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thousand inhabitants, namely, Lucknow City, 239,773, and canton-
ment, 21,530; Kakori, 7462; Malihabad, 7276; and Amethi,
5654. Total urban population, 281,695, or 4°'4 per cent, of the District
population. Excluding Lucknow city and cantonment, the urban popu-
tion numbered only 20,392, or 2-9 per cent. The remainder, forming
the rural population, is divided among 942 villages, classified as follows :
292 villages contain less than two hundred inhabitants ; 355 from two to
five hundred ; 203 from five hundred to a thousand ; 76 from one to two
thousand; 14 from two to three thousand ; and 2 from three to five
thousand inhabitants. With regard to the occupations of the people,
the Census Report thus returns the male population : — Class (1) Profes-
sional, including all Government officials and servants, and the learned
professions, 13,926 ; (2) domestic and menial servants, lodging-house
keepers, etc., 5724; (3) commercial class, including bankers, traders,
carriers, etc., 10,507 ; (4) agricultural class, including gardeners, herds-
men, shepherds, etc., 118,311 ; (5) manufacturing and industrial class,
including artisans, 54,409 ; (6) indefinite and non-productive class
(comprising 44,605 general labourers, and 117,823 male children,
and persons of property of no stated occupation), 162,428.

Agriculture.— -The total area of Lucknow District, after the recent
transfer of pargands Mohan Auras, Kiirsi, Dewa to neighbouring
Districts in 188 1, is 989-6 square miles. The area under cultivation
was estimated by the District officer in 1882-83 at 426,000 acres,
or 665 square miles. This estimate includes land counted twice over
as yielding two harvests in the year. The actual cultivated area in
1883-84 was only 332,463 acres, of which 139,998 acres were
irrigated, entirely by private enterprise. Of the remaining area,
139,046 acres were returned as cultivable, and 155,210 acres as
uncultivable waste. There are three harvests in the year, the rabi
in spring, the Man/ in the rainy season, and the henwat in the
autumn. For the rabi, the chief crops are wheat, barley, gram, peas,
gujai (a mixture of wheat and barley), and birra (a mixture of barley
and gram, gram predominating). The land under these crops amounts
to 150,026 acres, wheat heading the list with 72,329 acres, or more
than one -fifth of the whole cultivated area. For the kharif, the
crops are rice, millets, sdivdn, mandwa, kdkun, and Indian corn or
maize. For the henwat, the crops are /00V and bdj'ra, mash, mung, moth,




masur, and labia. In addition, there are the valuable tobacco and
opium and kachhidna or vegetable crops ; of which tobacco takes up
1527 acres, opium 5623 acres, cotton 910 acres, and the spices, as zira
(cummin seed), saunf (aniseed), dhaniya (coriander seed), 402 acres.
Irrigation is carried on from rivers, tanks, and wells.

The total male adult agricultural population in 18S1 was returned at
115,088, made up by 5887 landholders, 89,574 cultivators, 18,756 agri-
cultural labourers, and 8 7 1 estate officers. Number of cultivated acres to
each male agriculturist, 3-01. The population entirely dependent on the
soil, however, numbered 3 1 7 , 5 5 3» or 45 '5 7 per cent, of the total population
of the District. Of the total area of 989-6 square miles, 91*4 square
miles are held revenue free, and the remaining 898*2 square miles are
assessed for Government revenue. Of the assessed area, 495 square miles
were returned in 1881 as under cultivation, 1687 square miles as cultiv-
able, and 234-5 square miles as uncultivable waste. Total Government
assessment, including local rates and cesses levied upon land, ,£83,843,
or an average of 5s. 3jd. per cultivated acre. Total rental paid by culti-
vators, including rates and cesses, £154,082, or 8s. iofd. per cultivated
acre. These are the rural rates. In the neighbourhood of towns, rents
are much higher.

The cultivators are almost all deeply in debt, and under advances

of seed grain from their landlords. Wages have remained stationary

in the country, but in the towns they have decreased, owing to

the departure of the Oudh court, and the consequent diminished

wealth and population of the city. Ordinary agricultural labourers

receive about 1 Jd. a day in money, when not paid in grain.

Artisans, such as smiths and carpenters, receive 4jd. a day for

work in their own villages, or 6d. a day if called away from home.

Prices have risen much of late years. The average rate in Lucknow

city for wheat (the staple crop) during the fifteen years preceding

annexation, was 24 sers per rupee, or 4s. 8d. per cwt., while during the

fifteen years subsequent to annexation (1856-70), it was 19 sers per

rupee, or 5s. nd. per cwt. Barley has risen from 36 sers per rupee,

or 3s. id. per cwt., during the fifteen years 1841-55, to 29 sers, or 3s.

iod. per cwt., in the fifteen years 1856-70. In 1883 the price for

wheat was returned at 18 sers per rupee, or 6s. 3d. per cwt. ; barley, 20

sers per rupee, or 5s. 7d. per cwt. ; and common rice, 14J sers per

rupee, or 7s. 9d. per cwt. The real rise of prices is, however, much

higher. Grain is supplied now by railway from a larger area, the city

of Lucknow has fallen off in population, and money is very scarce ; all

these causes should have cheapened food -grains, but the relative

value of wheat compared with money has risen much more than would

appear from these figures.

Te?uires. — Lucknow is mainly a District of small proprietors. In


the old District, out of 1498 villages, 374 were owned by 37 tdlukddrs
In the District as at present constituted, 21 tdlukddrs hold 246 villages.
The other villages are either bhdyachdra or zaminddri. In the former
case a community of small proprietors hold a village with its demesne
in coparcenary tenure, each shareholder enjoying a portion of the land,
and also receiving a share of the rents paid by non-proprietary cultiva-
tors. It is a complex tenure. In zaminddri villages there is no such
mixture of rights. Several men are joint proprietors of the village, but
they divide the rents only ; no one has any permanent or other than
permissive interest in any portion of the land. The largest estate in
the District is that of Raja Chand Sekar, who holds 28 villages, and
pays a Government revenue of ^"3663 a year.

Famines. — Famines or severe scarcities have occurred in Lucknow
in 1769, 1784-86, 1837, 1861, 1865-66, 1869, 1873, and 1877-78—
all caused by drought. In 1866, the price of wheat rose to 12 sen per
rupee, or 9s. 4d. a cwt. ; and in 1869 t0 as high as 9 sers per rupee, or
12s. 5d. a cwt. Maize and gram were quoted at from 13 to 12 sers per
rupee, or from 8s. 7d. to 9s. 4d. a cwt. in 1866 and 1869. At the
height of the scarcity of 1873, cheap grain of some kind was to be had
at from 18 to 16 sers per rupee, or from 6s. 3d. to 7s. a cwt. During
the famine of 1877-78, Lucknow was one of the Districts most severely
affected, and numerous Government relief works were opened.

Roads and Commimications. — The District is well provided with
communications by road, river, and railway. Three imperial lines
of road branch out south, east, and north to Cawnpur, Faizabad,
and Sitapur, metalled and bridged throughout, and aggregating, exclu-
sive of the roads in Lucknow city and cantonments, a length of
about 500 miles. The principal local lines of road are 6 in number,
as follow:— (1) to Kiirsi; (2) to Dewa; (3) to Sultanpur, passing
through Gosainganj and Amethi ; (4) to Rai Bareli, passing through
Mohanlalganj ; (5) to Mohan, which, crossing the Sai by a fine old
native-built bridge, passes on to Rasiilabad, in Unao District ; (6) to
Malihabad, which runs on to Sandila, a large town in Hardoi. These
roads connect the capital with the pargand towns, and the latter are
joined by others running (1) from Mahona through Kiirsi to Dewa,
whence it passes on to the District of Bara Banki ; (2) from Gosain-
ganj through Mohanlalganj to meet the Imperial Cawnpur road at
Janabganj near Bani bridge; and (3) by a road from Bani bridge
through Mohan to Auras, which is there crossed (4) by a road that,
passing over the Sai by a substantial bridge, runs through the upper
end of the Mohan Auras pargand, and joins the Malihabad and Sandila
road at Rahimabad. There is another road, some 7 miles long, lead-
ing from Lucknow to Bijnaur. These local roads are well bridged
throughout, and though heavy during the rains, are well suited for the


traffic of the broad-wheeled carts of the country and the soft-footed
bullocks that pull them.

River communication is not much used. The Giimti flows south-
east through part of the District for a total distance of ioo miles. But
its course is tortuous, and passage slow; and it is not much used, except
for the conveyance of wood and straw, which is carried down in barges,
freighted sometimes with so much as 40 or 50 tons each. On the
whole, the Giimti may be said to bar rather than further communica-
tion, but Government ferry-boats are attached to various ghats.

The line of railway is comprised in the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rail-
way system. It branches out in three directions — east, south-west, and
north-east. The first passes through the thickly-populated pargand
of Lucknow to Bara Banki, and, sending a branch to Bahramghat on
the Gogra, passes on through Faizabad (Fyzabad) towards Benares.
The next connects Lucknow with Cawnpur, a line of 48 miles, of
which about 16 miles run through this District. The last communi-
cates with Shahjahanpur, and passing the large and important towns of
Kakori and MalMbad, traverses the Malihabad pargand on its way
through Hardoi to Shahjahanpur, Bareli, and Moradabad. The entire
length of railway communication in the District is 53 miles.

Manufactures, Trade, etc. — Manufactures are mainly confined to
Lucknow City. In the country towns are a few weavers, dyers,
bangle-makers, brass-workers, and potters. Cotton-weaving has greatly
declined since the introduction of European goods. The principal
imports of the District are foodstuffs, piece-goods, arms, hardware,
glass, crockery, and salt ; exports — muslins, embroidery, cotton prints,
brass vessels, lace, tobacco, etc.

Administration. — The Judicial Commissioner of Oudh, and the Com-
missioner of the Lucknow Division, have their head-quarters in Lucknow
city. For a period of the year it is also the head-quarters of the Provincial
Government. The District is administered by a Deputy Commissioner,
aided by one Magistrate in special charge of the city, and a second in
the cantonments, 1 or 2 Assistant Commisssioners, 3 extra-Assistant
Commissioners, 3 tahsilddrs, and 4 Honorary Magistrates. Besides,
there are a Civil Judge and a Small Cause Court Judge, who have
no criminal or revenue powers. The total imperial and local revenue
of Lucknow District in 1871-72 amounted to ^"162,926, and the ex-
penditure to ^70,534; the Government land revenue was ^70,580.
In 1883-84, with a reduced area, the gross revenue of the District was
,£127,590, of which ^70,258 was derived from the land-tax. The
total cost of civil administration, as represented by the cost of officials
and police, was ^29,564.

Including the Courts of the Judicial Commissioner of the Province
and of the Commissioner of the Division, Lucknow contains 11


criminal and 7 civil courts, with a regular police force, including
city and cantonment police, of 1764 officers and men, and a village
watch or rural police numbering 1447 men. The District is sub-divided
for revenue purposes into the three tahsils of Lucknow, Mohanlalganj
and Malihabad; and for police purposes into 13 circles (thdnds).
The District jail contained a daily average of 405 prisoners in 1883.

Education was afforded in 1883 by 137 schools, supported or aided
by Government, and inspected by the Education Department, with
a total roll on the 31st March 1883 of 6609 pupils. This is exclusive
of unaided and uninspected schools, and the Census Report of 188 1
returned 7760 boys and 719 girls as under instruction, besides 26,369
males and 1438 females able to read and write, but not under instruction.
The principal educational institutions are the Arts College at Lucknow
with its law and medical classes, and attached High School; the
Sanskrit College, and the La Martiniere College for the education of
Europeans and Eurasians.

The only regular municipality in the District is that of Lucknow city ;
but a house-tax for police and conservancy purposes is raised in the
following towns— Kakori, Malihabad, Amethi, Bijnaur, Chinhat, Amani-
ganj, Itaunja, and Gosainganj.

Medical Aspects.— Average annual rainfall in the District generally,
37-6 inches ; in Lucknow city, 41*4 inches. Mean annual temperature,
77-8° F. In the year 1883, the maximum temperature in May, the
hottest month, was 115 ; the minimum in February, the coldest month,
was 38'3°.

The prevailing endemic diseases of the District are fevers, skin
diseases, and bowel complaints. The most common kind of fever-
is intermittent of the quotidian type ; the quartan type is com-
paratively rare. Remittent fever is not uncommon. Cholera is
seldom absent from the District. There is no year in which a con-
siderable number of deaths is not ascribed to this disease. Both
forms of cholera (sporadic and epidemic) are met with. The disease
appears at the setting in of the rains, and is generally prevalent during
the months of July, August, September, October, and November.
Small-pox generally makes its appearance in March, and attains its
maximum intensity in the months of April, May, and June. It begins
to decline during the rains, and almost disappears by the middle of
the cold weather. Small-pox rages with virulence among all ranks of
society ; and, in the absence of general vaccination, numbers are carried
off by it every year. The total number of deaths registered from fevers
in Lucknow District (excluding the city) in 1883 was 8044, giving a rate
of 17-60 per thousand of the rural population. An epidemic of small-pox
in the same year caused 7500 deaths, or a rate of 16*41 per thousand.
The total number of registered deaths in 1883 in the District (outside


the city) was 17,560, or at the rate of 38*43 per thousand, against an
average of 35*09 per thousand in the previous five years. In Lucknow
city in 1883, the deaths from fever numbered 5127, and from small-
pox 2 1 14, the total mortality being at the rate of 34*66 per thousand.
Total registered deaths in District and city in 1883, 28,630. The prin-
cipal medical institutions are the King's hospital, civil dispensary, and
Balrampur hospital in the city of Lucknow, at which 40,480 patients
received medical relief in 1883. A lunatic asylum for the whole of
Oudh is situated upon the eastern bank of the Gumti, near the Faizabad
road. [For further information regarding Lucknow, see the Gazetteer
of Oudh, vol. ii. pp. 301-396 (published by authority, Allahabad, 1877) ;
the Report on the Land Settlement of Lucknow District, by Mr. H. H.
Butts, C.S. (Lucknow, 1873); the Census Report of the North- West em
Provinces and Oudh for 1881 ; and the several Administration and
Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1884.]

Lucknow. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Lucknow District, Oudh, lying
between 26 38' 30" and 27 o' 15" N. lat, and between 8o° 42' and 8i°
8' 30" e. long. Bounded on the north by Malihabad tahsil ; on the
east by Bari Banki District ; on the south by Mohanlalganj tahsil ; and
on the west by Mohan tahsil of Unao. This tahsil comprises the 3
pargands of Lucknow, Bijnaur, and Kakori. Population (1869)
468,507; (1881) 414,570, namely, males 219,327, and females
195,243. The decrease of 53,937, or 11*5 per cent., between the
twelve years 1 869-1 881 is, as explained in the article on Lucknow
District, mainly attributable to the famine of 1877-78, and the fever
epidemic of the following year. Classified according to religion, the
population in 1 881 consisted of— Hindus, 291,179; Muhammadans,
116,541; Jains, 338; 'others,' 6512. Total number of villages and
towns, 343, of which 222 contain less than five hundred inhabitants.
The tahsil contains (including the head-quarter Courts of the Judicial
Commissioner of Oudh, the Commissioner of the Lucknow Division,
and the Deputy-Commissioner of the District) 9 criminal and 7 civil
courts. Number of police circles, 3; strength of regular police, 1625
men (including 876 municipal police), besides a rural police or village
watch of 46 1 chaukiddrs.

Lucknow. — Pargand of Lucknow District, Oudh ; the tract lying
immediately around Lucknow City, in which the whole interest of the
pargand centres. Area, 165 square miles, of which 96 are returned as
under cultivation, being practically the whole of the land available for
tillage. Population (1869), including Lucknow city, 368,977 ; (1881)
3 2 3>97°> namely, males 172,189, and females 151,781. Rents are
high, but, as elsewhere, Rajputs pay less than the lower castes.
Their average rent is 7s. 9d. per acre, while Lodhis pay 12s. 6d., and
Kachhis as high as 27s. 3d. an acre. In individual instances in


villages around the city, rents amount to as much as £4, and even
^5 an acre. Government land revenue, ^14,746 ; average incidence,
5s. per cultivated acre. In villages around the city, the assessment falls
at the rate of 13s. ijd. per acre. Besides Lucknow City, the pargand
contains the towns of Ujariaon, Juggam, Chinhat, Mahaballipur, and
Thawar. Total number of towns and villages, 180.

Lucknow (Ldkhnad). — Capital city of the Province of Oudh ;
situated on both banks of the river Giimti, in lat. 2 6° 51' 40" n., and
long. 8o° 58' 10" e. Distant from Cawnpur 42 miles, from Benares
199 miles, from Calcutta 610 miles. Area, 13 square miles. Popula-
tion in 1881 — city, 239,773, and cantonments, 21,530; total, 261,303.
Though quite a modern town, Lucknow at present ranks fourth in size
amongst British Indian cities, being only surpassed by the three Presi-
dency capitals of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. It stands on a
plain, 403 feet above sea-level. Till recent years, it formed the metro-
polis of a great Muhammadan kingdom, and afterwards contained the
administrative head-quarters of a considerable British Province ; while
even at the present day it retains its position as a centre of modern
Indian life, being a leading city of native fashion, and a chief school
of music, grammar, and Musalman theology. Trade and manu-
factures are now beginning to restore the wealth which it formerly
owed to the presence of the luxurious court of the Nawab Wazirs or
kings of Oudh.

Situation and General Appearance. — Lucknow stands on both banks
of the Giimti, but the greater portion of the city stretches along its
western side, a few suburbs only covering the farther shore. Four
bridges span the river, two of them built by native rulers, and two
since the British annexation in 1856. Viewed from a distance, Lucknow
presents a picture of unusual magnificence and architectural splendour,
-which fades on nearer view into the ordinary aspect of a crowded
oriental town. Some of the most striking buildings, which look like
marble in the moonlight, are disclosed by the disillusioning sun to
be degraded examples of stucco and brick. From the new bridge across
the Giimti, the city seems to be embedded in trees. High up the river,
the ancient stone bridge of Asaf-ud-daula crosses the stream. To its
left rise the walls of the Machi Bhawan fort, enclosing the Lakshman
tila (Lakshman's hill), the earliest inhabited spot in the city, from
which it derives its modern name. Close by, the immense Imambara,
or mausoleum of Asaf-ud-daula, towers above the surrounding buildings.
Farther in the distance, the lofty minarets of the Jama Masjid or
' cathedral mosque ' overlook the city ; while nearer again, on the
same side of the river, the ruined walls of the Residency, with its
Memorial Cross, recall the heroic defence made by the British garrison
in 1857. In front, close to the water's edge, the Chattar Manzil


palace, a huge and irregular pile of buildings, crowned by gilt umbrellas,
glitters gaudily in the sunlight ; while to the left, at some little dis-
tance, two mausoleums flank the entrance to the Kaisar Bagh,
the last of the overgrown palaces built by the exiled dynasty of

Still more picturesque panoramas may be obtained from any of the
numerous towers and cupolas which abound in every quarter. But a
nearer examination shows that Lucknow does not correspond in its
interior arrangements to its brilliant appearance from a little distance.
Nevertheless, many of its streets are broader and finer than those
of most Indian towns; and the clearance effected for military pur-
poses after the Mutiny, has resulted in greatly improving both the
aspect and the sanitary condition of the city. A glacis half a mile
broad surrounds the fort ; and three military roads, radiating from
this point as a centre, cut right through the heart of the native
quarter, often at an elevation of some 30 feet above the neighbour-
ing streets. Three other main roads also branch out from the same
point, one leading across the bridge, and the two others along the
banks of the Gumti. The Residency crowns a picturesque eminence,
the chief ornament of the city, containing, besides many ruined walls,
an old mosque and a magnificent banian tree. An artificial mound
rises near at hand, its sides gay with parterres of flowers ; while in the
rear, half hidden by the feathery foliage of gigantic bamboos, the
graveyard covers the remains of some 2000 Europeans, who perished
by war or massacre during the Mutiny of 1857. The various archi-
tectural works which adorn or disfigure Lucknow may best be con-
sidered in their historical order. South-east of the city, and separated
from it by a canal, lie the cantonments, which extend over an area of
n or 12 square miles.

History. — Like so many of the great modern cities of India, Lucknow
owes its importance almost entirely to the last century. It first rose
to greatness as the capital of the young dynasty which established
itself in Oudh during the decay of the Mughal Empire, and spread its
rule, not only over the modern Province, but also through the neigh-
bouring tracts of Rohilkhand, Allahabad, Cawnpur, and Ghazipur.
From very early times, however, a small village probably existed upon
the spot where the family of Saadat Khan afterwards fixed the seat
of their supremacy. The earliest inhabitants appear to have been
Brahmans and Kayasths, who dwelt around the Lakshman tild, now the
high ground enclosed within the Machi Bhawan fort. Here Lakshman,
brother of Ram Chandra, Raja of Ajodhya, having obtained a large
tract of country up to the Gogra mjdgir, founded the village of Laksh-
manpur, on a spot sacred to Sesnag, the thousand-headed snake, who
supports the world upon his back. A mosque, built by the bigoted


Aurangzeb, now covers the holy place. The village of Lakshmanpur
still stood within the memory of men now living.

The Shaikhs, afterwards known as the Shaikhzadas of Lucknow,
were the earliest Muhammadan conquerors of Oudh. Later on, the
Pathans of Ramnagar occupied the country up to the point where
the Gol Darwaza gate subsequently stood. East of this demarcating
line, the Shaikhs bore rule, and built a stronghold on the site of the
present Machi Bhawan fort. A small town grew up around their
castle, which bore the name of Lucknow at least as early as the
reign of Akbar. In the survey carried out by that Emperor, it is
described as ' a large city pleasantly situated upon the banks of the
Gumti, with very delightful suburbs.' The Ain-i-Akbari also mentions
the tomb of Shaikh Mina Shah, a Musalman saint, to whom prayers
were already offered. The Brahmans then formed a leading section of
the population ; and Akbar, with his usual tolerant indifference, wishing
to gratify them, caused the Bdj pel sacrifice to be offered, and gave
them a lakh of rupees. The city grew but little before his time, and
its subsequent enlargements belong to three periods, those of Akbar
himself, of Saadat All Khan, and of Asaf-ud-daula. The oldest
inhabited portions of the present city are the Hindu wards, lying in
the immediate neighbourhood of the chauk. The wards to the south,
along the line of the chauk, were built under Akbar, who took a great

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 59 of 64)