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Kanir taluk ; with post-office, railway station, court, etc.

Kariir was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Chera or Eastern
Kerala. During the struggles between the rival dynasties of Chera,



5 2 KAR VIR—KAR WAITNA GAR.

Chola, and Pandya, it changed hands more than once. With the
rise of the Nayaks, Karur fell to the kingdom of Madura ; but it was
frequently attacked and occupied by the Mysore armies, until towards the
end of the 17th century it was finally annexed to the latter kingdom,
and became its most important frontier post. In 1736, Chanda Sahib
besieged it unsuccessfully.

In the year 1760, the town was captured by the English after a
short siege, and held by them till 1768, when it was retaken by
Haidar Ali, to whom its possession was confirmed by treaty in
the following year. In 1783, Colonel Lang held the fort for a
few months. It was a third time captured in 1790 by General
Medows, and again restored in 1792. At the close of the second
Mysore war, in 1799, which ended with the death of Tipu Sultan,
Karur was finally ceded to the English, and was abandoned as a
military station in 1801. The ruins of this oft-contested fort remain,
and, with the old temple, are the principal points of interest in the
town. The fort, however, is in some places nearly obliterated. The
Jesuit fathers established a mission here as early as 1639.

Karur is now a busy market town, with an excellent road system
converging on it. It is a station on the Erode branch of the South
Indian Railway, and is an important centre of traffic. The municipality
had in 1882-83 an income from taxation, excluding Imperial licence
tax, of ,£861, the incidence of taxation being is. per head of the
population.

Karvir. — A local name of Kolhapur, q.v. Chief town of Kolhapur
State. Karvir has been used by the natives for the Kolhapur capital
from the time of the early Deccan dynasties.

Karwaitnagai*. — Zaminddri estate in North Arcot District, Madras
Presidency; situated between 13 4' and 13° 36' 30" n. lat, and
between 79 17' and 79° 53' e. long. Area, 6S0 square miles; number
of villages, 792; population (1871) 289,894; (1881) 275,830, namely,
males 139,882, and females 135,948, occupying 41,075 houses. Average
density of population, 406 persons per square mile. Hindus in 1881
numbered 272,101, or nearly 99 per cent, of the total population;
Muhammadans, 3668; Christians, 54; and 'others,' 7.

The estate is bounded north by Chandragiri, east by Kalahasti
and Chengalpat, south by Walaja-pet, and west by Chittur. The region
is hilly, and is traversed by the north-west line of the Madras Rail-
way. Timber is cut on the Nagari Hills, and sent by rail to Madras.
Sixty per cent, of the land is uncultivable ; one-half the remainder, or
about 100,000 acres, is under the plough. Indigo is largely cultivated.
The zaminddri is described in Orme as Bommarauze's country, Bom-
marauze being a leading palegdr in the period of the early Karnatik wars.
Permanent revenue or tribute (fieshkash), ^18,049; estimated gross



KARWAITNAGAR TOWN— KARWAR. 53

rental, about ,£60,000. A very fertile tract, with a hardy and intelli-
gent peasantry. Sub-magistrates are stationed at Puttiir and Tirutani,
the head-quarters of divisions of the zamindari. The chief manu-
facture is weaving. There are 117 miles of road in the estate.

Karwaitnagar. — Principal town in Karwaitnagar estate, North
Arcot District, Madras Presidency. Situated seven miles west of
Puttur, and a station on the north-west line of the Madras Railway.
Population (1871) 6894; (1881) 5874. Hindus numbered 5317;
Muhammadans, 554; and Christians, 3. Karwaitnagar was formerly
strongly fortified, and surrounded by a broad wall, eight feet high,
having two gates, one on the south and one on the west. Only traces
of these works now remain.

Karwar. — Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 281 square miles; contains 1 town and 51 villages, with
8590 houses. Population (1872) 45,131; (1881) 47>742, or 23,738
males and 24,004 females. Hindus numbered 40,886 ; Muhammadans,
2909; Christians, 3896; Jews, 21; and 'others,' 30.

The Sub-division lies in the north-west of the District, with a coast-
line of eighteen miles. The Kalinadi flows from east to west through
the centre, and as it enters the sea throws up a bar of sand impassable to
any but small craft. Along both banks of the river, broad belts of rice
land, broken by groves of palms and other fruit trees, stretch east to
near the Sahyadri hills. The soil on the plains is sandy, and near
the hills is much mixed with granite. On the banks of the Kalinadi,
and along the sea-shore, are large tracts of gajni land, a black alluvial
deposit charged with salt and liable to be flooded at high tides. To
bring these gajni lands under tillage, a strong and costly wall must be
built to keep out the sea. A heavy rainfall is required to sweeten the
land, and then, without much manure and with due care, rich crops may
be raised. Throughout the Sub-division the villages are not gathered
into streets, but the houses are scattered along narrow lanes, standing
in shady cocoa-palm gardens, some tiled and some thatched, each with
its well, bathing-place, and cattle-shed. Here and there is a well-
built temple, and a few villages have a Roman Catholic church.

The Sub -division contains three ports, namely Sadashivgarh,
Karwar, and Chendia, which are grouped for customs purposes
into the Karwar division. The value of imports of merchandise and
treasure (exclusive of Government stores and treasure) in 1882-83
from Indian ports, British or other, amounted to ,£219,493, and
from foreign ports ^10,947, making a total of ,£230,440. The
exports to Indian ports, British or other, stood at ^35 6 > I1[ 7> and
to foreign ports ,£4635, the total being ;£3 6o >75 2 - The average
annual value of the trade at the Karwar customs division, during
the five years ending 1882-83, is returned as follows : — Imports,



54 KARWAR TOWA T .

^204,280, and exports, ,£535,143. The number of vessels, steam,
sailing, and native craft, which entered with cargoes the three ports
of the customs division in 18S2-83 from Indian ports, British or
other, was 949, tons 172,145, of which 118 were steamers, tons
157,621; and from foreign ports 5, all sailing, tons 385. The
vessels which cleared with cargoes for Indian ports, British or other,
numbered 995, tons 180,925, of which 117 were steamers, tons
156,097; and for foreign ports one, a steamer, tons 1514. The
chief imports, most of which are for local use, are wheat, tobacco,
and European cloth. The exports are chiefly cotton, native hand-made
cloth, and husked and unhusked rice.

Karwar (Carwar ; Kddwdd). — Chief town, port, and municipality
of Karwar Sub - division, and the head - quarters of North Kanara
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 14 50' n., long. 74 14' e. ; 50
miles south-east of Goa, and 295 miles south-east of Bombay. Popula-
tion (1872) 13,263; (1881) 13,761, namely, males 7155, and females
6606. Hindus numbered 10,740; Muhammadans, 1099; Christians,
1848; Jains, 31 ; Parsis, 17 ; and ' others,' 26. The municipal income
of the town in 1882-83 was ^963, of which ^760 were derived from
taxation; average incidence of taxation, is. i^d. per head of the
population.

History. — Old Karwar, on the banks of the Kalinadi, 3 miles to the
east of Karwar (the new town), was once an important place of com-
merce. During the first half of the 17th century, the Karwar revenue
superintendent, or desdi, was one of the chief officers of the Bijapur
kingdom, of which it formed a part. In 163S, the fame of the pepper
of Sonda induced Sir William Courten's Company to open a factory at
Karwar. In 1660 the factory was prosperous, exporting the finest
muslins in Western India ; the weaving country was inland to the east,
at Hubli and other centres, where as many as 50,000 weavers were
employed. Besides the great export of muslin, Karwar provided
pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and coarse blue cotton cloth {dungari).
In 1665, Sivajf, the founder of the Maratha power, exacted a con-
tribution of ,£112 from the English. In 1673, tne faujddj\ or
military governor, of Karwar laid siege to the factory. In 1764,
Sivaji burnt Karwar town ; but the English were treated civilly, and
no harm was done to the factory. In 1676, the factory suffered
from the exactions of local chiefs, and the establishment was
withdrawn in 1679. It was restored in 1682 on a larger scale than
before. In 1684, the English were nearly driven out of Karwar;
the crew of one of two small vessels having stolen and killed
a cow. In 1685, the Portuguese stirred the desdis of Karwar and
Sonda to revolt. During the last ten years of the 17th century, the
Dutch made every attempt to depress the English pepper trade ; and in



KARWAR TOWN.



55



1697 the Marithds laid Karwar waste. In 1715, the old fort of
Karwar was pulled down, and Sadashivgarh was built by the Sonda
chief. The new fort seriously interfered with the safety of the English
factory ; and owing to the hostility of the Sonda chief, the factory was
removed in 1720. The English, in spite of their efforts to regain the
favour of the Sonda chiefs, were unable to obtain leave to re-open their
factory at Karwar till 1750. The Portuguese in 1752 sent a fleet and
took possession of Sadashivgarh. As the Portuguese claimed the
monopoly of the Karwar trade, and were in a position to enforce their
claim, the English agent was withdrawn. In 1801, old Karwar was in
ruins.

The new town dates from after the transfer of North Kanara District
to the Bombay Presidency in 1862. Before the transfer, it was a mere
fishing village. The present town and neighbouring offices and
residences are in the lands of six villages, and within the municipal
limits of the town are nine villages. A proposal was strenuously urged
in Bombay to connect Karwar by a railway with the interior, so as to
provide a seaport for the southern cotton districts. Between 1867-74,
the hope that a railway from Karwar to Hubli would be sanctioned
raised the value of building sites at Karwar, and led to the construc-
tion of many warehouses and dwellings. The scheme has been finally
abandoned in favour of the Marmagoa-Hubli line. As soon as this
line is opened, the importance of Karwar, as a seaport and market
town, will greatly diminish, as all cotton, grain, and spices will be sent
to Marmagoa. Already (1882) several old Karwar merchants have
left for Goa, and many more are expected to follow.

Karwar is the only safe harbour between Bombay and Cochin during
all seasons of the year. In the bay is a cluster of islets called the
Oyster Rocks, on the largest of which, Devgarh island, a lighthouse
has been built, 210 feet above the sea, containing a white fixed
dioptric light of the first order, on a white granite tower 72 feet high,
visible 25 miles. There are two smaller islands in the bay (180 and
120 feet above the level of the sea), which afford good shelter to
native craft and small vessels during the strong north-west winds that
prevail from February to April. From the Karwar post-office on a
white flagstaff, 60 feet from the ground and 65 feet above high-water, is
displayed a red fixed ship's light, visible five miles; with the light
bearing east-south-east, a vessel can anchor in three to five fathoms.
About five miles south-west and two miles from the mainland, Anjidiva
rises steep from the sea, dotted with trees and the houses of its small
Portuguese settlement. Coasting steamers belonging to the British
India Steam Navigation Company call weekly at Karwar throughout
the year. These steamers generally make the trip between Karwar
and Bombay in 48 hours. The average annual value of the trade at



5 6 KAR WI SUB-DIVISION AND TO WN

Karwar port, not of the Karwar customs division, during the five years
ending 1880-81, is returned as follows: — Imports, ^"232,306, and
exports, ^"278,073. The imports for 1880-81 amounted 10^187.882 ;
and the exports to ,£270,116. Courts, post and telegraph offices, civil
hospital, etc.

Karwi (Kirwee). — Sub-division of Banda District, North-Western
Provinces; situated between 24 53' and 25 19' n. lat., and between
8o° 50' and 81 ° 18' e. long. Comprises the three tahsils of Karwi,
Kamasin, and Mau (Mhow), also known as the Tirohan, Darsenda, and
Chibu tahsils. This tract contains an area of 1292 square miles, and
consists of two distinct portions, the mountains of the south, and the
level plain extending from the foot of the hills northward to the Jumna.
The latter region is well wooded and widely cultivated. Formerly a
separate munsift existed at Karwi, but the jurisdiction has recently been
added to that of the subordinate Judge's Court at Banda. The Joint
Magistrate for the Sub-division has his station at the town of Karwi ,
where an assistant superintendent of police is also stationed.

Karwi (more properly Tirohan). — South-eastern tahsil of Banda
District, North-Western Provinces ; consisting chiefly of rugged sand-
stone hills, the outliers of the Vindhyan system, and traversed by the
Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) branch of the East Indian Railway, which has
two stations within its boundaries, at Manikpur and Markundi. Area,
572-8 square miles, of which 147*3 square miles are cultivated. Popu-
lation stationary, being returned at 85,323 in 1872, and 85,318 in 1881.
Classified according to religion, the population in the latter year consisted
of — Hindus, 82,205 ; Muhammadans, 3086 ; Jains, 14; and 'others,' 13.
Number of villages, 189, of which 137 contained less than 500 inhabitants.
Land revenue, ^9456; total Government revenue, ,£10,591; rental
paid by cultivators, .£15,885. In 1884, the Sub-division contained 2
criminal courts, with 4 police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular
police, 74 men; and village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 263.

Karwi. — Town in Banda District, North-Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of the Sub-division and tahsil. Lat. 25 12' 10" n., long.
8o° 56' 50" e. ; situated on the river Paisuni ; distant from Banda 44
miles south-east, from Allahabad about 60 miles west. Population
(1881) 4167, chiefly Hindus. For police and conservancy purposes,
Karwi and the neighbouring village of Tirohan (population 2751)
form one municipality under x\ct xx. of 1856. In 1805, Karwi had
a cantonment for British troops; and in 1829, it became the principal
residence of the Peshwa's representative, who lived in almost regal
state, and built several beautiful temples and wells. Numerous traders
from the Deccan were thus attracted to Karwi. During the Mutiny,
Narayan Rao, after the murder at Banda of Mr. Cockerell, Joint
Magistrate of Karwi, assumed the government, and retained his inde-



KASAI—KASALANG. 57

pendence for eight months amid the subsequent anarchy. The accumu-
lations of his family constituted the great treasure afterwards so famous
as ' the Kirwee and Banda Prize Money.' It was kept in a vault of the
Bara, a large building, forming the palace of Narayan Rao's family.
The greater part of their possessions were afterwards confiscated for
rebellion, and the Bara now serves as a ta/isili, police station, and
school-house. Balwant Rao, the present head of the family, still retains
a considerable estate, though small by comparison with that of his pre-
decessors. Since the Mutiny, the prosperity of Karwi has gradually
declined. Station of a Joint Magistrate and an assistant District super-
intendent of police. The jurisdiction of the munsifi has been removed
to Banda. Magnificent temple and tank, with masonry well attached,
known as the Ganesh Bagh, and built by Benaik Rao in 1837. Five
mosques, and as many Hindu temples. Government dispensary, post-
office. Trade unimportant.

Kasai (Cossye).— River of Bengal; rises in the north-west of Man-
bhum District, in lat. 23 28' 30" N., and long. 85 58' 15" e. It
follows a very winding south-easterly and easterly course, through Man-
bhum, Bankura, and Midnapur, till it falls into the Haldi in the latter
District, about 20 miles above the confluence of that river with the
Hiigli. During the rainy season, the Kasai is navigable by boats of 2
tons burden from its mouth to some distance above the town of Mid-
napur, which is situated on its north or left bank; but in the dry
weather it is nowhere navigable by large boats, except for a few miles
above its confluence with the Haldi. A considerable floating trade in
timber, chiefly sal, is carried on during the rainy season, from the south
of Manbhiim into Midnapur. Its only tributary is the united stream of
the Kumarf and Tetka, which under the former name joins the Kasai
at Ambikanagar in Bankura District.

Kasalang.— Tributary of the Karnaphuli river, rising in the extreme
north of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bengal. It flows southwards,
receiving two small tributaries in its course, one on either bank, and
falls into the Karnaphuli at Kasalang village, in lat. 22 44 N., long.
92 19' e. Navigable by small boats for about eight days' journey from
its mouth.

Kasalang.— Village in the District of the Chittagong Hill Tract?,
Bengal ; situated at the confluence of the Kasalang river with the Kar-
naphuli. Lat. 22 44' n., long. 92 19' 30" e. One of the principal
marts for the sale of hill produce. Kasalang was formerly the frontier
station in the direction of the Lushai Hills, and an annual fair was held
here which was attended by the local officers, for the purpose of keeping
up friendly intercourse between the independent chiefs and the people
within the District. A darbdr or reception was yearly held on this
occasion by the District officer, at which gifts were distributed to the



5 8 KASARA GHA T—KASA ULL

Kukis and other visitors. After the Lushai campaign of 1871-72, the
frontier line was extended considerably farther east, and the frontier
head-quarters station was removed from Kasalang to Demagiri, a post
on the Karnaphuli river about 30 miles above the Barkiil rapids. Since
that date the annual fair and darbdr has been held at Demagiri, instead
of at Kasalang.

Kasaraghat. — Pass over the range of the Western Ghats, boundary
of Thana and Nasik Districts, Bombay Presidency. — See Thalghat.

Kasaragod {Cassergode). — Taluk or Sub-division in South Kanara
District, Madras Presidency. Area, 1032 square miles. Population
(1881) 243,881, namely, 120,857 males and 123,024 females, dwelling
in 45,287 houses, scattered over 243 towns and villages. Number
of persons per square mile, 229*2. Hindus numbered 191,343 ;
Muhammadans, 46,953; Christians, 5217; and 'others,' 368. The
taluk contains the following places with a population under five and
over two thousand: — Pallakorkod (4191, living in 670 houses), Char-
vattiir (4235, in 847 houses), Kanhangad (4581, in 831 houses),
Madikai (3513, in 780 houses), Muliyar (3003, in 613 houses), Perdal
(3932, in 672 houses), Kumbadaje (3040, in 541 houses), Adiir (2831,
in 581 houses), Bayar (2601, in 453 houses), Vittal (2547, in 479
houses), and Kolnad (2410, in 427 houses). There are in the taluk
1 civil and 2 criminal courts; police stations (thinas), 16; regular
police, 112 men. Land revenue (1883), ,£24,36 7. [This article and the
following were given under their old spelling as Cassergode in volume
iii. But as new materials have been received for the taluk since
volume iii. went to press, the opportunity is now taken of inserting the
additional information here, under the proper spelling of the word.]

Kasaragod (Kasargodie, Cassergode, ' Kangercote ' of the Tohfat-ul-
Majdhildin). — Town and port, South Kanara District, Madras Presi-
dency. Situated on the Chandragiri river, in lat. 12 29' 50" N., and
long. 75 2 10" e. Population (1872) 6416; number of houses, 1178.
Not returned in the Census of 1881. Kasaragod formed the southern-
most post of the ancient Tuluva kingdom, and still contains a ruined
fort of the Ikheri kings. In 1883-84, the imports were valued at
^8427, and the exports at .£7077.

Kasauli {Kussowlee). — Cantonment and convalescent depot in
Simla District, Punjab ; situated on the crest of a hill, overlooking the
Kalka valley ; distant from Ambala (Umballa) 45 miles north, from Simla
station 32 miles south-west. Lat. 30 53' 13" n., long. 77 o' 52" e.
The cantonment was formed in 1844-45, on land acquired from the
Native State of Bija, and barracks were erected in the same year. Since
that date, detachments of European troops have continuously occupied
the station, and many private visitors also arrive during the summer
months. The Kasauli Hill, a summit of the Subathu group, has an



KASBA—KASGANJ. 59

elevation of 6322 feet above sea -level, and commands magnificent
views over the plains to the south-west, and towards the snowy range
of the Himalayas on the north. Although healthy under ordinary
circumstances, the proximity to the plains renders Kasauli liable to
epidemics. Outbreaks of cholera occurred in 1845, I ^57, 1867, J S72,
and 1875. Defective water-supply. Permanent station of an Assistant
Commissioner ; head-quarters of the Commissioner of Ambala during
the summer months. The population at the time of the Census in
February 1881 numbered 2807, namely, Hindus, 1S25 ; Muham-
madans, 625; Sikhs, 13; Jain, 1; 'others,' mainly Christians, 343.
During the summer months the population is much higher. Court-
houses, branch treasury, lock-up, staging bungalow, two hotels. The
trade is confined to the supply of necessaries and European commodi-
ties for the troops and summer visitors.

Kasba (or Jessor). — Chief town and administrative head-quarters ot
Jessor District, Bengal. — See Jessor.

Kasba. — Large trading village in Bard wan District, Bengal ; situated
on the Damodar river, which is here crossed by a ferry on the road
to Sonamukhf. Lat. 23 21' n., long. 87 33' 30" E.

Kasba. — Town in Purniah District, Bengal; situated on the road
from Purniah to Arariya, about 9 miles from the civil station, and 4 miles
from the old town of Purniah. Lat. 25 51' N., long. 87 34' 41" E.
The population, which in 1872 numbered 6288, had fallen by 1881 to
5124. Classified according to religion, the population in the latter
year consisted of — Hindus, 5040, and Muhammadans, 84. Area of
town site, 392 acres. Kasba forms the largest centre of the rice trade
in Purniah District. It is chiefly inhabited by Sunris, who collect
unhusked rice from the northern tracts of Purniah and the submontane
morang in Darj fling, for export to Calcutta. Large vernacular school,
with 150 pupils. Police outpost station.

Kasganj.— Northern tahsil of Etah District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, lying between the Ganges and the Kali Nadi, and traversed by
two main branches of the Lower Ganges Canal. Area, 500 square miles,
of which 372 square miles are cultivated. The population, which in 1872
numbered 241,335, had by 1881 fallen to 216,906, showing a decrease
of 24,429, or io-i per cent., in the nine years. Classified according
to religion, the population in 1881 consisted of— Hindus, 191,372;
Muhammadans, 25,190; Jains, 277; and 'others,' 67. Number
of villages, 477, of which 360 contained less than five hundred
inhabitants. Land revenue, ,£31,667; total Government revenue,
£35»Si4; rental paid by cultivators, £67,742 ; incidence of Govern-
ment revenue per acre, is. nfd.

Kasganj. — Town, municipality, and chief commercial centre of
Etah District, North-Western Provinces ; situated on a raised site, 1 \



60 KASHMIR AND /AMU.

mile north-west of the Kali Nadi; distant from Etah town 19 miles north.
Lat. 27 48' 5" n.j long. 78 41' 30" e. Population (1872) 15,764;
(1881) 16,535, namely, males 8709, and females 7826. Classified
according to religion, the population in 1881 consisted of — Hindus,
12,050; Muhammadans, 4398 ; and Jains, 87. Area of town site, 149
acres. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^"1450, of which ^1321 was
derived from taxes, mostly octroi ; average incidence of taxation, is. 7^d.
per head. Well-built, prosperous town, with handsome shops, and drained
and metalled streets, with a good proportion of brick houses, shaded
by fine trees. A metalled road runs through the centre of the town
from north to south, and forms the principal bazar, while a second
intersects it from east to west. The eastern quarter, inhabited by the
poorer Hindus, is less well kept. A fine mosque, remarkable for its
curious roof and numerous minarets, adorns the Muhammadan quarter.
The town owes its origin to Khan Bahadur Khan, the founder of
Aliganj, under the Oudh Wazirs. His successors sold it to Col. James



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