William Young.

The history of Dulwich College, down to the passing of the act of Parliament dissolving the original corporation, 28th August 1857; online

. (page 47 of 71)
Online LibraryWilliam YoungThe history of Dulwich College, down to the passing of the act of Parliament dissolving the original corporation, 28th August 1857; → online text (page 47 of 71)
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proposed to the college, and this recommendation is invariably followed. Orphans
liave always been preferred, and none but orphans have of late been recommended.
Notice of the day of election is also given in the parish church of S' Eotolph, and
orphans are considered entitled to a preference, if their parents were respectable and
in decayed circumstances. All rate-payers are entitled to vote, and those boys who
have the greatest number of votes, whatever may be their disposition or capacity, are
selected. Few boys have been sent from this parish of late who have not lost at
least one of their parents.

"When four boys have been sent down to the college by any one of the three parishes
on the day of election one is thus elected : the master selects one whom he considers
upon the whole the most promising. The Warden in like manner selects another from
the remaining three. The two thus preferred then draw lots, and that one who draws
the lot called " God's Gift," becomes thereby elected, and is immediately admitted to
the school.

The election of boys for the fourth parish, viz. that of Camberwell, has by virtue
of the 24th statute been supposed to vest solely in the Master, Warden and fellows of
the CoUege, and has always been exercised by them. The election for the Camberwell
boys also takes place, but is made whenever a vacancy occurs. Boys from that part
of the parish which is comprised within the hamlet of Dulwich have a preference, and
it has seldom been necessary to resort to any other part of the parish to fill up
vacancies occurring.

Statute 8. Assistants.

The churchwardens attend twice a year at the audit of the accounts, but except on
those occasions and on others where the rights of the parishes are concerned, have
never interfered or voted in the government of the College.

Statute 10. Members.
An account of the three sets of almshouses belonging to tlie three parishes
VOL. I. 2 z


will be found in our former reports — Sixth p. 568 ; Twentietli p. 357 , and twenty
second p. 43.*

Those in S' Botolph are now in so ruinous a condition, that the poor men and
women sent only occupy them a few nights before they go from thence to the College,
in order to give them a qualification. Those of S' Saviour's are much dilapidated, but
inhabited, and those of S' Luke's are now in good repair. It does not appear that any
part of the expense of repairing any of them has ever been defrayed out of the funds
of the College.

The benefits of the College are so considerable, that few of the poor men and
women who have been sent from any of the parishes for a considerable number of
years back have exactly answered the description given in this statute, most of them
have rather been decayed housekeepers of respectable character who were in other
respects duly qualified.

It also appears that the Parish of S' Luke's, at least in the years 1831 and 1832,
induced those who were candidates for becoming poor sisters, to enter into an agree-
ment, that if successful they would pay £50 a year to the five poor women living in
the parish almshouses built by the founder of the College, and that this contribution
has on several occasions been actually paid.

Statute 17. Security to be given by Warden.

As the revenues of the College have within the last 30 or 40 years so much
increased, the Warden now gives security himself in £8000, and four securities in
£2000 each.

Statute 23. Mode of Electing Poor Scholars.
This direction is followed, and other explanations are given under statute 7.

Statute 30. The Master's Office.

Though all the subordinate directions contained in the statutes are not literally
enforced, this statute is carefully observed, except that the master does not always
personally inspect the scholars chambers weekly. We were informed by the master
that strict attention is paid to whatever concerns the poor brethren, sisters and
scholars and their apartments, and are satisfied that this is the case.

Statute 33. The Fellow's Ofiiee.

The first fellow preaches twice every Sunday. The annual sermon required by the
statute is not preached on the 1"' September unless that day happen to be a Sunday
but is preached on the Sunday next after the 1" September. A sermon is also
preached on Christmas day. The second and third fellows are the readers alternately
As respects the attendance and singing in the chapel the 33"* statute is not literally
observed. The first Pellow keeps the register of baptisms and burials and tocrether
with those fellows who are in orders, administers the Sacrament, christens visfts the
sick, and attends funerals. '

* Those in Bishopsgate were originally in Petty France, which, being altered into Old Broad
Street about 1730, the almshouses were rebuilt in Lamb Alley ; those in St Luke's were orimnnllir
m Pesthouse Lane, Old Street ; and those in Southwark in Deadman's Place.-Highmore's k^to
Londoneiisu, p. 458. 5i"iivic o j. mm


Statute 35. Duties of Six Chaunters or Junior Fellows.

It has already been mentioned, that no chaunters have ever formed part of the

Statute 36. Poor Brethren to sweep and keep clean.

The college is carefully kept clean, but by persons hu-ed for the purpose.

Statute 37. The Matron.
A matron is appointed, who also attends the 12 poor scholars. The weekly six-
pences required to be given to her by her five sisters are paid by the college. The
distribution of goods has, by the consent of the poor brethren and sisters, entirely
ceased, greatly to the comfort and advantage, as it is conceived, of the almspeople.

Statute 38. Poor Sisters to be Bedmakers.
The offices here specified are now performed by a servant hired by the college.

Statute 40. Duties of Porter.

The butler now and for a considerable time past has acted as porter. He attends
strictly to the regularity and security of the college, though from change of times, not
in all particulars accorcfing to the directions here given.

Statute 42. Duties of Members.

None of the members here mentioned now repair to the college, or receive any
allowance from it. Whether any of the 30 members have a right to any is one of the
points now in dispute between the college and the parishes.

Statute 45. Absence of M' "Warden and Fellows.

With respect to the rules respecting residence, contained in statutes 43, 44, and
45, we found that until about 1800, a few sheets of paper were stitched together and
kept in the college, called an Exeat-book * in which memorandums of leave of absence
were entered. This was signed by one of the officers of the College, but not kept
regularly, and since 1800 no book has been kept at all. A verbal licence, given by
the Master, Warden or one of the fellows to each other, is all that is now required,
care bein^ taken that the duties of the person temporarily absent shall continue to be
discharged by one of those who continue resident.

The Master is allowed by the statutes to be absent f 196 days in each year, and
since the present master (John Allen) has been appointed to that office his residence
in or attendance at the College, as stated to us, has been as follows. He has attended
at the coUege twice or oftener every week at least, and remained there part of the
following day. He always attends service in the College chapel once at least on
Sunday. He is also present at the settlement of the weekly accounts of the Warden,
on all public days appointed by the statutes, and on other occasions is within reach
and attends whenever his presence is required.

The present warden (Jeffiys Thomas Allen) is generally resident at the college,

* This is an error, as there are extant in the College six exeat books containing regular exeats
from 1696 to 1820, with the exception of the period between 1779 and 1782.

t I.e., 3 days in every weei, or 156 days, and 40 days in the year, together 196 days. This mode
of reading the statute is open to grave doubt, though always acted upon.


and since his appointment his absence has seldom exceeded 40 days altogether in any
one year.

It appears to us, that the verbal leave of absence which since 1800 the master,
warden and fellows have been accustomed to give to each other, is a departure from
the directions of the founder, and that the req^uired forms of leave of absence ought in
future to be observed. It also appears to us, that the provisions of the 44'" statute
extend to the master and warden as well as to the fellows, and that no leave ought to
be granted to either of them above 40 days in any one year.

Statute 50. Property of the 30 Poor Members.

Not now in operation, as none of the 30 members have any benefit from the

Statiite 51. Directions as to Poor Brethren and Sisters Pensions.
This not now necessary, from the respectability of the parties concerned.

Statute 52. Brethren and Sisters not to visit each other.

Prom the age and respectability of the poor brothers and sisters the enforcement
of this statute is thought inexpedient.

Statutes 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59, relate to various details touching tlie
inspection and government of the College and conduct of the fellows, poor brothers
and sisters. They are all considered as strictly in force, but the decent and obedient
behaviour of all the members of the College for many years past, has rendered it
unnecessary to enforce the penalties prescribed.

Statute GO. Services in Chapel.

In consequence of the Chaunters never having formed part of the CoUege, it has
not been practicable to comply literally with this statute. Service is now performed
twice on every Sunday as in other churches, at half past 10 in the morning and two
in the afternoon, and the prayers read daily in the chapel. As much attention is said
to be paid to music as the actual constitution of the College will allow

Statute 66. Education in the School.

The superior sort of education contemplated by the statutes, if it ever was in fact
afforded, has for many years ceased to be so. On the 9"" december 1724 Archbishop
Wake, then visitor, gave to the college in writing what is called an injunction, which
so far as it relates to the school, is in the words following : " that if at the age of 14 a
" boy be jiidged incapable of being qualified for the university, he be taught the vulgar
" arithmetic and to write a good hand, and at a competent age be piit out to some trade
" of the better sort, agreeable to such an education ; and that the warden be in a more
" particular manner charged with the care of providing such a master as may be
" approved of by' the society, one of an unblemished cliaracter, strictly sober and
" virtuous, and a constant , frequenter of the established church, it being of the best
" importance and that upon which their future well being in so great a measure
" depends ; and that an entry be made in a register, to be kept for that purpose, of the
" master's name, trade and place of habitation, and the sum of money given with each
" boy, that the same may appear to us or our successors, whenever called for ; and every


" boy who shall hereafter serve the whole time of his apprenticeship with diligence and
" honesty, shall at the expiration thereof upon a proper certificate from his master, be
" entitled to the sum of £5 from the college."

The interpretation practically put upon this injunction, at least ever since any
poor scholars have ceased to be sent to the university, has been that the prime object
of the education given to the poor scholars should rather be to qualify them for
becoming intelligent and respectable tradesmen than to advance them far in a know-
ledge of Greek and Latin.

We were informed by the present master, that when he became warden in 1811,
he communicated to the visitor his desire to make the school as efficient as possible,
and that the visitor intimated in return that the school had engaged much of his (the
visitor's) own attention; but he found so many obstacles to any alteration in the
course which had been long pursued, that he recommended the college to go on as
they were then doing, and qualify the boys for becoming respectable tradesmen.

At the time of our examination dissatisfaction prevailed, to a greater or less degree,
in all the parishes interested ; not with respect to the sort of education proposed to be
given, but of the little proficiency alleged to be made by some of the scholars in those
branches of learning now professed to be taught. We found upon inquiry, — that the
scholars are instructed in reading, writing and arithmetic, the elements of history and
mathematics ; and two boys out of the 12 are now learning the Eton Latin Grammar
which the present master of the school has always used instead of the grammar used
at Westminster and S' Pauls schools as recommended by the statutes. There have
been as many as five or six boys learning Latin grammar at once ; but the master does
not think he is called upon to give the boys a good Latin education. We however do
not concur in this view of the duties of the master. It appears clearly to have been
the intention of the founder that a classical education should be afforded, through
which scholars for the fellowships of the Foundation should constantly be supplied.
We examined the school and scholars in the presence of all the assistants and other
persons from the different parishes, and, so far as we could discover, no ground exists
for the complaints brought forward. The scholars appeared to us to be carefully
instructed in those branches of learning which the master professes to teach. It
appears to us at the same time to be extremely desirable, for all parties concerned,
that the parishes should pay much more attention than they have hitherto done to the
qualifications of the boys sent.

All the poor scholars now in school, except one, are taught music by the organist,
and aU. who sing form part of the choir. The six most advanced smg in the chapel.
The sort of music enjoined by the statute is sung, as far as the number of voices and
progi'ess of the boys will allow.

Besides the 12 poor scholars, there have, since the appointment of the present
master, who became warden in 1811, always been some, and occasionally as many as
three boys, inhabitants of Dulwich, receiving instruction in the School gratis. The
schoolmaster is willing to receive more, but they are not offered, and no children of
any other sort are taught in tlie school. The reason why more children are not sent to
the collec^e school appears to be, that the rich are not willing that their children should
associate°with boys of such habits as parish boys usually have, and the children of
persons in a lower condition in life have ample means of instruction in reading,
writin<T and arithmetic, gratis, at the free school founded and endowed in Dulwich by
James°AIlen in 1741, besides the advantage of a great number of the scholars being
clothed by the liberality of tlie inhabitants of the village.


Statute 69. Eemoval of Inmates in case of Contagion.
There has not for a great length of time been any occasion for enforcing this

Statute 70. Foreign Scholars.
For many years past no foreign scholars have asked to be admitted into the
college school.

Statute 72. Teaching of Music.

No music masters having ever been appointed, this statute could not come into

Statute 73. Hours of Schooling.

The present school hours are from six in summer and seven in winter till eight,
and from nine to half past 10 in the forenoon. The scholars then attend chapel from
10 to 11 ; they return to school from 11 to two, and again from five to six in the
evening. The schoolmaster himself attends during one half of the school hours, and
the usher the other half. From three to four aU those now in the school, except one,
are taught music by the organist.

Statute 74. Hours of Music Lessons.

The regular hour at present for those who are taught music by the organist is from
three to four, as mentioned under the statute immediately preceding.

Statute 78. Manner of Teaching.
The manner in which this statute is observed is specified under statute 66.

Statute 80. Visit to Westminster and Merchant Tailors Schools on Election Days.

This has not of late been complied with, and as a reason for its disuse, the master
informed us that he conceived, from the youth and comparative backwardness of the
boys, that compliance with it could in no way be advantageous to them.

Statute 81. Scholars to be sent to Universities.

From 1619 to 1650 none were sent to the university ; from 1650 to 1690, 12 ;
from 1690 to 1714, none ; from 1714 to 1770, six ; since 1770, none. The last boy
had £25 a year for eight years.

Statute 82. Allowances to Boys after leaving.

The boys are apprenticed at 14, because, as the apprenticeship is for seven years,
it would be difficult to find good masters after that age. The most respectable trades'
or occupations are selected, and such as are most suitable to their dispositions and
capacity. The numbers apprenticed have been from 1619 to 1636, none ; from 1636
to 1700, 52 ; from 1701 to 1799, 124 ; from 1800 to 1833, 52.

£155 is usually laid out on each boy in the following manner : £30 to the master
at binding, an outfit of £20 to the boy, in money or clothes, £10 a year durin" the
apprenticeship for clothing and washing, and at the end of the apprenticeship^ if a
certificate of good conduct is brought, he receives the further sum of £35 instead of
the £5 directed by Archbishop Wake's injunction above mentioned.


Statute 83. Admission of Poor Scholars as Servants.

It has already been mentioned that no boy has been sent to College since 1770, or
asked to be admitted as a servant or officer of the college.

Statute 85. Diet.

From change of times, and other circumstances, the minute directions given
respecting diet, from the 85"" to the 91" statute inclusive, have not for many years
been strictly followed ; some of them have been varied, and others gone entirely into
disuse. The provisions supplied to all persons connected ■with the college are more
abundant than those directed by the founder.

The master, warden and fellows dine in the parlour, and the boys, at an earlier
hour, in the hall. The boys are not now required to wait, as directed by the founder.

Statute 92. Clothing of Poor Scholars.

Each boy has now two suits of clothes every year, and of linen, shoes, stockings,
and other articles of that nature, whatever the matron who has charge of them thinks
necessary, without limitation. They have of everything nearly double the quantity,
and of better quality, than directed by the statute.

Statute 93. Private Sittings.

Private sittings are always held when required, and even oftener than directed, but
not always on the day or in the manner specified.

Statute 94. Audits.

The accounts are regularly and strictly examined, and the buildings surveyed and
repaired, but not exactly in the manner here pointed out.

Statute 95. Complaints and Appeals.
There has not of late been any occasion for enforcing this statute.

Statute 97. Care of Property.

The master, warden and feUows are careful to keep the Muniments, plate and
other property of the college, but it is not now done in the precise manner pointed out
in the two preceding statutes.

Statute 98. Lodgings.

The college has undergone so many successive alterations, that a literal compliance
with the statute has become impossible. The present buildings afford ample accom-
modation for all the persons for whom the founder has provided apartments.

Statute 99. Lodgings.

The brethren have each three comfortable apartments, and the sisters two each, all
of which have lately been either rebuilt or improved.

Statute 102. Leases.

The lands and houses are let at the half yearly audits, on the 4"" March and 4'"
September, at which the assistants attend. They are not let by auction or written


tender. It is always publicly known when any are vacant and to be let, and the
master, warden, and fellows previously ascertain the fair value, and consult their
surveyor whenever they deem it useful or necessary, and they enter into treaty
previous to the audit days with those who propose to take or continue the same.
The property is always let at the highest rent that can be obtained. No fine is ever
taken, and the previous treaty is always submitted to the public audit, and carried
into effect with the sanction of the assistants then present.

In consequence of the situation of the college land rendering it peculiarly eligible
for villas, an Act was passed on the 18"' June 1808, giving power to the coUege to
grant certain leases therein specified for 63 years, and for 21 years after the expiration
of the 63, upon payment of fines, which fines were directed to be applied in repairing
or rebuilding the college. The Act also empowered the college to grant leases gene-
rally for 84 years to persons willing to build, or make substantial repairs on their
estates. All the subsisting leases granted under this Act wiU. be found in the
Schedule of the college property contained in a subsequent part of this Eeport.

The fines received from persons specified in the first schedule to the Act amounted
to £2972. 10s., of which £1294. 17s. 9d. was laid out in redeeming the land tax of
£49. 18s. 8d. per annum due from the college estate in the Camberwell part of Dulwich,
and the remainder was added to the repairing and rebuilding fund created by the Act.

Statute 106. Coppice not to be Leased.
None of the 200 acres mentioned in this statute have been grubbed up or leased.

Statute 108. To be used as Fuel.

The copse wood is now sold and accounted for to the college, and a sufficient
quantity of coals and wood is purchased for the college use.

Statute 110. Timber not to be Felled.

No timber trees are cut unless with the sanction of the visitor given from time to
time, and even then not unless proper for felling, and the proceeds are applied for the
improvement of the college and its property, and the surplus is added to the repairing
fund. °

Statute 111. Timber felled to be used on Estate.

There being more timber upon the college lands than is necessary for the buildin"
and repairs of the college or use of the tenants, the surplus has been disposed of for
the improvement of the college or its estates. None has been felled that was not of
full growth.

Statute 112. Husbandry to be Maintained.

This statute has fallen into disuse for 150 years past, arising from the change in
the manners and habits of the times. ^

Statute 113. Servants.
A servant is kept for the Master, another for the warden, and a sufficient number
of servants for the use of the college, but changes have been made in the employment
of several of them, and in the dress and wages of all, according to the chano-e of times


Statute 114. Disposition of Eeveuue.
The manner in which this statute is observed will be adverted to in a subsequent
part of this Eeport, where the present actual distribution of the annual income of the
charity is specified.

Statute 116. £100 to be kept in the Treasury.

There is always much more than £100 in the Treasury, as will be hereafter

Statute 118.

The remainder of the 600 parts should be delivered to the said warden, as the first
receipt of monies to be delivered for the benefit of the college.

AU the payments imposed on the annual revenues of the college, to the amount
of £600, have in substance been discharged from the time of its foundation to the
present, except that nothing has been paid in respect to the maintenance or allowances
of the six chaunters, or of the 30 out members.

Statute 121. Failure of Fit Persons in Parishes.
This contingency has never happened.

Statute 122. Application of Penalties.

There has been no occasion for many years to make any of the deductions here

Statute 123. Statutes to be Eead.

The statutes are not read as here directed. The master, warden, and feUows have
copies. The statutes are in print, and many other members of the college have copies.

The founder having made these statutes on the 29"" September 1626, by his will
dated 13'" November of the same year, and proved at London the 13"" of December
following, gave to the college a seal ring with his arms, to be worn by the master and

Online LibraryWilliam YoungThe history of Dulwich College, down to the passing of the act of Parliament dissolving the original corporation, 28th August 1857; → online text (page 47 of 71)