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tion in 1 88 1 was divided into the following seven classes : — (1) Profes-
sional and official class, 8978; (2) domestic and menial class, 8147;
(3) commercial class, including bankers, merchants, traders, carriers,
etc., 3031; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including gardeners,
117,628; (5) industrial and manufacturing class, including artisans,
41,941; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, 22,646; (7) occupa-
tions not specified, 10,735. Panjabi is the language of the rural
communities, but Urdu is spoken in the towns, and is generally under-
stood by the peasantry.

Agriculture. — In spite of the unpromising appearance of its soil,
Ludhiana is a flourishing agricultural District, a result which must be
largely attributed to the untiring diligence of its Jat cultivators. Almost
all the available land has been brought under the plough, and in many
villages no waste ground is left for pasturage, the cattle being fed from
cultivated produce. Of a total area in 1883-84 of 881,738 acres,
731,388 acres, or 82-9 per cent, were returned as under cultivation,
of which 115,321 acres were irrigated, entirely by private enterprise.
Of the remaining area, 11,085 acres were grazing land, 67,928
acres were still available for cultivation, and only 71,337 acres un-
cultivable waste. Cereals are chiefly grown in the western part of
the District, while sugar-cane and cotton can be raised on the richer
soil of the eastern pargands. The area under each principal crop in
1883-84 was estimated as follows: — Rabi or spring crops — wheat,
177,644 acres; barley, 23,895 acres; gram, 121,286 acres; masur, 386
acres; tobacco, 1057 acres. Kharif 'or rain crops— -joar, 75,393 acres ;
Indian corn, 53,914 acres; moth, 50,525 acres ; rice, 2683 acres; miing,
5004 acres; mash, 3610 acres; cotton, 16,408 acres; hemp, 2853
acres; and sugar-cane, 14,109 acres. The rabi or spring harvest
is ordinarily sown from the middle of September to the middle of
November, and reaped from the middle of April to the middle
of May. The kharif or autumn crops, except sugar-cane and cotton
which have special seasons, are sown in July and August, and reaped
about the end of October. Until the opening of the Sirhind canal,


irrigation was confined to the leathern bucket ; and the painstaking
toil of the Jats in watering their arid fields is beyond all praise.
Wells are held in shares by the villagers, each proprietor being per-
mitted to draw water for a certain number of hours out of the twenty-
four, in proportion to the share to which he is hereditarily entitled ;
and the labour of watering never ceases by day or by night. The use
of manure is thoroughly appreciated. This account, however, refers
only to the general upland plain. The bet or valley of the Sutlej is
but poorly tilled by its Rajput proprietors ; and the scattered British
villages, which lie isolated among the native territory to the south, can
obtain no water except at such depths below the surface as render it
practically unavailable.

The Muhammadan portion of the peasantry are for the most part
involved in debt, from which the Hindu Jats are, as a rule, free. Most
of the villages are held m pattiddri tenure, the land having been originally
distributed by shares, which are still easily recognisable. Upwards cf
80 per cent, of the land is cultivated by the proprietors themselves.
Rents vary with the nature and capabilities of the soil; land fit for sugar-
cane or tobacco fetches^ 1, 4s. 8d. per acre, irrigated wheat lands bring
in from us. to 18s., and dry lands from 7s. to 12s. Agricultural
labourers are paid in grain ; cash wages prevail in the towns, at the
rate of from 4d. to 4^d. per diem. Prices in 1883 ruled as follows : —
Wheat, 25 sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; Indian corn, 38 sers per
rupee, or 3s. per cwt. ; Jodr, 40 sers per rupee, or 2s. iod. per cwt.

Natural Calamities. — Ludhiana is comparatively free from the press-
ing danger of famine, though it suffers much from drought. The
Settlement Officer is of opinion that no continuance of bad seasons
would in any human probability necessitate an importation of grain.
Prices may vary from very low rates to famine quotations, but the pro-
duce of the District would suffice for home consumption, even under
the most trying circumstances. The town of Ludhiana is now one of
the principal entrepots for the grain trade of the Punjab, and the com-
munications by rail, road, and river would be sufficient in the last resort
to avert the extremity of famine.

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The exports of Ludhiana are chiefly
confined to its raw material, including grain, cotton, wool, saltpetre,
and indigo; the principal imports are English goods, spices, and
the red madder dye, which are brought up the Sutlej to the ghat
opposite Ludhiana. Besides the chief town, Jagraon, Raikot, and
Machiwara are centres of local trade. The total annual value of the
exports for the whole District is estimated at ^377> I2 °; tnat of the
imports at ,£365,552. The manufactures are by no means inconsider-
able, including shawls, pashmina cloth, stockings, gloves, cotton goods,
furniture, carriages, and fire-arms. Two branches of the weaving



industry are carried on — (i) Woollen, consisting for the most part in
the manufacture of the fine cloth known as pashmina, Rampur c/iaddrs,
etc. ; (2) cotton, including gabrun (the 'Ludhiana cloth' of commerce),
k/ies, lungis, and the like. These industries give employment to about
three thousand hands, mostly working at single looms. There are
several metalled roads in Ludhiana, including a portion of the Grand
Trunk Road ; total length of roads, 346 miles. The Sind, Punjab,
and Delhi Railway passes through the centre of the District, for a
distance of 36 miles, with stations at Khanna, Sanhewal, and Ludhiana.
Its opening has given a great impetus to the grain trade, which is now
concentrated in the town of Ludhiana. The Sutlej affords navigable
water communication for 53 miles. The District has 6 printing-
presses, the most important of which are at the American Presbyterian
Mission and at the jail ; the others belong to native proprietors.

Administration. — The administrative staff of Ludhiana comprises a
Deputy Commissioner, with an Assistant and 2 extra-Assistants, a
Judge of the Small Cause Court, and 3 ta/isitddrs, besides the usual
medical and constabulary officers. The total revenue in 1872-73
amounted to ^103,795, of which ^85,215, or about four-fifths, was
contributed by the land-tax. In 1883-84, the total revenue was
returned at ,£127,659, of which ,£92,700, or over three -fourths,
was derived from the land-tax. The other principal items of revenue
are stamps and local rates. The incidence of the land revenue per
acre is heavier than in any other District of the Punjab, but the
collections are made without difficulty.

For police purposes, the District is divided into 10 police circles
(t/idnds). The imperial police force amounted in 1883 to 439 officers
and men, besides a municipal establishment of 101 constables. These
are supplemented by a force cf 796 village watchmen (chaukiddrs), who
keep watch and ward in the villages of the District, and in all the towns
except Ludhiana itself. The aggregate machinery for the protection
of persons and property accordingly consisted of 1336 persons, being 1
policeman to every 1-03 square mile of the area and every 463 of the
population. The number of persons brought to trial for all offences,
great or small, committed in Ludhiana during the year 1883 was 2206,
or 1 in every 280 inhabitants. In 1883, the daily average number of
prisoners in the District jail was 2 85.

Education has made great advances during the last ten years. In
1873 there were 184 schools, of which 68 were in receipt of Govern-
ment aid; the pupils numbered 6733, and the sum expended upon
instruction from the public funds amounted to ^1353. In 1883-84
the number of schools under Government inspection was 99, attended
by 4966 pupils, exclusive of a reported number of 388 indigenous
uninspected village schools in 1882-83, with 4364 pupils.


The District is sub-divided into 3 tahsils and 19 pargands, owned
by 83,067 shareholders. Municipalities have been established at
Ludhidna, Jagraon, Raikot, Machiwdra, Khanna, and Bhilolpur. The
aggregate revenue of these six towns amounted in 1871-72 to
^3277. In 1883-84, the income of the above municipalities had
increased to ^8934, the average incidence of taxation being 2s. ifd.
per head.

Medical Aspects. — In the upland portion of the District the atmo-
sphere is dry and healthy, being free from the malarious effluvia which
are so general a cause of febrile disorders on the plains of India. In
the Sutlej valley, however, the network of watercourses renders the
air extremely noxious after the floods of the rainy season, and deaths
from fever are frequent, often assuming an epidemic form. The tem-
perature varies from intense heat in the summer months to com-
paratively severe cold in December and January. In 1883, in the
month of May, the mean temperature was returned at 90-3° F., the
maximum being 114*3°, and the minimum 68*3°. In July, the mean
temperature was 89*4°, with a maximum of 112-8°, and a minimum of
74'3°. In December, the mean temperature was 56'o°, with a maximum
of 73'7°, and a minimum of 35 "8°. The average annual rainfall for the
twenty-five years ending in 1881 is returned at 28-17 inches. In 1883
the total rainfall was 39*6 inches, of which 26*5 inches fell between
June and September. The total number of deaths recorded in 1883
amounted to 14,628, or 24 per thousand ■ of which 8487 were assigned
to fever. Ophthalmia is of common occurrence, owing to the quantity
of sand-dust with w T hich the atmosphere is laden during the prevalence
of dry winds. There are 3 Government charitable dispensaries in the
District, from which 38,005 patients obtained assistance in 1883. [For
further information regarding Ludhiana, see the Gazetteer of Ludhidna
District, to be published by the authority of the Punjab Government in
the course of the present year (1885) ; also Report on the Revised Settle-
ment of Ludhidna District, by Mr. H. Davidson, C.S. (Lahore, 1859);
the Punjab Census Report for 1881 ; and the several Administration
and Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1884.]

Ludhiana. — Central tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab, lying
between 30° 45' 30" and 31° 1' n. lat., and between 75° 40' 30" and
76° \2 e. long. Area, 678 square miles. Population (1881) 307,559,
namely, males 169,139, and females 138,420 ; average density of popu-
lation, 453 persons per square mile. Classified according to religion,
there were in 1881 — Hindus, 130,478 ; Sikhs, 63,633 ; Muhammadans,
111,942; and 'others,' 1506. Total revenue, ^37,497. The adminis-
trative staff, including the District officers, consists of a Deputy
Commissioner, with a judicial assistant, 3 Assistant Commissioners, i
tahsilddr, 2 munsifs, and 5 honorary magistrates. These officers pre-



side over n civil and n criminal courts. Number of police circles
(thanas\ 5; strength of regular police, 226 men; village watchmen

(chauMddrs), 399.

Ludhiana. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters
of Ludhiana District, Punjab. Lat. 30 55' 25" n., long. 75 53' 30" e.
Situated on the high south bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), 8 miles from
the present bed of the river. Railway station on the Sind, Punjab,
and Delhi Railway. The town stands on low ground, with some large
open streets, but a greater number of small and tortuous alleys. The
fort lies to the north of the town on an open and detached space,
cleared after the Mutiny. Ludhiana town contained in 1868 a population
f 39,983, which had increased by 1881 to 44,163, namely, males 24,685,
and females 19,478. Muhammadans number 29,045 ; Hindus, 12,969 ;
Sikhs, 1077; Jains, 752; and 'others,' 320. Number of houses,
7041. Municipal income (1875-76), ^3193 5 (1883-84), ^6675, or
an average of 3s. per head.

Ludhiana was founded in 1480 by Yusaf and Nihang, princes of the
Lodhi family, then reigning at Delhi. In 1760 it fell into the hands of
the Rais of Raikot, who held it until the end of the last century, when
Ranjit Singh expelled them, and made over the town to Raja Bhag Singh
of Jhind. In 1809, General Ochterlony occupied it as Political Agent
for the cis-Sutlej States, at first only as a temporary cantonment ; but
Government afterwards compensated the Raja of Jhind for the loss,
and when the territory lapsed in 1834, retained the town as a military
station. The troops were removed in 1854, but a small detachment
continued to garrison the fort. The shrine of a Muhammadan saint,
Shaikh Abdul Kadir-i-Jalani, yearly attracts an important religious
gathering, frequented by Hindus and Musalmans alike.

The Muhammadan element preponderates strongly in the city, owing
to the large number of Kashmiri and Pathan settlers, the latter being
followers of the exiled royal family of Kabul, whose head, Shahzada
Shahpur, resides at Ludhiana as a pensioner of the British Government.
The Kashmiris retain their hereditary skill as weavers of shawls and pash-
mina cloth, the value of the quantity exported in 1883 being estimated
at ,£15,000. Shawls of the soft Rampur wool, cotton cloths, scarves,
turbans, furniture, and carriages also form large items in the thriving
trade of the town. Since the opening of the railway, Ludhiana has
become a great central grain mart, having extensive export transactions
both with the north and south. The public buildings include the fort,
District court-house, and Small Cause Court, railway station, tahsili,
police station, dak bungalow, sardi, jail, and Government charitable
dispensary. The American Presbyterian Mission has a church and
school, with a small colony of native Christians. The town bears a
bad reputation for unhealthiness.


Lughasi — One of the Native States in Bundelkhand, under the
Central India Agency and the Government of India. It is bounded
on the south-west, south, and south-east by the Chhatarpur State, and
on all other sides by Hamirpur District. When the British Govern-
ment assumed supremacy in Bundelkhand, the ancestor of the present
chief was found in possession of 1 1 villages, the title over which was
confirmed to him on his executing the usual deed of allegiance.
During the Mutiny in 1S57, the chief, Sardar Singh, was loyal to the
British Government, although half of the villages of Lughasi were laid
waste by the rebels in consequence of his fidelity. In reward for his
services, Sardar Singh received the title of Rao Bahadur, a jdgir of
^"200 a year, a dress of honour, and the privilege of adoption, which
was afterwards confirmed by sanad. The present chief, Rao Bahadur
Khet Singh, grandson of Sardar Singh, is a Bundela Hindu, and
was born about 1856. Area of the State, 47-2 square miles, with 12
villages and 936 houses. Population (1881) 6159, namely, Hindus,
6010; Muhammadans, 132; Jains, 5; and aboriginal tribes, 12. Esti-
mated revenue, ^1000. The military force consists of 7 guns with 4
gunners, and 90 infantry. The State contains a good school and several
roads, which were constructed during the time when it was under direct
British management during the minority of the present chief. The town
of Lughasi, with a fort and good bazar, is situated on the route from
Kalpi to J^balpur (Jubbulpore), 86 miles south of the former, and 183
miles north of the latter. Population (1881) 2167.

LugU. — Detached hill south of the central plateau of Hazaribagh
District, Bengal. Lat. 23 46' 45" n., long. 85 44' 30" e. A natural
fortress, forming a remarkable feature in this District. The northern
face has a bold scarp of 2200 feet in height; and the highest point is
3203 feet above the sea.

Luka (or Luba).— River in Assam, which is fed by several streams
rising in the hills forming the south-eastern corner of the Jaintia Hill
and the south-eastern corner of North Cachar ; after flowing south-west
through the Jaintia Hills, it falls into the main stream of the Surma,
near the market village of Mulaghul in Sylhet District.

Lukman-jO-Tando. — Town in Khairpur State, Sind, Bombay Presi-
dency. — See Tando Lukman.

Lumbaiong. — Mountain range in the Khasi Hills, Assam ; highest
peak, 4646 feet above sea-level.

Luiiawara. — Native State under the Political Agency of Rewa
Kantha in the Province of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Bounded on
the north by Dungarpur State, one of the Rajputana chiefships ; on the
east by Siinth and Kadana States of Rewa Kantha ; on the south by
the Godhra Sub-division of the British District of the Panch Mahals ;
and on the west by Edar State (Mahi Kantha) and Balasinor (Rewa



Kantha). The State is situated between 22 50' and 23 16' n. lat., and
between 73° 2 1' and 73° 47' e. long. Area, 388 square miles. Population
(1872)74,813; (188 1)75,450, occupying 1 town and 165 villages, contain-
ing 15,966 houses. Hindus numbered 71,870; Muhammadans, 3059;
and 'others,' 521. Density of population, 194-4 persons per square
mile. Lunawara is irregular in shape, and has many outlying villages,
the territory being much intermixed with that of Balasinor and with the
British Panch Mahals. The extreme length from north to south is 34
miles, and the extreme breadth from east to west 25 miles. About one-
third of the State has been alienated, some lands having been granted in
free gift, and others on service or other tenures. The soil is generally
stony, the hills are low and scantily covered with timber. Irrigation is
chiefly from wells ; though there are many reservoirs, and the river
Mahi flows through the terrritory. The climate is perhaps somewhat
cooler than in the neighbouring parts of Gujardt. The prevailing
disease is fever. Cereals and timber are the chief products. A well-
frequented route, between Gujarat and Malwa, passes through Luna-

Until 1825, the State was under the Political Agency of Mahi
Kantha. The Chief is descended from the Rajput dynasty that ruled
at Anhilwara Patan, and his ancestors are said to have established
themselves at Virpur in 1225. In 1434, the family removed to Luna-
wara, having in all probability been driven across the Mahi by the
increasing power of the Muhammadan kings of Gujarat. Lunawara
was tributary both to the Gaekwar and to Sindhia; the rights of the
latter ruler, guaranteed by the British Government in 181 9, were trans-
ferred by him with the cession of the Panch Mahals District in 1861.
The present (1884) chief, Maharana Wakhat Singhji, a Hindu of the
Solanki Rajput caste, was educated at the Rajkumar College at Rajkot,
and was installed in August 1880. He is entitled to a salute of 9 guns,
and has power to try his own subjects only for capital offences, without
the express permission of the Political Agent. He enjoys an estimated
gross yearly revenue of ^16,216, and pays a tribute of ^1800 jointly
to the British Government and the Gaekwar of Baroda ; military force,
204 men. The family hold no title authorizing adoption, but they
follow the rule of primogeniture. There were, in 1882-83, 12 schools,
with a total of 842 pupils. Something has been done towards abolishing
transit duties.

Lunawara. — Capital of Lunawara State, Rewa Kantha, Bombay
Presidency ; a fortified town, situated in lat. 23 8' 30" n., and long.
73° 39' 30" e., about 4 miles east of the confluence of the Mahi and
Panam rivers, and a mile north of the latter stream. Population
(1881) 9059, of whom 6488 were Hindus; 2248 Muhammadans;
•320 Jains; and 3 'others.' The town was founded by Ra'na Bhi'm



Singhji in 1434. According to the local legend, the chief one day went
hunting across the Mahi, and, having become accidentally separated
from his companions, found himself near the hut of a sadhu or ascetic.
He presented himself before the recluse, saluted him reverentially, and
remained standing until bidden to be seated. The sadhu was pleased
with his demeanour, and, auguring a great future for him and his
descendants, advised him to build a city in the forest. He told him to
proceed in an easterly direction, and to mark the point where a hare
would cross his path. The Rana did as directed ; a hare soon jumping
out of a bush. The Rana pursued and killed it with a spear, and
marked the spot, which, it is said, is now within the precincts of the
palace. The sadhu was a devotee of the god Luneswar, in honour of
whom the Rana called the town Lunawara. The shrine of the god still
stands outside the Darkuli gate. About the beginning of the 19th
century the town was a flourishing centre for traffic between Malwa and
central Gujarat. Its artisans were remarkable for their skill ; and a
brisk trade in arms and accoutrements went on. Jail, school, and dis-
pensary. A road has been constructed to Shera, a British village, 15
miles north of Godhra, the terminus of the Godhra branch of the
Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. The produce of the
State will find a ready market at Godhra.

Lushai (or Kuki) Hills. — A wild and imperfectly known tract of
country on the north-east frontier of India, extending along the southern
border of the Assam District of Cachar and the eastern border of the
Bengal District of Chittagong. On the east, the Lushai Hills stretch
away into the unexplored mountains of Independent Burma. This
extensive region is occupied by a numerous family of tribes, who are
known to us indifferently as Lushais or Kukis. The name ' Kuki ' is
found in early records of the last century, and is still commonly
applied to those colonies who have crossed the frontier and settled
within British territory ; but the appellation of ' Lushai ' has won official
recognition since the Lushai expedition of 1871-72. Among them-
selves these tribes are known by a variety of names, sometimes derived
from that of their prominent chiefs. The most northerly tribe in the
mountains between the State of Manipur and the Naga Hills is known
as the Quoireings. South of these are the Kupiii, who are subjects of
Manipur. The mountains south of Cachar are occupied by the Lushais
proper, under three principal chiefs. On the frontier of Chittagong,
the three best known clans are the Haulongs, the Sylus, and the Thang-
lowas. All these tribes are nomadic in their habits, and subject to
successive waves of migration. It is said that at the present time the
entire race of the Lushais is being forced southwards into British
territory, under pressure from the Soktis, who are advancing upon
them from Independent Burma.



The principal characteristic common to all the Lushais, in which
they markedly differ from the other tribes on the Assam frontier,
is their feudal organization under hereditary chiefs. Each village
is under the military command of a chief or Idl, who must come
of a certain royal stock, but who exercises his authority by the
voluntary submission of his subjects, as the number of his followers
depends upon the success which attends his border forays. The
chief exercises absolute power in the village; and his dignity and
wealth are maintained by a large number of slaves, and by fixed
contributions of labour from his free subjects. Like all other hill
tribes, the Lushais cultivate rice and a few more scanty crops on
clearings in the jungle, according to the jum or nomadic system of
agriculture ; but their main occupation is hunting and warfare. Their
domestic animals are the gaydl or wild cow, the hill goat, and the pig.
The gaydl is not kept for agriculture or for milking, but only for
slaughter at solemn sacrifices. Women are held in some sort of esti-
mation, though they perform the whole burden of both in-door and
out-door life. They are skilled at weaving a peculiar kind of rug or
puri, which forms to some extent an article of export. The other
articles which the Lushais bring down to the markets on the plains are
caoutchouc, ivory, raw cotton, and beeswax, in exchange for which they
take away rice, salt, tobacco, brass-ware, cloth, and silver. Both sexes
wear a homespun sheet of cotton cloth, which is generally dyed blue.
The women distend the lobes of their ears to an enormous extent with
discs of wood or ivory. The average height of the men is about 5 feet
8 inches. They are described as well made and wonderfully muscular,
but of a sulky and forbidding cast of countenance.

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 62 of 64)