
spected school in Lohardaga. By 1870-71 the number of Government
and aided schools had increased to 7, with 620 pupils ; and in 1872-73,
owing to the extension of the grant-in-aid system to primary schools,
the number of Government and aided schools was 178, attended by
4553 pupils. Since then, education has made rapid progress, and the
number of Government aided and inspected schools in 1882-83 was
335, with 10,314 pupils, being 6*4 pupils to every 1000 of the population.
The District is divided for administrative purposes into 2 Sub-divisions,
and for fiscal purposes into 44 pargands.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of the table-land of Chutia Nagpur
proper is said to be superior to that of any other part of India, except
the lower ranges of the Himalayas. The hot weather extends over
almost six weeks, commencing about the 20th April, and is never really
oppressive. The rainy season lasts from the middle of June to about
the first week in October, but it is not very regular. The principal
diseases of the District are malarious fever and rheumatism of a severe
type. Small-pox has occasionally appeared in an epidemic form,
but no serious outbreak is recorded. There are three charitable
dispensaries— at Ranchi, Lohardaga, and Daltonganj, which afforded
medical relief in 1883 to 239 in-door and 5678 out-door patients. The
total number of registered deaths in the District in 1883 was 26,701,
being at the rate of 16 "6 per thousand. [For further information regard-
ing Lohardaga, see the Statistical Account of Bengal, by W. W. Hunter
(Triibner & Co., 1877), vol. xvi. pp. 231-488; the Chutia Nagpur
Survey Report, by Captain (now Colonel) De Pree (1868); the
Paldmau Survey Report, by Captain G. H. Thompson (1866); Report
on the Land Tenures of Chutia Nagpur, by Mr. G. K. Webster, C.S.
(1875); Memorandum on the Revenue Administration of the Lower
Provinces, by D. J. M'Neill, Esq., C.S. ; the Bengal Census Reports
for 1872 and 1881 ; and the several Administration and Departmental
Reports from 1880 to 1884.]

Lohardaga. — Sadr or head-quarters Sub-division of Lohardaga
District, Bengal. Area, 7804 square miles; villages, 9271; houses,
207,632. Population (1881), males 556,372, and females 568,050;
total, 1,124,422. Hindus numbered 459,284; Muhammadans, 34,307 ;
Christians, 36,263; Buddhist, 1; Jains, 56; Santals, 310; Kols,
587,194; and other aboriginal tribes, 7007. Number of persons
per square mile, 144; villages per square mile, 1*19; persons per
village, 121; houses per square mile, 2 7 ; persons per house, 5 '4.


This Sub-division comprises the 13 police circles of Balumat, Barwa,
Bassia, Bfru, Choria, Korambe, Lodhma, Lohardaga, Palkot, Ranchi,
Silli, Tamar and Torpa. In 1883 it contained 4 civil courts, exclusive
of the court of the Judicial Commissioner, 8 criminal courts, a regular
police force of 331 men, and a village watch of 2276 men.

Lohardaga. — Town and municipality in Lohardaga District,
Bengal, and, until 1840, the administrative head-quarters of the
District; situated in lat. 23 25' 48" n., and long. 84 43' 16" E., 45
miles to the west of Ranchi, the present head-quarters station. Popu-
lation ( 1 881) 3461, namely, males 172 1, and females 1740. Municipal
revenue in 1882, ^£145. Important market.

Lohargaon. — Village in Ajaigarh State, Bundelkhand, North-
western Provinces. Lat. 24 29' 30" n., long. 8o° 22' 25" e. ; situated
on the route from Allahabad to Sagar (Saugor), 198 miles south-west
of the first-named town ; lies in a depression between the Panna and
Bandair Hills. Formerly contained a British military station, now
abandoned. Population (188 1) 384. Elevation above sea-level, 1260

Loharinaig— Waterfall in Garhwal State, North- Western Provinces
consisting of a series of cataracts on the river Bhagirathi. A fair
road runs along the bank of the Bhagirathi river, which is crossed by
wire-rope suspension bridges in six places within 10 miles below the
Loharinaig rapids. Elevation above sea, 7389 feet. Lat. 30 57' n.,
long. 7 8° 44' e.

Loharu.— One of the Native States under the Political Superin-
tendence of the Commissioner of the Hissar Division and the
Government of the Punjab, lying between 28 21' 30" and 28 45' n.
lat., and between 75 40' and 75° 57' e. long. The principal town,
Loharu, is situated in lat. 28 24' n., and long. 75 52' e.

The founder of the State was Ahmad Baksh Khan, a Mughal, who
was employed by the Raja of Alwar (Ulwur), in negotiations with Lord
Lake in 1806. In recognition of his services, he received Loharu in
perpetuity from the Raja, and the pargand (District) of Firozpur
(Ferozepore) from Lord Lake on condition of fidelity and military
service. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Shams-ud-din Khan,
who was executed at Delhi for compassing the murder of Mr. Fraser,
the Resident, in 1835. The Firozpur pargand was confiscated, but
the Loharu estate was made over to Amin-ud-dm Khan and Zia-ud-
din Khan, the two brothers of Shams-ud-din. The two chiefs remained
in Delhi during the siege in 1857, and, after the capture, they were
placed under surveillance, but were eventually released and restored to
their position. Amin-ud-din Khan died in 1869, and was succeeded
by his son Ala-ud-din, the present Nawab of Loharu, who was born about
1833. By an arrangement of long standing, the younger chief has no


share in the management of the State, but has a fixed allowance of
^1800 per annum assigned to him. The title of Nawab was granted to
Ala-ud-din in 1874, on condition of faithful allegiance to the British
Government. He has also received a sanad of adoption. Recently, the
Nawab having fallen into embarrassed circumstances, arrangements were
made to discharge his debts by a loan from Government, repayable
in twelve years. During this period, the Nawab has resigned the
management of the State, which has been placed in the hands of his
son, he himself receiving the fixed allowance assigned to the younger
chief of the State. Area, 285 square miles, with 54 villages, 161 7
houses, and 2500 families. Population (1881) 13,754, namely, males
7539, and females 6215. Classified according to religion, the popu-
lation consists of — Hindus, 12,225; Muhammadans, 1517; and Jains,
12. Estimated revenue of the State, ^6900. The chief is bound
to furnish a contingent of 200 horse when required. The town of
Loharu contains a population (1881) of 2038, namely, 1251 Hindus.
777 Muhammadans, and 10 Jains, residing in 239 houses. The
Nawab now resides at Farukhnagar in Gurgaon District. Post-

Lohgarh. — Fort near the top of the Bhor Pass, Poona District,
Bombay Presidency ; situated about 4 miles south-west of Khandala.
Seized in 17 13 by Kanhoji Angria, the Maratha pirate. Subsequently,
during British operations against the last Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao in
1818, Lohgarh was occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Prother. Till as
late as 1845, the fort was garrisoned by a British commandant and a
few troops.

Lohit. — Important branch of the Brahmaputra river in Assam,
which for a long distance forms the boundary between the Districts of
Sibsagar and Lakhimpur. After a winding course of about 70 miles,
generally in a south-westerly direction, it rejoins the parent stream near

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 57 of 64)