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From the earliest times, the Lushais have been notorious for their
sanguinary raids into British territory, which are said to be instigated
by their desire to obtain human heads for use at their funeral cere-
monies. The Districts of Cachar, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Chittagong,
and the States of Manipur and Hill Tipperah, have repeatedly suffered
from these raids. The first of which we have record was in 1777,
under the Governor-Generalship of Warren Hastings, when the Chief
of Chittagong requested the presence of a detachment of sepoys ' for
the protection of the inhabitants against the Kukis.' In 1849, a
colony of Lushais, settled within the frontier of Cachar, was attacked
by their independent kinsmen, and forced to migrate northwards
across the Barak river, where they now live as peaceable British sub-
jects, and are known as ' Old Kukis.' In i860, a raid was made
upon the District of Tipperah, in which 186 Bengali villagers were
massacred and 100 carried away into captivity. Retributive expedi-
tions, consisting of small forces of sepoys, were repeatedly sent to
punish these raids ; but, owing to the difficult nature of the country



and the fugitive tactics of the enemy, no permanent advantage was

At last, the disturbed state of the frontier attracted the attention of the
supreme Government. A military demonstration in 1869 had entirely
failed in its object. Relying upon their belief in the impracticable
character of their native country, the Lushais made a series of simul-
taneous attacks in January 1871 upon British villages in Cachar,
Sylhet, and Tipperah, as well as on the independent State of Manipur.
In Cachar a party of Haulongs surprised the tea-garden of Alexandra-
pur. The tea-planter was killed, and his daughter, Mary Winchester,
was carried off as a hostage. The outpost of Monierkhal repelled a
number of attacks, lasting through two days, made by a second body of
Lushais from the eastern tribes, who finally retired with a large amount
of plunder, including many coolies and guns. Lord Mayo, who was
then Viceroy, resolved to make a vigorous effort to stop these inroads
once and for all.

The details of a punitory expedition were organized under the
immediate control of Lord Napier, the Commander-in-Chief. The
little army was composed of 2 Gurkha battalions, 2 regiments of Punjab
and 2 of Bengal Native infantry, with 2 companies of Sappers and
Miners, and a strong detachment of the Peshawar Mountain Battery.
This was divided into two columns. One was to advance from Cachar
under General Bourchier, with Mr. Edgar as Political Agent ; the other,
commanded by General Brownlow, and accompanied by Captain Lewin
as Political Officer, was to operate from Chittagong against the Haulong
tribes. The Cachar column started from Silchar in November 1871,
and entered the Lushai Hills at Tipdi-mukh. From that point it
advanced for about no miles southward through country previously
unexplored, encountering considerable resistance from the enemy.
Finally, the Lushai chiefs accepted the terms imposed upon them.
The return march was effected without firing a shot, and Tipai-mukh
was regained in the beginning of March 1872. The operations of
the Chittagong column were equally successful. It penetrated north-
wards for about 83 miles. The surveying staff that accompanied it
triangulated an area of 3000 square miles, and completed the connec-
tion between the Districts of Chittagong and Cachar. Fifteen powerful
chiefs tendered their personal submission ; Mary Winchester was
recovered, and upwards of 100 British subjects were liberated from
captivity. The actual loss in fighting was small, but a large number
both of soldiers and camp followers died from cholera.

Since the date of this expedition, the Lushdis have, on the whole,
remained quiet along the entire frontier. At the same time active
measures have been taken to open commercial intercourse between
them and the people of the plains. On the Cachar side, 3 bazars have


been established— at Tipai-mukh, Lushai-hat, and Jhaluachara — each
at the point where a river has its exit from the hills. Trade by barter
is briskly carried on, and the Lushai chiefs frequently send down
friendly messages. It has been estimated that the annual value of the
business done at these three marts is about ^10,000. On the Chitta-
gong frontier, similar bazars have been opened at Demagiri, Kasalang,
and Rangamati. Although the Lushai expedition of 1871-72 was
undoubtedly a sharp measure of retribution, its policy has been entirely
justified by the result.

In November 1883, disturbances occurred on the Chittagong
Hills frontier, two boats containing sepoys being attacked on the
Rangamati river above Barkal, in which a sepoy and a servant boy
were shot, and a second sepoy drowned. The boats were plundered
of money and clothes, and the raiders retreated, pursued by men of a
friendly village. The raid is supposed to have been committed by the
Shendus, instigated thereto by the Sylus, with the object of throwing
suspicion on their enemies, the Haulongs. The information, how-
ever, was too vague to justify retaliatory measures ; and no further action
was taken beyond strengthening the outposts, and distributing a few
muskets with ammunition to the friendly villages to enable them to
defend themselves against the hostile tribes. A darbar or public recep-
tion and a meld or fair, held by the Deputy Commissioner of the
Chittagong Hill Tracts at Rangamati in January 1884, proved very
successful, although the two principal Haulong chiefs refused to
appear. Rumours of intended raids along the Assam and Chittagong
frontier were current till the end of January 1884; but on the frontier
police being reinforced, the excitement gradually died out, and no
disturbances have occurred since. [For further information regarding
the Lushai and Kuki tribes, see The Hill Tracts of Chittagong and the
Dwellers therein, by Captain Lewin (Calcutta, 1869), and A Narrative
of the Lushai Expedition, by Lieut. Woodthorpe.]

Lushington Falls. — Picturesque falls in North Kanara District,
Bombay Presidency. — See Unchhali.

Lyng-ker-dem. — Mountain range in the District of the Khasi and
Jaintia Hills, Assam. Elevation of highest peak above sea-level, 5000


Macharda.— Village on the outskirts of the Dalasa Hills, Kathia-
war, Bombay Presidency, 40 miles south-west of Rajkot. In December
1867, Captain Hebbert was mortally wounded here when leading an
attack against the Vagher outlaws led by Deo Manik. Captain La


Touche also was shot dead during the assault. The two officers
lie buried in a small enclosure near Macharda. A pillar is erected in
memory of the fight on Tobar hill, a small hill in the lands of the village.
A tablet in Rajkot church also commemorates the event. Population
of village (1881) 340.

Machari.— Village in Alwar (Ulwur) State, Rdjputana; situated in
lat. 27 15' n., and long. 76 42' e. ; 76 miles south-west of Mathura
(Muttra), 3 north-east of Rajgarh. Machari was the residence of Sher
Shah's famous wazir Hemu, and was only captured by Akbar's troops
after a fierce resistance. It was occupied by Rao Anand Singh, son
of Rao Kalian Singh, the ancestor of the Alwar family, about 1671 ;
and was the head-quarters of the family until the acquisition of the
fort of Alwar in 1775. Machari contained in 1878, 2352 inhabitants,
inhabiting 593 houses.

Machavaram (Matckavaram, Matsavaram). — Town in Amala-
piiram taluk, Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Population (1881)
4637, inhabiting 824 houses. Situated in the Godavari delta, 4 miles
north-north-west from Amalapuram.

Machhgaon. — Port in Cuttack District, Bengal ; situated in lat. 1 9
58' n., and long. 86° 21' e. ; 9 miles from the mouth of the Devi
estuary. A rising town, with extensive rice trade. Sea-going brigs
cannot get up to the port, but float in with the tide as far as possible,
and are laden from country boats.

Machhgaon Canal. — One of the canals of the Orissa system (see
Cuttack District), connecting Cuttack town with Machhgaon at the
mouth of the Devi river. It starts from the Taldanda Canal at
Birbati (lat. 20 28' n., long. 86° o' 30" e.), and was opened in 1871
as far as Singapur, where it crosses the branch of the Kdtjuri, which
falls into the Mahanadi at Jayapur. It joins the Devi river in lat.
20 3' n., and long. 86° 17' e. Total length of the main canal, 53

Machhligaon. — Village in Gonda District, Oudh. Population,
chiefly Hindus. A famous temple dedicated to Karhuanath Mahadeo
is situated near the village, and a considerable fair is held every year
on the occasion of the Sivardtri festival.

Machhlishahr. — South-western tahsil of Jaunpur District, North-
western Provinces, lying for the most part south of the river Giimti,
and consisting of pargands Ghiswa, Miingra, Badshahpur, and Garwara.
The tahsil is triangular in shape, and is intersected by the Sai and
Bhadohi rivers in a south and south-easterly direction, while the Barna
forms its southern boundary. The principal line of communication is
the metalled road from Allahdbad to Jaunpur, besides a number of
unmetalled cross-country roads. Rice forms the principal crop in the
low-lying land of Miingra and Ghiswa pargands. Population (1872)


192,113; (1881) 238,759, namely, males 120,797, and females 117,962.
Total increase in nine years, 46,646, or 24-2 per cent. Classified
according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 219,953 ; Muham-
madans, 18,800; and Christians, 6. Of the 606 inhabited villages,
435 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; and two towns,
Machhlishahr and Mungra Badshahpur, have upwards of five
thousand inhabitants. Of the total adult population, 1552 are returned
as landholders, 68,286 as agriculturists, and 7150 as engaged in
occupations other than agriculture. Total area, according to the latest
official statement (1881), 353 square miles, of which 344-9 square miles
are assessed for Government revenue. Of the assessed area, 195*3
square miles are returned as cultivated, 55*2 square miles as cultivable,
and 94-4 square miles as uncultivable waste. Land revenue, ,£28,239,
or including local rates and cesses levied on land, ^32,706. Amount
of rent, including cesses, paid by cultivators, £^A^>1' In l88 3 tne
tahsil contained 1 court, 5 police stations, with a regular police of 81
men, and a village watch or rural police of 5 1 1 chaukiddrs.

Machhlishahr.— Town in Jaunpur District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, and head-quarters of Machhlishahr tahsil. Situated on the
metalled road to Allahabad, 18 miles west-south-west of Jaunpur town,
in lat. 25 41' 10" n., and long. 82 27' 16" e. The ancient name of
the town was Ghiswa, derived from the name of the Bhar chief Ghisu,
who is said to have ruled the pargand, and founded the town. It is
situated in the midst of a low-lying damp tract of country, and its
present name of Machhlishahr, or ' City of Fishes,' was given to it
owing to its liability to floods during the rainy season. The original
inhabitants of the town were Bhars, who were expelled during the
Rajput invasions. The Rajputs were ousted in their turn by the
Musalmans, and the place has ever since been a Muhammadan town.
Population (1872) 8715 ; (1881) 9200, namely, Muhammadans, 4762 ;
Hindus, 4432 ; and Christians, 6. Area of town site, 522 acres. The
town was formerly of considerably more importance than at present.
It was at one time noted for its salt and cloth manufactures ; but it has
long been on the decline, and now presents the appearance of a quiet
agricultural centre whose days of prosperity have gone by. Cultivation
extends up to the walls, and there are a number of fine trees and
groves. For police and sanitary purposes, a small house-tax is raised,
amounting in 1882-83 to £197. Besides the ordinary sub-divisional
courts and offices, the town contains an Anglo - vernacular school,
imperial post-office, first-class police station, charitable dispensary,
and a military encamping ground.

Machhreta— Pargand in Misrikh tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh ;
bounded on the north by Ramkot, on the east by the Sarayan river, on
..the south by Gundlamau, and on the west by Kurauna and Misrikh,


Population (1869) 37,677; (1881) 40,672, namely, males 21,400, and
females 19,272. Area, 10S square miles, or 68,990 acres, of which
41,434 acres are cultivated, 18,524 acres are cultivable, 544 acres mudfi,
and 8488 acres uncultivable waste ; average incidence of land-tax,
2s. ofd, per acre of total area, 2s. 4fd. per acre of assessed area, and
3s. 5jd per acre of cultivated area. The pa rgand was first constituted
by Rdja Todar Mall, in whose time the lands were held by an Ahban
Raja, Kesri Singh by name. He was deposed by Akbar, and his
estates conferred on two Kayasths, whose father had been diwdn to the
Ahban chieftain, and had been put to death by him. On their death,
various petty zamindars possessed themselves of the estate. Out of
125 villages comprising the pargand, 99 are held by Rajputs, 10 by
Kayasths, 6 J by Brahmans, 2 by a Bairagi, and 7 J by a Muhammadan

Machhreta.— Town in Misrikh tahsil, Sitapur District, Oudh ;
situated on the road from Khairabad to Nimkhar, on the Gumti, 16
miles south of Sitapur town. Lat. 27 25' n., long. 8o° 41' E. Popu-
lation (1869) 4578; (1881) 4177, namely, 2358 Hindus and 1819
Muhammadans. Daily bazar ; manufactures of coarse cloth and sugar.

Machida.— Estate or zaminddri attached to Sambalpur District,
Central Provinces; 25 miles north-west of Sambalpur town. Area, 10
square miles, with 9 villages, and 278 occupied houses. Population
(1881) 1073, principally Gonds and Kultas. Machida, the chief village
(lat. 21 49' n., long. 83 38' e.), has a school, with about 30 pupils.
The family of the zaminddri of Gond descent, and obtained the estate
a century ago. Formerly turbulent and lawless, they have now settled
down to peaceful pursuits. The estate is free of jungle, and the
principal crops are rice, cotton, and oil-seeds.

Machiwara.— Town and municipality in Samrala tahsil, Ludhiana
District, Punjab. Lat. 3c 55' N., long. 76 14 3°" E - Situated on
the high southern bank of the Sutlej, 23 miles south of Ludhiana
town. Population (1868) 6062 ; (1881) 59^7, namely, Muhammadans,
3710; Hindus, 1948; Sikhs, 151 \ and Jains, 158. Number of
houses, 963. Ancient Hindu city, mentioned in the Mahdbharata,
but now commercially unimportant. Two very early mosques, several
Hindu shrines, and a very sacred Sikh Gurudwdra. Considerable
centre of sugar manufacture. Police station ; school-house. Municipal
revenue in 1875-76, ^288; in 1883-84, £^06, or is. 2U. per head
of population within municipal limits.

Mackesoil, Fort.— Small frontier fort in Peshawar District, Punjab ;
situated at the foot of the Khattak range, 3$ miles from the entrance
of the Kohat pass. It consists of a pentagon, an inner keep and a
horn work, with accommodation for 200 infantry and 300 cavalry. The
fort is no longer garrisoned by troops., and the question of dismantling


it is now (1884) under the consideration of Government. In the
meantime it is held by a force of border police and frontier militia. Lat.

33° 45' 45" N -> lon g- 7i° 36' 15" E -

Madahpura. — Sub-division of Bhagalpur District, Bengal, lying
between 25 24' and 26 7' n. lat., and between 86° 38' 45" and 87
9' e. long. Area, 872 square miles; villages and towns, 900;
houses, 67,548. Population (1871) 391,086 ; (1881) 398,006, namely,
males 198,472, and females 199,534. Classified according to religion,
there were in 1881 — Hindus, 372,009; Muhammadans, 25,973; and
Christians, 24. Proportion of males in total population, 497 per
cent.; average density of population, 456 persons per square mile;
number of villages per square mile, 1 '03 ; persons per village, 442 ;
houses per square mile, 79*5 ; inmates per house, 5*9. The Sub-division
comprises the 2 police circles (thdnds) of Kishenganj and Madahpura.
In 1883 there was 1 magisterial and 1 civil and revenue court, a
regular police of 38 men, and a rural force 1843 strong. This
Sub-division is liable to disastrous floods caused by inundations from
the Kiisi river.

Madahpura. — Town in Bhagalpur District, Bengal, and head-
quarters of Madahpura Sub-division ; situated in lat. 25 55' 40" N., and
long. 86° 49' 51" e., on the right bank of the river Parwana, on the
high-road to Supiil, and about 52 miles from Bhagalpur town. Popu-
lation (1881) 3602. Contains the usual Government sub-divisional
buildings, sardi or native hotel, small bazar. Government-aided school,
dispensary, post-office, excise office ; police force, 26 men. The events
chronicled in the popular ballad of Liirik, the deified cowherd, occurred
for the most part in this neighbourhood. For an account of the legend,
see Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xiv. pp. 87-89.

Madaksira. — Taluk in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency.
Population (1881) 55,113, namely, 27,650 males and 27,463 females;
number of houses, 12,512. Hindus numbered 53,309; Muhammadans,
1675; Christian, 1 ; and 'others,' 128. The area is 451 square
miles, the number of villages, 159. In the south the country is
hilly and rocky. Towards the west it is level, and nearly every
available acre has been taken up for cultivation. The soil is fertile ;
and the water-supply bountiful. The taluk contains 2 criminal courts ;
police stations {thdnds), 5; regular police, 44 men. Revenue (1883),

Madaksira.— Town in Anantapur District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 1 3 56' 30" n., long. 77 18' 40" e. Population (1881) 4489 ;
number of houses, 1299. Formerly the stronghold of a powerful
pdlegdr of Vijayanagar ; seized by Morari Rao in 1741, and by Haidar
All in 1769. The fort was built on a rock above the town, which was
itself walled and protected by a ditch.


Madanapalli. — Tdluk in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras
Presidency. Area, 593 square miles. Population (1881) 106,215,
namely, 53,900 males and 52,315 females; villages, 103; houses,
24,854. Hindus number 98,735; Muhammadans, 7173; Christians,
306 ; and ' others,' 1. Madanapalli tdluk occupies the extreme south-
west corner of Cuddapah District. The country is hilly, with the
exception of the south-western part where it meets the Mysore plateau.
The soil is, for the most part, good. The tdluk contains 1 civil and
3 criminal courts ; police stations (t/idnds), 9 ; regular police, 90 men.
Land revenue, ,£15,368.

Madanapalli (' Cupid's hamlet '). — Town in Cuddapah District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 13 33' 37" n., long. 78 32' 45" E. ;
pleasantly situated on the Cuddapah upland, 2500 feet above sea-level,
and consisting of 3 hamlets (Madanapalligadda, Madanapalli, and
Batalanuttigadda). Population with hamlets (1881) 7106, namely,
3513 males and 3593 females; number of houses, 1856. Hindus
numbered 5801; Muhammadans, 1176 ; Christians, 128; and 'others,' 1.
The central portion, or Madanapalli hamlet, according to the Census,
contains 5700 persons. The head-quarters of Madanapalli tdluk, of
the Sub-Collector and of the assistant superintendent of police. Good
dispensary, hospital, post-office, and a Government and mission school.
The town and tdluk suffered severely in the famine of 1876-78.

Madanganj— Town in Dacca District, Bengal; on the Lakhmia
river, opposite Narayanganj Town, of which it in reality forms a part,
having been established by the merchants of that place, who were
pressed for space in Narayanganj, Large and increasing trade in
country produce. Total population of Narayanganj, with Madanganj
(1872), 10,911 ; (1881) 12,508 (males 7558, and females 495°)> namely,
Hindus, 6324; Muhammadans, 6160; and 'others,' 24. The united
towns form a single municipality of the first class. Municipal in-
come of Narayanganj with Madanganj (1883-84), £2096; average
incidence of taxation, 3s. ifd.

Madanpur. — Estate or zaminddri in Mungeli tahsil, Bilaspur
District, Central Provinces. Area, 25 square miles. Population (1881)
7616 (males 3733, and females 3883), residing in 38 villages, which are
intermixed with the villages of Mungeli ta/isil. Chief crop, rice ; but
wheat, gram, etc. are also grown. The zaminddr is a Raj-Gond, and
the grant dates from 181 2.

Madapollam (Mad/iavdyapalew).— Decayed weaving and dyeing
village, a suburb of Narsapur, Godavari District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 16 26' n., long. 8i° 44 20" e. Population (1881) 1506, inhabit-
ing 278 houses. Madapollam was an important 'Lodge' or manu-
facturing village and entrepot for cotton goods during the commercial
period of the East India Company, and gave its name to a class of



goods still known in the market as Madapollams. Madapollam was
attached to the Masulipatam Factory. — See Narsapur.

Madari.— Small river in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas,
Bengal, with the grain marts of Chaital and Bansra on its banks.

Madaria (or Gold). — Town in Bansgaon tahsil, Gorakhpur District,
North-Western Provinces ; situated in lat. 26 20' 50" n., long. 83 23'
40" e., ^t, miles south of Gorakhpur town, on what was once the bank
of the Kuana river, and is now the bank of the Gogra (Ghagra). A
rising and flourishing town and trade centre, with a population in 1872
of 5147, and in 1881 of 7193, namely, Hindus, 6466; Muhammadans,
725 ; and Christians, 2. Area of town site, 74 acres. Some fine groves
which surround the town, and the river which flows past it, give the
place an appearance from a distance which a closer inspection dispels.
Madaria consists of one narrow, straggling street of shops running
parallel to the Gogra, and separated from it by a thick mass of mud
houses, through which a network of narrow lanes run down to the
river-side. Several large masonry houses, however, line the river bank,
and the traders have of late years shown much rivalry in erecting fine
temples. For police and conservancy purposes, a small house-tax is
raised. The town is the head-quarters of a Sub-division of the Opium
Department, and contains a first-class police station, imperial post-
office, and a good elementary school.

Madaripur (Mandaripur). — Sub-division of Faridpur District,
Bengal. Area, 979 square miles; villages and towns, 1515; houses,
88,450. Population (1872) 631,504; (1881) 689,704, namely, males
338,484, and females 351,220. Muhammadans numbered 396,355 ;
Hindus, 291,231 ; and Christians, 21 18. Average density of population,
704*5 persons per square mile; villages per square mile, 1*55 ; houses
per square mile, 91*56; persons per village, 455; persons per house, 7*8.
The Sub-division comprises the thdnds or police circles of Madaripur,
Gopalganj, Kotwalipara, Palang, and Sibchar. It contained in 1883,
3 civil and 4 magisterial courts, with a regular police force of 109
officers and men and a village watch or rural constabulary of 1209 men.

Madaripur.— River mart and municipality in Faridpur District,
Bengal, at the confluence of the Arial Khan and Kumar rivers,
and head - quarters of Madaripur Sub-division. Population (1881)
12,298, namely, Hindus, 8181, and Muhammadans, 41 17. Municipal
income (1883-84), ^653; incidence of taxation, 9^. per head of
population within municipal limits. Large import trade in salt, rice,
piece-goods, and timber, and still larger export trade in jute, sugar, oil-
seeds, betel-nuts, and onions.

Madavarvilagam.— Town in Srivillipatur tdluk, Tinnevelli District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9 30' n, long. 77 38' 20" e. The popula-
tion which in 1871 was returned at 9955, living in 2267 houses, was


at the Census of iSSt returned at 1392 only, inhabiting 333 houses.
It is a suburb of Srivillipatur town, and contains a fine pagoda and
a tower dedicated to Siva.

Maddikera.— Town in Pattikonda taluk, Karnul (Kurnool) District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 15' N., long. 77° 28' E. Population
(1881) 6181 ; number of houses, 136S. Hindus numbered 5440;
Muhammadans, 654; Christians, 77; and 'others,' 10. Situated at
the source of the Hindri river, about 3 miles north-east of Nancharla
station, and about 1 1 miles north of Guntakal junction station, on the
north-west line of the Madras Railway.

Maddlir.— An old taluk, Mysore District, Mysore State. In 1875,
the greater part was added to Mandya taluk, and the remainder to

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