William Woodville Rockhill.

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et tunc tradit f amulo ossa ad comburendum. Et sunt due parvule
domus, juxta domum in qua jacet, in quibus eomburuntur ossa
ilia, et queruntur diligenter cotidie per totam herbergiam. Com-
bustis ergo illis usque ad nigredinem, referuntur ei, et tunc ipse



344 THE LAND OF THE LAMAS

inspirit si ossa fixa f uerint ad ealorem ignis recte per longum.
Tunc via aperta est quod ipse debeat facere. Si autem crepata
fuerint ossa ex transverso, vel pecie rotunde exilierunt, tunc non
facit. Semper enim flnditur ipsum os in igne, vel quedam tela
que est extensa desuper. Et si de tribus unum recte findatur,
ipse facit."



POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF EASTERN TIBET

(List given me by the Secretary of the Chag-la jyal-bo at Ta-chien-lu. )

1. Nang-eh'en-wa Sbring-pa pronounced Dring-pa.

2. Lchags-la pronounced Chag-la.

3. K'ro-skyab pronounced Tro-jyab.

4. Hbah pronounced Ba (Bat'ang).

5. Li-t'ang pronounced Lit'ang.

6. Sder-gi pronounced Derg6.

7. K'ang-gsar pronounced Kang-sar.

8. Ma-zur pronounced Ma-zur.

9. Brag-mon pronounced Dra-mon.

10. Hb^-rim pronounced B6-rim.

11. Gri-htu pronounced Dri-tu.

12. Hgo-zi pronounced Go-zi.

13. Po-mo pronounced Po-mo.

14. Lchog-rtsi pronounced Chog-tsi.

15. Nying-hgag pronounced Nying-ga.

16. 8mi-li pronounced Mi-li.

17. Brag-sting pronounced Bra-ting.

18. Lo-dgu and Ba-bam pronounced Lo-gu and Ba-bam.

No. 1 is frequently called Mupin (or ping).

No. 2 is the district under the rule of the native king residing
at Ta-chien-lu, and is called by the Chinese Ming-cheng-ssu.

Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 are called collectively Hor-si Wa nga,
"the Five Clans of the Horba," the whole region being also
frequently called Ror chyok (p'yogs), " the Horba district." x

Nos. 12, 14, and 15 occupy the upper course of the T'ung River,
called Chin ch'uan.

No. 13 is frequently called So-mo. It is situated near Sung-
p'an T'ing, and is at present ruled by a woman.

1 Conf. E. C. Baber, op. cit, p. 95.



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND TABLES 345

No. 16 is situated to the west of the Ta-ehien-lu country, and
is governed by a lama.

Nos. 17 and 18 are to the north of the Chin ch'uan, between it
and Snng-p'an. 1

Another list was furnished me by a lama who had lived at
Ta-chien-lu for some years. In it Ba, Li-t'ang, and Derge are
omitted. It agrees closely with the list which Baber gives, but
is fuller than his. I give the two in parallel columns. The second
column is Saber's ; the numbers in parentheses refer to the first
list given above :

(1) Drumba Djum-ba.

Jya-k'a Djia-k'a.

(12) Wo-je Wo-je or Go-j<S.

Tsen-la and Raten Tsen-la and Rap-ten.

Tam-ba Tam-ba.

(13) Sa-ma So-mung.

(14) Cho-tse' Djiu-tse or Djiu-tzu.

(15) Zun-ga Zur-ga.

(3) Tru-jyab Tohro-shiop.

Pa-ti-pa wang Pa-wang.

(17) Tra-ti Tchra-tin.

Gi-sh6-ts'a Ge-shie.

(18) Leur-go "

(16) Me-li "

(2) Ja-la •'

Jy6-dam "

(7) Kon-ser "

(8) Ma-zer "

The general name of Wya-rong jya-Ua chu-bjya, or " the Eighteen
Tribes of the Nya-rong," sometimes shortened to Jya-k'a chu-jya,
is given to the tribes mentioned in this list, Nya-rong being the
name of the upper basin of the Nya-ch'u and its affluents.
The tribes inhabiting along the lower course of the Nya ch'u
are called Man-nya-k'a or " inhabitants of the lower Nya ch'u,"
and are the Maniak of Hodgson, the Menia of Baber.

So much for the native divisions of the country. For those
whom the subject interests, I append two lists taken from Chi-
nese works, both published about fifty years ago, the first called
" Hsi-yu k'ao ku-lu," the second the " Sheng-wu chi." These lists

l The Ma-nya country, or Chan-tui, is omitted, as it formed from 1864 until 1889
part of the kingdom of Lh'asa.



346 THE LAND OF THE LAMAS

are interesting, moreover, as giving the boundaries of each dis-
trict, the population, the amount of taxes due the Imperial
government, the Chinese rank of the native chiefs, and, in some
cases, their head village. The list given in the " Sheng-wu chi "
comprises probably places occupied by non-Tibetan tribes, but
as I am not able to determine all of these I have concluded to
give it as it stands. Shen-pien and Leng-pien are in Ssu-ch'uan,
in the Ya-chou Fu district, Shen-pien being conterminous with
Ch'ing-ch'i Hsien, and Leng-pien with T'ien-chuan; but both of
them have native chiefs (T'u-ssu). The people of these two
tribes are at present undistinguishable in dress from the Chinese,
but they speak a Tibetan patois. 1

The " Hsi-yii k'ao ku-lu " distinguishes thirty -three tribes, which
it calls "the thirty-three Yii-t'ung 2 Hsi-fan Tribes." The
" Sheng-wu chi" gives fifty-one, about half of which are identical
with those of the first list.

i See Yule's "Marco Polo," second t'ung is a tribe of the T'ung valley, a little

edition, II, p. 37, and his note in Gill's above Wa-ssii-k'ou. It certainly is not in

"River of Golden Sands," II, 77. the accompanying list, although it gene-

2 Baber, op. cit., p. 54, says that Yii- rally has not so broad a meaning.



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND TABLES



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354



THE LAND OP THE LAMAS



PAN TRIBES WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OP SSU-CH'UAN

(List taken from " Sheng-wu chi ")

N. B.— Numbers in parentheses refer to preceding list.



1. Chiung-pu.



HSUAN-FU-SHIH.

2. Lit'ang (8).



3. Bat'ang (9).



AX-FU-SHIH.



4. Chang-ning.

5. Wu-li.

6. Wa-ssu.

7. So-mo.

8. Kua-pieh.

9. Mu-li.

10. Tan-tung ko-shih-ch'a (5).

11. Pa-li (6).

12. Ch'o-ch'i chia (4).

13. La-kun (7).

14. Wa-shu Yii-k'o (16).



15. Chu-wo (17).

16. HorChang-ku (18).

17. Hor Kung-sa (19).

18. Hor Cha-li (22).

19. Hor Lin-tsung (30).

20. Hor Kan-tzu (20).

21. Ma-shu (20).

22. Tung-k'o (23).

23. Chun-k'o (27).

24. Lower Chan-tui (26).

25. Upper Na-to (31).



CH'ANG-KCAN SSTJ.



26. Ching-chou.

27. Lung-chou.

28. Yo-hsi.

29. Sung-kang.

30. Cho-k'o-ehi.

31. Wei-lung chou.

32. P'u-ehi ehou.

33. Chang chou.

34. Shen-pien (1).

35. Leng-pien (2).

36. Wa-shu Chung-hsi (11).

37. Wa-shu Mao-ya (12).

38. Wa-shu Ch'ii-t'eng (13).



39. Wa-shu T'a-ssu (Ssfi-t'a) (14).

40. Wa-shu Keng-ping (15).

41. Hor Na-lin ehung.

42. Hor Pa-li (21).

43. Ch'un-ko-kao-ji.

44. Upper Chan-tui (24).

45. Middle Chan-tui (25).

46. Meng-ko-chieh (29).

47. Ni-ch'i.

48. Ping-i.

49. Shu ch'uan.

50. Chiu-hsing.



FU OH'ANG-KDAN SSU.

51. Ma-la.



It is to be noticed that Derge and Ming-cheng (Chag-la or
Ta-ehien-lu) do not figure in this list, in which also the Horba
country is divided into nine districts.

The six Wa-shu tribes, or districts, are subordinate to Lit'ang.



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND TABLES 355



VI



ORIGIN OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE, AS TOLD IN THE "MANI
M," CHAPTER

(Translation.)



KAMBUM," CHAPTER XXXIV



Om mani padm6 hum.

Then the greatest of all the Bodhisattwas, P'apa Shenrazig
Wang-ch'yuk, came to the Realm-of happiness [.Dhva-chan), and
the Buddha Nangwa t'a-ya, (Amitayus) spoke to him, saying :
" Merciful Bodhisattwa, the Buddha Sachya t'upa (Shafoja-
muni) did not convert the Realm of snow (i. e., Tibet), he did not
set his foot upon it, did not illumine it with the light of his word,
did not show it his bounty. It is for thee to gather together the
low-lived creatures of the Abode of snow and bring them into a
fit state for receiving the holy truth."

So then the Bodhisattwa P'apa Shenrazig Wang-ch'yuk repaired
to the many-jeweled dwelling on the top of Mount Potala, 1 and
looked at the living creatures inhabiting the Abode of snow, and
saw that they in their ignorance of the religion of the Buddha
were plunged in darkness like the black darkness of night; they
were like the snow which falls on the surface of a lake and
which can rise no more and must keep on going downward, for
they were ever getting lower in the evil way. And he saw how
there was no freedom for them ; they moved as it were in a
tightly closed iron coffer.

Then he caused a ray of bright light to come out of the
palm of his right hand, and from out it appeared the king of
the monkeys, the Bodhisattwa Hilumandju. Bethinking him of
making mankind in the Abode of snow, he asked the monkey-
king, " Wilt thou be able to give thyself to deep meditation in
that snowy realm of the north 1 " "I will," he replied. Then he
bound him by the oath of the five highest duties, aud expounded
to him the deep and far-reaching doctrine, after which the mon-
key transported himself by supernatural means to the Abode of
snow, and, sitting down on a rock, was soon plunged in pro-
found abstraction.

l At Lh'asa, where now lives Ms in- the Chusan archipelago ; Adams Peak, in

carnation, the Tal6 lama. This hill is Ceylon ; Potala, near the mouth of the

also called Marpori, "Red hill." This Indus, and Lh'asa.
god's favorite abodes are Pu-t'o shan, in



356 THE LAND OF THE LAMAS

Now at that time Peu-yul (i. e., Tibet) was divided into nine
regions. The first three, called Rinpoch'e od-gi ling ('' the jeweled
light region "), reaching to the highest peaks of slate and ice, were
held by elephants and deer. The Ru-dzi sog-p6 ling (" the region
of the four horns") comprised the three middle zones of rocks
and alps, and was held by rock-ogres (drasinpo) and mon-
keys. The Ma-jija od ling (" the peacock-light region "), compris-
ing the three lowest zones of forests and valleys, was occupied by
ogres (sinpo). So it was that the very name of man was unknown
in that land.

Some time after the advent of Hilumandju, it happened on a
day that a rock-ogress, burning with lust, took the semblance of
a she-monkey and went near unto the monkey-king, lost in pro-
foundest meditation, and endeavored by every kind of blandish-
ment and lascivious gesture to excite his passions, but though
for seven days she thus bedeviled him she could not arouse him
from his abstraction.

So she thought within herself that perhaps her failure was due
to the ugliness of her face and form ; so she transformed herself
into a lovely woman, gorgeously arrayed in jewels, and with bare
bosom, and again she tried to arouse his passions. Then the
monkey-king stole a glance at her out of the corner of his eye,
and she, seeing her opportunity, moved near him and said, " Be
mine." "I am a follower of P'apa Shenrazig," he replied, "and
I may not be yours."

Then spoke the rock-ogress, saying: "Alas, monkey-king, I
love thee passionately. Listen to me : my destiny has made me
what I am, an ogress, but I pine for thee with all the force of
love, and I would clasp thee in these arms. If thou refusest to
be my husband I will call together all the ogres of the realm,
and daily we will kill creatures by the tens of thousands, and
nightly we will devour them by the thousands. And the ogresses
will bear young, and they will be many ; and this Abode of snow
will be the kingdom of ogres, and they will devour the world.
If death overtakes me while in this mind, my punishment will
be to fall into the depth of hell. But thou, sin cannot overtake
thee, shielded with the power of deep abstraction; fear not, lest
it gradually forsake thee. Think of me kindly and spare me,
that the voice of love be not changed to that of lamentation."

Then the monkey Bodhisattwa's heart was moved with com-
miseration as he considered the ogress, and he thought, " If I, in
ignorance of possible consequences, take unto myself a wife, my



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND TABLES 357

powers of meditation may become impaired. On the other hand,
if I do not take this woman as my wife, and she dies, great
will be my sin ! " So he resolved to go and question the Bodhi-
sattwa, the knowing P'apa Shenrazig, and, having transported
himself by his power of magic to the dwelling on Mount Potala,
he did obeisance to the knowing Shenrazig, and thus addressed
him : "Alas, Lord of creatures, Merciful One, I am thy disciple
(genyeii), and my strength lies in my power of deep meditation,
but an ogress of the devil's race, with mind filled with lechery,
has assailed me, and my power of abstract meditation is about to
depart. What shall I do to preserve my power of meditation ?
Merciful One, instruct me, I beseech thee. The ogress has said :
' Thou must be my husband ; if thou wilt not, I will fling away
my life, and it will be counted unto thee as sin.' Tell me, is it
proper, or not, that I take her to me as a wife ? "

"Highly proper," replied P'apa Shenrazig, "though it may not
be that thou and thy wife become human beings ; in the days to
come, when thy children's children have multiplied in the Abode
of snow, they will become human beings, and the Holy Truth will
be diffused among them and it will be mighty in the land."

Then the Lady Drolma (Jo-mo Drolnia) added, "When men
kind shall have multiplied (in Tibet), they will be pillars of
religion."

" So be it (Laso)," he made answer. Then the monkey Bodhi-
sattwa, fearing lest the rock-ogress shoulddestroy herself, departed
in all haste for the Abode of snow, and as soon as he arrived he
took her unto him as his wife. When the space of nine months
had elapsed she bore him six sons, who participated of the nature
of the six classes of sentient creatures subject to birth and death.
As their father was a monkey, so their bodies were covered with
hair, and as their mother was a rock-ogress, so they had tails j 1
their faces were reddish and they were most unsightly. From
the mortal gods, one had gentleness and patience; from the
mortal (lit., subject to birth and death) Asuras (Wa-mayin), one
of them derived angry passions and quarrelsomeness. One of
them had in part great lusts, and love of worldly riches, which
qualities he owed to mortal man. One of them owed to hell's
mortal fiends, hate, and anger, and great hardiness. One partook
of the mortal Preta's (yidag) characteristics in being deformed,

i The text says "no tails" (mjug-tna mid-pa), but the context does not bear out

this reading, and a little farther on we find that " their tawny tails

disappeared" {mjng-ma skya-wa bdzin-du song).



358 THE LAND OF THE LAMAS

from his cravings for food (lit., bad stomach), and his avaricious-
ness. One partook of mortal brute beasts in not being able to
distinguish right from wrong, and in having neither comprehen-
sion nor cleverness. "When born they were ruddy-faced, had a
taste for flesh and blood, and hair covered their heads and bodies,
and, moreover, they knew how to speak.

Now when the little ones and their mother, the rock-ogress,
became ahungered and in want of food, their father, the monkey
Bodhisattwa, took them to a forest in the south, called " The
Peacock woods," where there were monkeys for them to live with.
And they lived with the female monkeys. After the space of a
year the father visited them to see how they fared, and he saw
that they had increased by five hundred, and their offspring
were neither monkeys nor yet men, and they were exposed to the
rain and the sun's rays in summer and to the snow and the wind
of winter, and they had neither food nor raiment. Then the
monkey Bodhisattwa, their sire and grandsire, was filled with
anguish, and the five hundred young monkeys came to him, hold-
ing out beseechingly their helpless hands, exclaiming : " Father,
what shall we eat I with what shall we clothe ourselves ? "

And the monkey, when he saw this the great distress of his
progeny and that there was neither food nor clothing for them,
was afflicted, and fdled with compassion. They had already
devoured all the edible fruits, etc., but he got fruits and other
things and brought them to them ; but hardly had they eaten
them, than they were racked with pain, and all the hair on their
bodies fell off, the briars pricked their hands and feet, 1 and their
tails shriveled up and disappeared. Then the old monkey in
anguish and dire distress bethought him, "Why am I in such
sorrow and misery? and these young monkeys, why has this
befallen them? and the rock-ogress, my wife, why has this come
to her, when there is the prophecy of the Knowing One Shen-
razig and of the Jomo Drolma 1 ? Alas, it is doubtless on account
of my former wickedness. The Venerable One cannot have been
mistaken in his forecast. It is not right for me to be angered
and disturbed in mind; I will question the Venerable One,
himself."

So by magical means he repaired to the palace on Mount
Potala, and, having done obeisance to the Venerable One he

1 That is, as I understand the text, briars could prick their hands and feet
which were no longer protected by a covering of hair.



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AND TABLES 359

stood before him, and spoke as follows: "If I, moved only
through compassion and regardless of the poison leaf of passion,
have unwittingly brought myself into the prison of the- Devil,
and have beguiled the woman into the toils of the Evil One, my
children and grandchildren into the orb of Mara, and we have all
sunk in the mire of lust and are weighed down under a mountain
of misery ; if we have become wrapped in the smoke of the misery
of sin and struck down by the plague of evil deeds ; if I myself
have been seized with the disease of misery, it is only I who have



Online LibraryWilliam Woodville RockhillThe land of the lamas; notes of a journey through China, Mongolia and Tibet → online text (page 27 of 31)