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and proved troublesome. The lands were therefore resumed, and the
palegdrs pensioned. The country was then settled on a quasi-rdyatr.'dri
system, but the rates were fixed with reference to the high assessment
levied under Musalman government. This system was tried till 1807,
when it was superseded by a triennial, and afterwards by a decennial
settlement. The assessment was collected through farmers or middle-
men, who fell largely into arrears, and several of them were sent to
jail. The renting system was thereupon discontinued; and in 1821
the rdyatwdri system was reverted to, but with a reduction in the rates
of 25 per cent, on 'dry' and 'wet,' and 32 per cent, on garden lands.
Since then no important changes have occurred, except that lands under
wells and tanks constructed at private expense have been exempted
from extra assessment, and that old well-land (or garden) rates have
been assimilated to ' dry ' rates.

In Karmil Proper, the revenue administration under the Nawabs was
conducted without system. The old paldyams and zaminddris were
arbitrarily resumed, and villages were rented to the head-men, who
distributed lands among the rdyats according to their means, and raised
or lowered rents at pleasure. In the first four years of British rule
in this part of the District, the revenue decreased by about \\ lakh.
The Agent proposed to revert to village rents, but the Government
negatived the proposal. In the next four years, the revenue rose again
to its former level. Where the rates were too high, they were reduced,
or unassessed lands were given at lower rates to compensate for over-
assessment on old lands, and in some cases remissions were also made,
and the tax on special products was abolished, but the high rates on



44 KARNUL.

garden and ordinary lands were retained. Prices, however, began to
rise, and afforded to the rdyats a more certain relief than any reduction
in the assessment could give, and saved the necessity for temporary
remissions. The latter were accordingly abolished, and the revenue
gradually increased. The remaining inequalities of the old rough
settlement were finally removed by the new Survey and Settlement in
1866.

Administration. — The total gross revenue of Karnul District in
1882-83 amounted to ,£158,375, of which £130,480 was derived from
land. The expenditure on the civil and police administration is
returned at £46,881. The District administration is carried on by 38
high officials, including a District Judge, with 3 subordinate munsifs
for civil jurisdiction; a District Magistrate, with 17 subordinates for
criminal cases; and 13 revenue officers. The total police force of the
District in 1882-83 was 927 men, maintained at a cost of £14,729 ;
proportion of police to area of District, 8 '6 per square mile; of
police to population, 1 to 782. The District contains a District jail
and 13 subsidiary prisons. Daily average prison population, 90
prisoners.

Education. — The state of education in Karnul is backward ; only
37 per cent, of the population in 187 1 being returned as able to read
and write. In 1882, there were altogether 404 schools, with 6501
pupils. Girls' schools numbered 3, with 76 pupils. Pupils in primary
vernacular schools numbered 5596, under Government inspection.
The Census Report of 1881 returned a total of 6687 boys and 411
girls as under instruction, besides 26,094 males and 1401 females able
to read and write, but not under instruction.

Medical Aspect. — The climate of Karnul is on the whole healthy.
The prevailing winds are west and north-east, and the mean tempera-
ture is about 85 F. The rains begin in June, and continue up to
September. The total annual fall is 48 inches. In the villages along
the foot of the Nallamalais, a severe type of fever prevails, accom-
panied by enlargement of the spleen. Other common diseases are
rheumatic affections, conjunctivitis, and dysentery. Murrain and ■ foot-
and-mouth disease ' are very prevalent among cattle. There is very
little or no pasture land in the plains, and the cattle are generally
grazed on the hills ; but during the hot months the hill grass is burnt
up, and the difficulty of feeding cattle becomes very great. In 1882,
the registered death-rate per thousand was 15-5, and the registered
birth-rate per thousand, 28. There are three dispensaries in the
District— at Cumbum, Karnul, and Nandial. Total of persons treated
during 1881, 38,354. [For farther information regarding Karnul, see
Mr. Stack's Memorandum upon the Current Land Settlement in the
temporarily settled parts of British India, p. 371. Also the Madras



KARNUL TOWN—KAROL. 45

Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Administration and Depart-
mental Reports from 1880 to 1883.]

Karniil (Karnaid ; Kandanul ; Canon I of Orme). — Town and muni-
cipality in Ramalkota taluk or Sub-division of Karniil District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 15° 49' 58" N., long. 78 5' 29" e. Population
(1871) 25,579; (1881) 20,329, namely, 9637 males and 10,692 females.
Number of houses, 5391. Hindus numbered 9995; Muhammadans,
10,007; Christians, 320; and * others,' 7. The head-quarters of the
District, with a Judge, Collector-Magistrate, and the usual District
courts.

The town stands on a rocky spit of land (an island since the
construction of a canal in 1865), at the junction of the Hindri and
Tungabhadra rivers. The fort, whose erection is attributed to Gopal
Raya, was dismantled in 1865 ; the curtain was razed, but the four
bastions and three of the gates still stand. Until 187 1, troops were
stationed in the fort, which also contained the palace of the Nawabs ;
it is still the residence of some of the members of the family. The
mausoleum of Abdul Wahab (the first Nawab of Karniil), a modern
fountain presented by the Raja of Vizianagaram, and some mosques,
are the only other architectural features of the place. Karniil at one
time had an evil fame for cholera. But the municipality, which spends
large sums yearly on sanitation, etc., has done much to redeem the
reputation of the place. The town, however, has been much afflicted
by endemic fever since the construction of the canal; this evil is
probably to a great degree incurable, but it is aggravated by a faulty
system of water-supply. In the famine of 1877-78, Karniil and the
surrounding country' suffered terribly, owing to their isolated position.
The nearest railway station is Gooty (a station on the north-west line of
the Madras Railway), 60 miles distant ; and it was only by extraor-
dinary efforts that food was thrown into the town.

The population is half Hindu and half Musalman ; this unusual
proportion marking the long rule of the Pathan Nawabs. The income
of the municipality from taxation in 1883-84 was ^1839 ; incidence of
direct taxation, excluding tolls, is. 2d. per head.

Karo, North. — River of Bengal, tributary of the South Koel river ;
rises in Lohardaga District, Chutia Nagpur, drains the north-west
corner of Singbhum, and finally empties itself into the South Koel.

Karo, South.— Also a tributary of the South Koel ; rises in the
tributary State of Gangpur, in Chutia Nagpur, crosses the north-west
corner of the Orissa State of Keunjhar, then turns north draining part
of Saranda in Singbhiim, and falls into the Koel at Arandpur.

Karol. — Petty State of the Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency, consisting of 2 villages, with two separate shareholders.
Area of the petty State, 11 square miles, and population (1SS1) 1325.



46 KAROND.

Estimated revenue in 1881, .£618; tribute of £-,0, 6s. is payable to
the British Government, and £g, 6s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.
Karol village is situated 5 miles east of Chura station on the Bhaunagar-
Gondal Railway.

Karond (or Kdldhandt).—K feudatory chiefship attached to Sam-
balpur District, Central Provinces; lying between 19 5' and 20 30' n.
lat., and between 82 40' and 83 50' e. long. Bounded on the north
by Patna State ; on the east and south by Jaipur (Jeypore) estate and
Vizagapatam District in Madras ; and on the west by Bindra Nawagarh
and Khariar. Area, 3745 square miles; number of villages, 2461;
houses, 53,527. Total population in 1881, 224,548, namely, males
116,918, and females 107,630. Average density, 60 persons per square
mile. The population is largely composed of aboriginal Kandhs. Of
the 2461 villages, 2439 contain less than five hundred inhabitants, 19
between five hundred and a thousand, and 3 upwards of a thousand.
The chief place is Bhawani-patna, with a population of 3483.

The country is high, lying behind the Eastern Ghats, spurs from
which project into Karond; while even the plains are intersected
by ranges of hills. The light alluvial soil washed from their slopes
is fertile and easily tilled, yielding heavy crops of almost every
description. Teak is found to the north-west ; and in the south, forests
of sardi and other trees clothe the heights ; but in many parts the
ddhya or nomadic system of tillage has cleared the timber away. The
State is well watered. Within its limits rise the Tndravati, a tributary
of the Godavari; the Hatti and the Ret, tributaries of the Tel;
while it is traversed throughout by the Tel, the San, and the Raul,
which after uniting their waters, fall into the Mahanadi beyond the
limits of Karond.

Principal crops— rice, pulses, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, cotton, and the
lesser millets. Of late years, wheat has been introduced, and the
cultivation of the poppy has been abandoned. Oranges of fine quality
are also grown. Communication has considerably improved of late
years, and weekly markets have been established at the principal
places ; that at the chief town of Bhawani-patna being especially
flourishing. Communication has been opened with Raipur and Sam-
balpur by roads, which are traversed by carts in the dry season. The
imports are salt, tobacco, cloth, and brass utensils ; the exports con-
sisting of grain, which is conveyed chiefly to Vizagapatam on pack
bullocks. The people are fairly prosperous.

The late Raja, Udit Pratap Deo, a Rajput by caste, accompanied the
Chief Commissioner to the imperial assemblage at Delhi, and obtained
the title of Raja Bahadur, with a salute of 9 guns as a personal
distinction. Udit Pratap Deo died in 18S1, and was succeeded by
his adopted son, the present (1884) Raja, Raghu Kishore Deo, a



KAROR. 47

minor, now being educated at the Rajkumar College at Jabalpur.
The administration of the State was entrusted to the late chief's
senior Rani. Shortly after these arrangements had been made,
symptoms of disaffection began to show themselves amongst the
Kandhs, an aboriginal tribe, consisting of about one-third of the whole
population of the State. They rose against the Kultas, a Hindu
agricultural caste, murdered between 70 and 80 of them, and plundered
several of their villages. This outbreak necessitated the interference
of the British Government. The disturbance was quelled by an armed
police force under British officers, and seven of the ringleaders on con-
viction were summarily executed. The State was then taken under
direct Government management, and will remain so until the young chief
attains his majority.

The climate of Karond is in general good. The proximity of the
ghats ensures a regular and abundant rainfall. The gross revenue is
estimated to amount to ;£i 0,000; tribute of ^360 is payable to the
British Government.

Karor. — Head-quarters tahsil of Bareli (Bareilly) District, North-
western Provinces, including Bareli city. Area, 330 square miles,
of which 237 are cultivated. Population (1872) 279,774; (1882)
285,731, namely, males 152,341, and females 133,390, residing in 408
villages. Classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 192,890;
Muhammadans, 90,251 ; and 'others,' 2590.

Wheat and gram occupy about four-fifths of the area of the spring
(rabi) harvest. For the autumn (kharif) harvest, bdjra, or great
millet, grown on the sandy uplands, covers more than twice as much
ground as any other crop. Rice, millet, sugar-cane, and jodr
follow next in order. Sugar-refining is largely carried on, and forms
an important industry. After supplying local wants, the surplus
produce finds a sale at Bareli town and several villages where weekly
markets are held. The tahsil is amply provided with means ot
export. Bareli city is the centre from which branches of the Oudh
and Rohilkhand Railway radiate west to Chandausi, south-east to
Shahjahanpur, north-east to Pilibhit, and north to Katgodam (for
Naini Tal). Metalled and unmetalled roads intersect the tahsil in
every direction, converging on Bareli town, besides minor tracks con-
necting the villages. Kurmis and Kisans constitute the bulk of the
cultivating class. Of 554 estates which existed at the time of settlement,
334 were held in zaminddri tenure. By far the greater part of the
cultivated area is held by tenants with rights of occupancy. Land
revenue (1882), ^£24,073 ; total Government revenue, ,£27,287 ; rental
paid by cultivators, ,£45,048. The administrative staff consists of 1
Judge, 2 sub-Judges, and 3 mwisifs in Bareli city ; a District Sessions
Judge, Magistrate-Collector, Joint -Magistrate, 3 Deputy Collectors,



43 KAROR TOWN—KARRA.

a tahsilddr, and a cantonment magistrate. These officers preside over
5 civil and 8 criminal courts. The tahsil contains 7 police circles
(t hands), a regular police force of 397 officers and men, and a village
police (chaukiddrs) numbering 356.

Karor. — Town in the Leiah tahsil of Dera Ismail Khan District,
Punjab. Lat. 31 13' 30" x., long. 70 59' 15" e. Population (1868)
5720. By 1881 it had decreased to 2723, namely, 1459 Hindus, 1263
Muhammadans, and 1 Sikh. Number of houses, 565. Situated on
the old left bank of the river Indus, at some distance from the
present channel. Said to be the earliest settlement in the cis-Indus
portion of the District. The town is surrounded by a circular road,
along which, as well as along the main approaches to the town, are
planted avenues of shisam trees. The bdzdr is well paved, the shops
having masonry fronts. A fair is held here annually in August in
honour of a local saint, Makhdum Lai Isan, whose handsome shrine is
then visited by about 25,000 people. Karor is a third-class munici-
pality, with an income in 1883-84 of ^245, or an average of is. 9d.
per head of the population. Head-quarters of a civil court (munsifi),
and of a police station (thdnd).

Karor. — Town and municipality in Miiltan District, Punjab. — See
Kahror.

Karra (Kara ; Corah). — Town in Sirathu tahsil, Allahabad District,
North-Western Provinces ; on the right bank of the Ganges, 42 miles by
road north-west of Allahabad city. Lat. 25 41' n., long. 8i° 24' e.
Formerly the capital of a native fief. In 1286 a.d., Muiz-ud-din and his
father, Nasir-ud-din, held a meeting in the middle of the river, opposite
Karra, and determined to unite their forces for an attack upon Delhi.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the town formed the head-quarters of
the Musalman governors in the Lower Doab. Firoz Shah was murdered
here in 1295 by Ala-ud-din. In 1338, Nizam Ma-in attempted to revolt
at Karra, but was at once arrested by Ain-ul-Mulk and flayed alive.
During the rains of 1346, Karra was occupied by the rebel cobbler of
Gujrat, Takhi ; but Muhammad Shah followed him up from Ahmed-
abad and totally defeated him. In 1376, the fiefs of Karra, Mahoba, and
Dalamau were united under one governor, called the Mah'k-ul-Shark.
Akbar removed the seat of government to Allahabad, which thence-
forth superseded Karra in importance. (See Allahabad District.)

An old fort, now in ruins, together with a number of tombs, still attests
the former magnificence of Karra. But Asaf-ud-daula, Nawab of Oudh,
destroyed the finest edifices, for the materials, which he employed
in building his own works at Lucknow. Population (1881) 5080,
namely, Muhammadans, 3026, and Hindus, 2054. Area of town site,
133 acres. The local market has a traffic with Oudh and Fatehpur,
principally in grain, cloth, and paper. The manufacture of paper has



KARRAK— KARTAIRI. 49

much declined of late years, owing principally to the establishment of
the large paper factories at Serampur, near Calcutta. The place is
still well known for its blankets. For conservancy and police purposes,
a small house-tax is levied, which in 1881-82 realized ^108. Post-
office, police station, and station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey.

Karrak.— Salt-mine in Kohat District, Punjab ; one of the series
which extends along the valley of the Teri Toi. Colonized in the time
of Aurangzeb, but not quarried till about 1800. The salt occurs as a
massive rock, almost pure, and is excavated over a tract 1 mile in
length. The produce is exported to Waziristan and Kabul by the
Povindah merchants. The salt quarried from these mines during the
six years ending 1881-82 yielded an average annual income to Govern-
ment in the shape of duty of ^1105. The duty realized in 1883-84
amounted to ^2099.

Karsiang (Kurseong). — Sub-division of Darjiling District, Bengal.
Area, 442 square miles; number of towns and villages, 821 ; number
of houses, 17,227. Population (1881) 90,178, namely, males 52,265,
and females 37,913. Hindus numbered 78,545; Sikhs, 3; Muham-
madans, 7243; Christians, 213; Buddhists, 3550; Kols and other
aboriginal tribes, 624. Proportion of males in total population, 57*28 ;
average density of population, 204 persons per square mile; villages
per square mile, 1*83; houses per square mile, 390; persons per
house, 5*2. This Sub-division comprises the two tlidnas or police
circles of Karsiang and the tardi or submontane tract at the foot of
the hills. In 1883. it contained 2 civil and 3 magisterial courts, with
a total regular police force of 88 officers and men.

Karsiang. — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Karsiang
Sub-division, Darjiling District, Bengal ; situated in the Lower Hima-
layas, on the road to Darjiling. Lat. 2 6° 52' 40" n., long. 88° 19' 30" e.
It is also an important station on the Darjiling-Himalayan Railway, 30
miles from its starting-point at Siliguri, and 20 miles from its terminus
at Darjiling. Distance from Calcutta by rail, 226 miles. It forms a
central point for the tea-planters between Darjiling and the plains, has
a good hotel, and is within easy reach of some of the most romantic
scenery in the wonderful ascent made by the hill railway. Population
(1881)4343; municipal income (1883-84), ^592; average incidence
of taxation, 2s. 4^d. per head of the population.

Kartairi. — River of Madras Presidency ; rising near the station of
Utakamand (Ootacamund) in the Nilgiri Hills District. After flowing
through the rich coffee-growing tract of Kartairi, at an elevation of about
6000 feet, it descends upon the plains in a series of beautiful waterfalls
and cascades at Kullar, and finally falls into the Bhavani near Metta-
polliem, in lat. n° 18' n., and long. 76 57' e. A small but rising
village has sprung up of late years on the saddle to the south of the

VOL. VIII. D



5 o KARTAK—KAR UMBHAR.

large waterfall, near the junction of the roads from Ootacamund,
Kunur (Coonoor), etc. A considerable trade in grain is carried on.
Population (1881) 496, inhabiting 103 houses.

Kartak (or Ketak).— Petty State in Khandesh District, Bombay
Presidency. — See Dang States.

Kartarpur. — Town and municipality in Jalandhar (Jullundur) tahsil,
Jalandhar District, Punjab. Lat. 31° 26' 39" N., long. 75 32' 28" e.
Situated on the Grand Trunk Road, 9 miles north of Jalandhar
town. Hereditary residence of the Sikh Guru or High Priest, and
therefore a place of great sanctity. Founded in 1588 by Guru Arjun,
whose father, Guru Ram Das, obtained the site from the Emperor
Jahangfr. When Arjun came to the place and desired to build his hut,
a demon who inhabited the trunk of a tree would not permit any wood
to be cut until the Guru promised that he should not be disturbed,
but should receive worship for ever at the shrine. Population (1868)
10,953; (1881) 9260, namely, Hindus, 4958; Muhammadans, 3191 ;
Sikhs, 1 1 05; and 'others,' 6. Number of houses, 1946. A third-
class municipality, with an income in 1881 of ^501 ; average incidence
of taxation, is. id. per head. Residence and gardens of the Guru,
whose annual income from jdgirs or land-grants amounts to about
^1300. The present (1883) Guru is a minor, and his estate is under
the management of the Court of Wards. The town is a place of incon-
siderable trade, but it possesses a good paved bazar, police station,
dispensary, post-office, middle school, and also indigenous schools.

Karumattampati. — Town in Palladam taluk, Coimbatore District,
Madras Presidency ; 16 miles east of Coimbatore town. Lat. ii° 7' n.,
long. 77° 4' e. Population (1872) 3374; (1881) 2963; number of
houses, 677. Hindus numbered 2316; Christians, 604; and Muham-
madans, 43. An early mission station, with a church built in 1660.

Karumattlir. — Town in Tirumangalam taluk, Madura District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 57' n., long. 79 59' e. Population (1871)
5775 J (1881) 4079, namely, 2128 males and 1951 females, occupying
488 houses. All, but three, are Hindus.

Karumbhar. — Island in the Gulf of Cutch (Kachchh), Nawanagar
State, Halar Division of Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. A coral
island surrounded by a reef, which drops down into deep water. Along
the shore the blown sand has accumulated and formed sandhills. The
centre is a mangrove swamp, or in parts plain sand, cut up by creeks
and overflowed at flood-tide. At the south-east corner, a little arable
land is cultivated during the season by Waghars (originally Hindu
pirates) from the mainland. The reefs of coral are covered with
anemones and living coral, where mud has not silted over them ;
the mud kills the coral, but affords nourishment to the mangroves
which grow readily on the coral reefs. On the north-west corner of



KARUN—KARUR. 51

the island is a lighthouse ; a whitewashed tower 30 feet high, with an
ordinary fixed white light, burning kerosine oil ; visible in clear
weather at a distance of 10 miles. The arc of illumination is S. 59
W. to N. 18 W. Lat. 22 26' n., long. 69 4' e.

Karun. — River of the Central Provinces ; rising in the Kanker
zaminddri, in lat. 21 10' n., and long. 8i° 25' e. It flows past
the town of Raipur, and falls into the Seo near Simga, in lat.
21 34' N., and long. 8i° 44' e. Though shallow and with a rocky
bottom, it is navigable during the rains ; and in times of extraordinary
floods, stores from Calcutta have been landed by it 3 miles west of
Raipur.

Karungalaikudi. — Village in Meliir td/u&, Madura District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 9 54' 45" n., long. 78 t,^' 30" e. Population (1881)
3528, namely, Hindus, 3373; Muhammadans, 127 ; and Christians, 28.

Ka-nip-pi. — Village in Amherst District, British Burma, situated
on the left or south bank of the Ka-riip-pi stream near its mouth.
Population (1877) 1297; (1881) 2041.

Kanir. — Taluk or Sub-division of Coimbatore District, Madras
Presidency. In the south-east corner of the District, the Erode branch
of the South Indian Railway passes through the tdhtk. Area, 613
square miles; 97 towns and villages. Population (1881) 177,155,
namely, 85,385 males and 91,770 females, occupying 39,720 houses.
Number of persons per square mile, 289. Hindus numbered 167,899,
or 94-8 per cent, of the population ; Muhammadans, 8305 ; and
Christians, 951. The tdhik contained in 1881 the following villages
with more than 3000 inhabitants: — Nerur (5610, living in 1288
houses), Gudahir (4944, living in 1208 houses), Uppidamangalam
(4821, living in 1045 houses), Sendamangalam (433°> living in s 9 8
houses), Palapatti (6351, living in 1368 houses), Velliyanai (5386, living
in 12T4 houses), Pavitram (3621, living in 870 houses), Punjaipiigalar
(3215, in 764 houses), and Venjamangudalur (3192, in 637 houses).
In 1883, there were 1 civil and 2 criminal courts; police stations
{thdnds), 7 ; regular police, 62 men. Land revenue, ^28,919.

Kanir (Carooroi Karuru ; Kdpovpa of Ptolemy ; Kdpovpa fiaaiXeiov
KrjpopoOpov; at different periods called Vanji and Garbhapiin). - To\\r\
and municipality in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency ; situated
on the left bank of the Amravati river, near its confluence with the
Kaveri. Lat. io° 57' 42" n., long. 78° 7' 16" e. Population (1872)
9378; (1881) 9205, namely, 4468 males and 4737 females, occupying
1539 houses. Hindus numbered 8176, or 88-8 per cent, of the popula-
tion; Muhammadans, 733 ; and Christians, 296. Head-quarters of the



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