Winifred S. (Winifred Stuart) Gibbs.

The minimum cost of living; a study of families of limited income in New York city online

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Sund 3.73.. 44.76.. 71.14 $.90



$55.55. .$666.60. .$514.20. .$515.10. .$26. 38. $178. 78

Family No. 32, Woman, 4 children, 10, 8, 6, 5

Rent $12.00. .$144.00. .$132.00. .$502.07 $12.00

Food 22.93.. 255.16.. 265.07 $ 9.91

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 22.65 16.35. .Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 47.19 72.81. .of 12 mo.

Sund 4.00.. 48.00.. 35.15 12.85. .$.01



$52.18. .$606.16. .$502.06. .$502.07. .$ 9. 91. $114. 01



Family No. 33, Woman, 4 children, 12, 9, 8, 6

Rent $21.00. .$252.00. .$243.00. .$024.60 $ 9.00

Food 22.11.. 265.32.. 245.70 19.62

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 20.83 14. 17.. Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 28.01 91.99. .of 12 mo.

Sund 6.98.. 83.76.. 78.19 5. 57.. $4. 87



$63,34. .$760.08. .$619.73. .$624.60 $140.35



Family No. 34, Woman, 4 children, 15, 13, 11, 4

Rent $12. 00.. $144. 00.. $176. 00.. $752. 66.. $32. 00

Food 34.40.. 412.80.. 385.54 $27.26

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 39.02 02 Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 70.36 49.64. .of 12 mo.

Sund 4.00.. 48.00.. 79.32 31.32 $2.42



$63.65. .$763.80. .$750.24. .$752.66. .$63.34. .$76.90

Family No. 35, Woman, 4 children, 9, 7, 6, 4

Rent $14.00. .$168.00. .$168.00. .$625.39

Food 20.47.. 245.64.. 251.08 $ 5.44

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 29.65 $ 9.35. .Bal. end

Clo 9.00.. 108.00.. 88.57 19.43. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.95.. 47.40.. 81.06 33.66 $7.03



$50.67. .$608.04. .$618.36. .$625.39. .$39.10. .$28.78



38 The Minimum Cost of Living

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 36, Woman, 4 children, 16, 11, 9, 8

Rent S13. 50.. $162. 00.. $161. 65.. $647. 47 $ .35

Food 27 . 02. . 324 . 24 . . 324 . 87 $ .63

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 54.50 15.40 Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 52.37 67.63. .of 12 mo.

Simd 2.00.. 24.00.. 33.51 9.51 $20.67



$55.77. .$669.24. .$626.80. .$647.47. .$25.54. .$67.98



Family No. 37, Woman, 4 children, 14, 13, 11, 9

Rent $ 18.00. .$406.26. .$18.00

Food $22. 11.. $265. 32.. 258.24 $ 7.08

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 34.70 4. 30.. Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 55.36 64.64. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.30.. 39.60.. 39.45 15.. $.51



$38.66. .$463.92. .$405.75. .$406.26. .$18.00. .$76.17



Family No. 38, Woman, 4 children, 17, 15, 13, 11

Rent $10.00. .$120.00. .$125.00. .$566.54. .$ 5.00.



Food 22.93.. 275.16.. 280.76 5.60

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 25.50 $13. 50.. Bal. end

Clo 8.00.. 96.00.. 47.98 48.02. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.50.. 42.00.. 87.24 45.24 $.06



$47.68. .$572. 16. .$566.48. .$566.54. .$55.84. .$61.52



Family No. 39, Woman, 4 children, 7, 6, 5, 3

.$156. 00.. $615. 82.



Rent. ..


..$13.00.


.$156.00.


Food...


.. 21.35.


. 256.20.


F.&L..


. . 3.25.


. 39.00.


Clo


.. 10.00.


. 120.00.


Sund . . .


.. 3.40.


. 40.80.



314.76 $58.50

30.31 $ 8.09. .Bal. end

63.29 56.71. .of 12 mo.

48.99 8.19 $2.47



$51.00. .$012.00. .$613.35. .$615.82. .$66.75. .$65.40

Family No. 40, Woman, 4 children, 13, 11, 8, 4

Rent $13.00. .$1.50.00. .$1.56.00. .$573.39

Food 25.75.. 309.00.. 319.16 $10.16



.$1.'')0


.00


. 309


.00


, 39


.00


. 48


.00


36.


00.



F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 16.81 $22. 19.. Bal. end

Clo 4.00.. 48.00.. 40.38 7.62..ofl2mo

Sund 3.00.. 36.00.. 70.43 34.43 $29.38



$49.00. .$588.00. .$002.78. .$573.39. .$44.59. .$29.81



Expense Accounts of the Seventy-five Families 39

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 41, Woman, 4 children, 9, 7, 5, 3

Rent $12.00. .$144.00. .$144.00. .$542.10

Food 19.13.. 229.56.. 206.19 $23.36

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 35.12 3.88

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 49.41 70.59..BaI. end

Sund 3.95.. 47.40.. 73.46 $26.06 of 12 mo.

Nur. fees . 1,30.. 15.60.. 32.45 16.85 $1.47



$49. 63.. $595. 56. .$540.63. .$542.10. .$42.91. .$97.83

Family No. 42, Woman, 4 children, 16, 13, 9, 5

Rent $1200. .$144.00. .$136.00. .$685.78 $ 8.00

Food 29.48. . 353.76. . 349.96 3.80

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 45.54 $6.54

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 65.49 54.51..Bal. end

Sund 3.73.. 44.36.. 56.85 12.09 of 12 mo.

C. F 2.40.. 28.80.. 29.68 88 $2.26



$60.86. .$730.32. .$683.52. .$685.78. .$19.51. .$66.31

Family No. 43, Woman, 4 children, 14, 12, 9, 5

Rent $ 7.50. .$ 90.00. .$125.00. .$639.05. .$35.00

339.10 $21.26

20.18 18.82..Ba!. end

80.58 39.42. .of 12 mo.

63.90 38.90 $10.29



Food


,. 30.03..


. 360.36..


F.&L...


,. 3.25..


, 39.00..


Clo


,. 10.00..


. 120.00..


Sund


,. 2.00..


24.00..



$52.78. .$633.36. .$628.76. .$639,05. .$74.90. .$79.50

Family No. 44, Woman, 4 children, 12, 8, 5, 3

Rent $11.00. .$132.00. .$126.50. .$544.06 $ 5.50

270.73 $ 5.41

22.49 16.51..BaI. end

54.61 65. 39.. of 12 mo.

67.02 24.78 $2.71



Food. ...


. . 22.11..


. 265.32


F. & L. . .


, . 3.25..


. 39.00


Clo


, . 10.00.,


. 120.00


Sund


,. 3.52..


42.24



$49,88. .$598.56. .$541.35. .$544.06. .$30.19. .$87.40

Family No. 45, Woman, 4 children, 12, 9, 5, 2

Rent $ 5.00. .$ 60.00. .$ 80.00. .$557.55. .$20.00



Food


,. 22.11..


, 265,32


F.&L...


. 3.25..


39.00


Clo


, . 10.00.,


, 120,00


Sund


. 4 , 38 . .


52.56



291.37 26.05

19.89 $19.11. .Bal. end

75.72 44. 28.. of 12 mo.

82,79 30.23 $7.78



$44.74. .$549.78. .$549.78. .$557.55. . $76.28. .$63.39



40 The Minimum Cost of Living

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary

Family No. 46, Woman, 4 children, 16, 10, 8, 6

Rent $13. 00.. $156. 00. .$147.00. .8751 .50 $ 9.00

Food 27.84.. 334.08.. 332.67 1.41

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 31.26 7.74

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 87.76 32.24..Bal. end

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.. 77.47 $53.47 of 12 mo.

C. F 2.60.. 31.20.. 53.20 22.00 $22.14



$58.69. .$704.28. .$729.36. .$751.50. .$75.47. .$50.39

Family No. 47, Woman, 4 children, 15, 13, 11, 6

.$168.00. .$.505.38



Rent . . .


..$14.00.


.$168.00


Food. ..


.. 26.21.


. 314.52


F. & L. .


. . 3.25.


. 39.00


Clo


.. 10.00.


. 120.00


Sund . . .


.. 2.00.


. 24.00



262.76 $51.76

5.95 33.05..Bal. end

26.05 93.95. .of 12 mo.

25.20 $ 1.20 $17.42



$55.46. .$665.52. .$487.96. .$505.38. .$ 1.20. $178. 76

Family No. 48, Woman, 4 children, 12, 9, 7, 5

Rent $11.00. .$132.00. .$122.00. .$550.32 $10.00

Food 22.95.. 275.40.. 282.49 $ 7.09

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 38.64 36..Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 60.76 59.24. .of 12 mo.

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.. 45.55 21.55 $.88



$49.20. .$590.40. .$549.44. .$550.32. .$28.64. .$09.60

Family No. 49, Woman, 5 children, 15, 13, 9, 7, 5

Rent $15.00. .$180.00. .$168.75. .$716.51 $11.25

Food 32.30.. 387.60.. 334.56 53.04

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 43.46 $4.40 Bal. end

Clo 12.00. . 144.00. . 73.63 70.37. .of 12 mo.

Sund 4.60.. 55.20.. 96.69 41.49 $.58



$67.15. .$805.80. .$717.09. .$716.51. .$45.95. $134.66

Family No. 50, Woman, 5 children, 18, 12, 9, 7, 4

Rent $13.00. .$156.00. .$195.00. .$634.80. .$39.00

Food 27.02.. 324.24.. 298.49 $25.75

F.&L.... 3.25.. 39.00.. 31.89 7.11. .Bal. end

Clo 6.00.. 72.00.. 99.28 27.28 of 12 mo.

Sund 2.88.. .34. .56.. 46.09 11.53 $35.95



$52.15. .$625.80. .$670.75. .$634.80. .$77.81. .$32.86



Expense Accounts of the Seventy-five Families 41

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 51, Woman, 5 children, 15, 14, 11, 6, 5

Rent S10.50. .$126.00. .$136.00. .$691.03. .$10.00

Food 31.12.. 373.44.. 376.01 2.57

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 35.35 $3.65..Bal. end

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.. 91.33 52.67. .of 12 mo.

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.. 52.03 28.03 $.31



$58.87. .$706.44. .$690.72. .$691.03. .$40.60. .$56.32

Family No. 52, Woman, 5 children, 19, 11, 10, 8, 5

Rent $15.00. .$165.00. .$150.00. .$832. 16 $15.00

Food 26.50.. 291.50.. 285.94 5.56

F.&L 3.25.. 35.75.. 35.05 70..Bal. end

Clo 12.00.. 132.00.. 137.73 $5.73 of 12 mo.

Sund 6.00.. 66.00.. 143.49 77.49 $79.95



$62. 75. .$690. 25.. $752. 21. .$832.16. .$83.22. .$21.26

Family No. 53, Woman, 5 children, 11, 9, 7, 5, 4

Rent $ 9.50. .$114.00. .$ 96.50. .$482.50 $17.50.



Food. ..


.. 22.11.


. 265.33.


. 278.27.


$12.94.




F. & L. .


. . 3.25.


. 39.00.


. 22.27.




. 16.73


Clo


.. 10.00.


. 120.00.


. 70.03.




. 49.97


Sund...


.. 2.00.


. 24.00.


. 17.11.




. 6.89




$46.86.


.$562.33.


.$484.18.


.$482. 50.. $12. 94.


.$91.09



. Bal. end
.of 12 mo.
.$1.68



Family No. 54, Woman, 5 children, 7, 6, 5, 4, 2

Rent $10.00. .$120.00. .$120.00. .$485.41

Food 23.00.

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 18.10 $20. 90.. Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 39.60 80.40. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.00.. 30.00.. 23.73 12. 27.. $5. 90



$49.25.



276.00.


. 278.08.




.$ 2.


.08.




, 39.00.


. 18.10.








.$20.90.


, 120.00.


. 39.60.








. 80.40.


30.00.


. 23.73.








. 12.27.


$591.00.


.$479.51.


.$485.41.


.$ 2.08.


$113.57



Family No. 55, Woman, 5 children, 13, 11, 7, 4, 20 months

Rent $14.00. .$168.00. .$168.00. .$727.87

Food 28.84.. 346.08.. 337.90 $ 8.18

F.&L.... 3.25.. 39.00.. 40.97 $1.97

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 70.43 49, 57.. Bal. end

Sund 4.40.. 52.80. . 106.92 54.12 of 12 mo.

C. F 2.70 2.70 $.95



$60. 49.. $725. 88.. $726. 92.. $727. 87.. $58. 79.. $57. 75



42 The Minimum Cost of Living

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 56, Woman, 5 children, 17, 15, 11, 9, 7

Rent $15.00. .$180.00. .$174.50. .$897.56 $ 5.50

Food 38.50.. 502.00.. 370.01 131.99

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 54.62 $15.62

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.. 109.14 34.86

Sund 2.44.. 29.28.. 123.23 93.95 Bal. end

C. F 2.60.. 31.20.. 58.50 27.30 of 12 mo.

Debtpd 3.31 3.31 $4.25



$73. 79.. $925. 43.. $893. 31.. $897. 46. $140. 18. $172. 35

Family No. 57, Woman, 5 children, 13, 12, 9, 7, 5

Rent $18.00. .$216.00. .$216.00. .$863.57

Food 31.12.. 373.44.. 369.96 $3.48

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 50.87 $11.87 Bal. end

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.. 62.35 81.65. .of 12 mo.

Sund 4.40.. 52.80.. 73.31 20.51 $91.08



$68.77. .$825.24. .$772.49. .$863.57. .$32.38. .$85.13

Family No. 58, Woman, 5 children, 17, 15, 13, 7, 4

Rent $13.00. .$156.00. .$156.00. .$845.97

411.73 $ 8.77



Food


. 33.58..


, 402.96..


F.&L...


. 3.25..


, 39.00..


Clo


. 10.00..


120.00..


Sund


. 3.91..


46.92..


C. F


. 2.40..


28.80..



29.23 $ 9.77

96.64 23. 36.. Bal. end

51.57 4.65 of 12 mo.

82.60 53.80 $18.20



$66.14. .$793.68. .$827.77. .$845.97. .$67.22. .$33.13

Family No. 59, Woman, 5 children, 10, 7, 4, 3, 18 months

Rent $14. 00.. $168. 00.. $176. 00.. $692. 84..$ 8.00

Food 25.27.. 303.24.. 316.49 13.25

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 53.20 14.20 Bal. end

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.. 76.84 $67.16. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.52.. 42.24.. 69.24 27.00 $1.07



$58.04. .$696. 48.. $691. 77. .$692.84. .$62.45. .$67.16

Family No. 60, Woman, 5 children, 11, 10, 8, 5, 4

Rent $11. 50.. $138. 00.. $138. 00. .$685.81

Food 30.94.. 371.28.. 347.42 $23.86

F.&L.... 3.25.. 39.00.. 47.55 $8.55 Bal. end

Clo 12,00.. 144.00.. 124.05 19.95. .of 12 mo.

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.. 29.32 5.32 $.53



$59.69. .$716.28. .$686.34. .$685.81. .$13.87. .$43.81



Expense Accounts of the Seventy-five Families 43

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 61, Woman, 5 children, 13, 11, 9, 8, 5

Rent S16.00. .$192.00. .$176.00. .$767.62 $16.00

383.90 $ 8.78

36.68 2.32

74.06 69.94..Bal. end

86.03 38.63 of 12 mo.

8.75 53. 65.. $2. 20



Food


. 31.26..


375.12.


F. &L...


, . 3.25..


. 39.00.


CIo


, . 12.00..


, 144.00.


Sund


.. 3.95..


, 47.40.


C. F


. 5.20..


62.40.



$71.66. .$859.92. .$765.42. .$767.62. .$47. 41. $141. 91

Family No. 62, Woman, 5 children, 13, 11, 8, 4, 2

Rent $15.00. .$180.00. .$180.00. .$764.43



Food


. 30.00..


360.00.


F. & L. . .


. 3.25.


. 39.00.


Clo


. . 14.00.,


. 168.00.


Sund


. 5.03..


60.36.



380.39 $20.39

35.00 $ 4.00..Bal. end

129.79 38.21. .of 12 mo.

38.70 21.66. .$.55



$67.28. .$807.36. .$763.88. .$764.43. .$20.39. .$63.87

Family No. 63, Woman, 5 children, 11, 10, 8, 7, 4

Rent $11.00. .$132.00. .$132.00. .$681.98

Food 30.94.. 371.28.. 360.24 $11.04

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 19.43 19.57..Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.. 76,19 43,81. .of 12 mo.

Sund 4.40.. 52.30.. 89.72 $37.42 $4.40



$59.59. .$714.58. .$677.58. .$681.98. .$37.42. .$74.42

Family No. 64, Woman, 6 children, 13, 11, 10, 7, 5, 8 mo.

Rent $13.00. .$156.00. .$169.00. .$767.98. . $13.00

Food 30.67.. 368.04.. 390.29 22.25

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 40.20 1.20 Bal. end

Clo 10.00.. 120,00.. 109,04 $10.96. .of 12 mo.

Sund 3.08.. 36.96.. 55,69 18.73 $3.76



$60.00. .$720.00. .$764.22. .$767.98. .$55.18. .$10.96

Family No. 65, Woman, 6 children, 14, 13, 10, 9, 7, 6

Rent $14. 00.. $168. 00. .$168,00. .$851.76

Food 37.67.. 442,04.. 431.13 $10,91

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 44.03 $5,03 Bal. end

Clo 14,00.. 168.00.. 124.76 43.24. , of 12 mo.

Sund 7.70.. 92,40.. 72.77 19.63. .$11.07



$76.62. .$909. 44.. $840. 69. .$851.76..$ 5.03. .$73.78



44



The Minimum Cost of Living



Est. of needs
1 mo. 12 mo.



Act. Exv. Act. Inc.
12 mo. 12 mo.



Act. over Act. under
budget budget Summary



Family No. 66, Woman, 6 children, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 5



Rent.
Food.
F. &L
CIo...
Sund.
C. F..



S12.00.
38 . 95 .

3.25.
12.00.

5.18.

5.20.



$144.00.
. 467.40.
. 39.00.
. 144.00.
. 62.16.
. 62.40.



$125.00. .$913.15 $19.00

. 521.88 $54.48

. 17.19 21.81

. 83.96 60.04..Bal. end

. 84.91 22.75 of 12 mo.

. 74.15 11.75 $6.06



$76.58. .$918.96. .$907.09. .$913. 15. .$88. 23. $100. 85



Family No. 67, Woman, 6 children, 19, 18, 15, 14, 9, 6

Rent $18.00. .$216.00. .$243.00 $1,172.50. .$27.00

Food 40.13.. 481.56.. 561.74 80.18

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.. 63.82 24.82

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.. 91.67 $52.33..BaI. end

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.. 173.67 149.67 of 12 mo.



C. F 30.80.



30.80 $7.80



$75.38. .$904.56$1,164.70$1,172.50.$312.47. .$52.33

Family No. 68, Woman, 6 children, 16, 13, 11, 8, 6, 2

Rent $15. 00.. $180. 00..$ 81 .00. .$417.25 $99.00.



Food 28.67.. 344.04..

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.

Clo 10.00.. 120.00.

Sund 2.00.. 24.00.,



178.33 165.71

15.73 23.27. .Bal. end

80.33 39.67. .of 12 mo.

51.27 $27.27 $10.59



$58.92. .$707.04. .$406.66. .$417.25. .$27.27.8327.65



Family No. 69, Woman, 6 children, 15, 13, 9, 7, 6, 4

Rent $15.00. .$180.00. .$175.00. .$790.31 $ 5.00.

Food 28.67.. 344.04.

F.&L 3.25.. 39.00.

Clo 12.00.. 144.00.

Sund 4.60.. 55.20.



388.61 $44. .J7

42.72 3.72 Bal. end

36.80 107.20. .of 12 mo.

89 . 78 34 . 58 $29 . 33



$63.52. .$762.24. .$732.91. .$790.31. .$82. 87. $112. 20



Family No. 70, Woman, 7 children, 15, 14, 12, 11, 10, 6, 5
Rent ,S12.50. .$150.00. .$153.00. .$765.88. .$ 3.00. .



Food 37.67..

F.&L.... 3.25..

Clo 14.00..

Sund 62.65. .



452.04.

39.00.
168.00.

91.80.



362.99 $89.05

57.14 18.14 Bal. end

61.27 106.73. .of 12 mo.

99.22 7.42 $.32.26



$70.07. .$900.84. .$733.62. .$765.



.$28.56.195.78



Expense Accounts of the Seventy-five Families 45

Est. of needs Act. Exp. Act. Inc. Act. over Act. under
1 mo. IZ mo. 12 mo. 12 mo. budget budget Summary
Family No. 71, Woman, 7 children, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 3

Rent $20. 00.. $240. 00. .$203. 00 $1,139. 32 $37.00

520.88 29.44

42.44 $ 3.44

163.43 28.57..Bal. end

109.66 75.58 of 12 mo.

94.39 92. 81.. $5. 52



Food


, . 45.86..


. 550.32.


F. &L...


. 3.25.,


. 39.00.


Clo


. . 16.00.,


. 192.00.


Sund....


. 2,84..


34.08.


C. F


. 15.60..


187.20.



$103. 55 $1,242. 60 $1,133. 80 $1,139. 32.. $79. 02. $187. 82

Family No. 72, Woman, 7 children, 16, 14, 11, 9, 7, 4, 2

Rent $14.00. .$168,00. .$168.00. .$852.17

Food 40.95.. 491.40.. 410,35 $81.05

F. &L 3.25.. 39.00.. 30.00 9,00

Clo 12.00.. 144,00,. 115,87 28,13,.Bal. end

Sund 4.38.. 52,56.. 63.98 $11.42 of 12 mo.

C. F 5.20.. 62,40.. 53.55 8. 85,, $10, 42



$79.78. .$957.36. .$841.75. .$852.17. .$11. 42, $127, 03

Family No. 73, Woman, 7 children, 15, 14, 12, 10, 9, 7, 4

Rent $15,00, .$180,00, .$132,00, ,$898,68 $48,00

Food 36,04,. 432,48.. 449,81 $17.33

F. &L 3,25.. 39,00.. 65,61 26,61

Clo 14,00.. 168,00.. 64,93 103,07..Bal end.

Sund 3.64.. 43.68.. 174,42 130,74 of 12 mo.

C. F 2.60.. 31,20.. 9.60 21,60. .$2.31



$74,53. .$894.36. .$896,37. .$898. 68. $174. 68, $172. 67

Family No. 74, Woman, 7 children, 18, 16, 14, 12, 8, 7, 5

Rent $17,00. .$204,00, ,$198.00 $1,145.41 $ 6,00

626.67 $66.51

40.13 1.13 Bal. end

111.68 80.32. , of 12 mo.

170.86 110,86 $1.93



Food


.. 46.68..


560,16.


F.&L...


. 3.25.


. 39.00.


Clo


, . 16.00,.


. 192,00.


Sund


. 5,00,.


60.00.



$87.93 $1,055. 16 $1,147. 34 $1.145. 41, $178, 50., $86, 32

Family No. 75, Woman, 8 children, 17, 15, 13, 10, 9, 8, 7, 5

Rent $15.50, .$186.00. .$161,00. .$930,00 $25,00

Food 49,14,. 589,68.. 502,55 87.13

F.&L 3,25,. 39,00.. 31,96 7. 04.. Bal. end

Clo 18.00.. 216.00.. 91.77 124.23. .of 12 mo.

Sund 5.54.. 66.48., 135.36 $68,88 $7,36



$91. 43 $1,097. 16.. $922. 64. .$930.00. .$68. 88. $243. 40



PART III
WHAT THE STUDY REVEALED



CHAPTER I

Conditions Previous to Steady Income

The families have been known to the Associa-
tion for varying periods before the death of the
breadwinner. In all cases the income had been
irregular or insufficient or both for a considerable
time. The health of various members had suf-
fered accordingly.

Before the granting of the regular income there
was careful instruction in each family for at least
six months. During this time members of the
Home Economics' staff gave lessons in planning,
buying and feeding, so that the housekeeper might
be prepared to use her income to the best advan-
tage.

During the time when the various families were
being supported by the mothers' earnings, by
church and other societies, the income was in-
determinate in fifty-nine of the families. In the
other sixteen it was possible to approximate the
income. Of this number, according to the estimate
on which this study is based, there was a deficit

49



50



The Minimum Cost of Living



in all cases, the highest being $34.00 per month,
the lowest $1.00, and the average $14.00 monthly.
It is safe to say that not one of the seventy-five
famihes had escaped some degree of ill health
because of insufficient income.

After the allowances were granted the families
were grouped according to income as follows:



Income


Number of Families


Between 200 and 300


1


" 300 " 400


2


" 400 " 500


8


" 500 " 600


22


" 600 " 700


18


" 700 " 800


12


" 800 " 900


7


" 900 " 1000


2


" 1100 " 1200


3



75



At the end of the first year of steady income six
of the seventy-five showed a deficit, the average
deficit for the twelve months being $27.99. The
remaining sixty-nine showed a surplus, the average
being $9.72.

The following table shows the number of families
who spent more than the estimate, and the average
amount of this expenditure, also the number of



Conditions Previous to Steady Income 51

families who spent less than the estimate of the
average sum in each case:

Itemized Analysis of the Above

No. Families Average No. Families Average
Item Above Sum Below Sum

Rent 18 $14.97 31 $18.02

Food 38 29.80 37 29.30

Fuel and Light. . .24 8.12 51 11.30

Clothing 5 15.43 70 54.55

Insurance* 29 12.43 32 4.92

Sundries 64 28.35 11 10.94

Carfare 8 28.37 6 35.30

One important part of the plan was the supervi-
sion of health conditions by the Association's
nurses. Before the granting of the cash allowance
a record was made of the health of each member of
all the families after a careful medical examina-
tion. The nurses' records show the progress from
month to month, and the following is a verbatim
report of conditions in each family at the end of
the year:

HEALTH CONDITIONS AFTER A YEAR OF STEADY
INCOME

Family Health After Year of Teaching and Steady Income

FamUy No. 1 . . Family well.

" " 2. .Conditions satisfactory.

* Budgets include insurance under Sundries.



52 The Minimum Cost of Living

Family Health After Year of Teaching and Steady Income

Family No. 3. .Children improved in health.

" 4 .. Health of family improved.

" 5. .Family all well.

" 6 .. Plan a success. Conditions excellent.

" 7 .. Children improved. Medical care given. Satis-
factory results.

" 8. .Conditions satisfactory.

" 9.. Health good.

" 10. .Family all in better health.

" 11. .Marked difference in health.

" 12. .Health improved. Steady advance at all points.

" 13 . . Health of family good.

" 14. .Family all in better health.

" 15. .Children show good effects from care from
mother.

" 16.. Good results.

" 17 . . Improved in all ways.

" 18. .General health of family good.

" 19. .Excellent health.

" 20. .Woman and children all show marked improve-
ment.

" 21 . . Entire family well.

" 22. .Woman delicate but improved in health. Chil-
dren well.

" 23 .. Conditions much improved. Health of famUy
good.

" 24. .Health of all the family improved.

" 25.. Children show good effects of home care of
mother. Health improved.

" 26. .Children well. Woman much improved.

" 27. .Living conditions greatly improved. Woman
under medical care.

" 28. .Health conditions satisfactory.

" 29 . . Health of family good.

" 30 .. Health much improved.

" 31.. Health good.



Conditions Previous to Steady Income 53

Family Health After Year of Teaching and Steady Income
Family No. 32. .All the family well.

" " 33. .AH the family show marked improvement in

health since steady income.
" " 34 . . Woman not strong but great improvement noted

in all members of the family.
" " 35 .. Slow but steady improvement.

" 36..Family all well.
" " 37 . . Health decidedly improved.
" " 38 .. Great improvement in health.
" "39. .Family better but still shows the effect of long

continued under-nourishment.
" " 40 .. Family greatly improved since granting of steady

income.
" " 41 . .Great improvement in health of all the family.
" " 42.. Health of family good.
" " 43 .. Slow but steady improvement.
" " 44. .Health of family good.
" " 45. .Health decidedly improved.
" " 46. .Woman's health improving rapidly after steady

income came.
" " 47 .. Steady improvement in every possible way .
" " 48.. Much better health.
" " 49.. Family weU.
" " 50. .Health improved but still below.
" " 51 . . General health of all the family good.
" " 52. .Woman and children all well.
" " 53. .Family in good health.
" " 54.. Entire family well.
" " 55. .Health of entire family improved since steady

income began.

" " 56 .. Remarkable gain in health of all members of the

family.
" " 57. .Family improved rapidly.
" " 58. .Remarkable improvement.
" " 59. .Steady improvement.
" " 60 . . Good improvement in all the family.



54



The Minimum Cost of Living



Family Health After Year of Teaching and Steady Income

Family No. 61. .Woman gaining strength and courage.

" " 62. .Vast improvement in all directions.

" " 63 .. Steadily improving.

" " 64 .. Steady improvement. Children very well.

" " 65. .AH conditions improving rapidly.

" " 66 .. Children show splendid improvement.

" " 67 .. All improved.

" " 68. .Entire family well.

" " 69. .Family all improved.

" 70. .All well.

" " 71. .Slow but steady improvement.

" 72.. Excellent health.

" " 73 .. Family all well.

" " 74. .Conditions improved.

" " 75. .Steady improvement.

The most cursory examination of the above
records leads inevitably to the conclusion that
even a minimum sum carefully administered, will
do much for families who have been living on a
' ' hand-to-mouth ' ' basis.

We may sum up as follows : A carefully planned
minimum standard can lay the foundation of
good health for all members of the family. Such
a sum can restore shattered nerves and renew
courage for a mother who has been harassed by
irregular and uncertain payments of an income
inadequate at the best. Such an assured minimum
can change pale and listless children into rosy-
cheeked romping boys and girls.



Conditions Previous to Steady Income 55

It is worth while to consider now just what prac-
tical application can be made of the facts noted
above. The present study is not concerned pri-
marily with the sources of the family income. This


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