Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association.

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trial that they were the kind of oats to grow. The average in-
creased yield per acre the year before last was enough more over
the other oats to convince me that I did not want to take any
chances in getting them mixed. My neighbor had a field near by
and on practically the same soil and in about the same condition.
His yielded him 2G bushels per acre where mine produced 40
bushels }x^r acre, making a difference of 14 bushels per acre in
my favor. Now figuring that at 35 cGuts per bushel would
make a net profit of $4.90 p/er acre, and estimating that for
20 acres, the usual amount most farmers raise in our locality,
would mean a net profit for one year of $98.

If the fanners could be induced to sow these oats it would
mean many dollars to them and that would mean better farm
buildings, better stock on the farm, more luxuries and more
enjoyable living for the farmers and their families.

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88 Second Annual Report of the


Mr. President, Fellow Members of tJie Association: —

I don't know that my testimony in regard to the Swedish Se-
lect oats will be of any considerable value to you. A good many
of those present at the annual meeting heard a large amount of
favorable evidence last year, and as a consequence obtained some
of the seed. I was among that number. I purchased seed of
Mr. Ebert, of Tomah to the amount of ten bushels, at 75 cents
per bushel. The ten bushels came in three ordinary grain sacks ;
One American A sack weighing over 120 lbs. We sowed them
with a broadcast seeder on four and one-half acres of high day
ground, some of which was stony.

At the time of sowing we thought it was about the poorest
piece of ground we had, but it turned out to be the best on
account of our having so much rain.

As they grew and headed out one could easily tell where the
division was in the field. They ripened about a week before
the others did and were entirely free from smut. I couldn't
find a single smutted head in' the field. They yielded approxi-
mately 58 bushels to the acre, or about 10 bushels more than
our old variety which we call No. Y, and paid $2.25 a bushel
for at the time we first got the seed. I consider the Swedish Se-
lect oat a very superior one both for feeding on ac^count of its
thin hull and for its large yield. Our surplus seed is all spoken
for at 60 cents and 75 cents per bushel at the granary. One man
ordered 60 bushels for his own use. It has proven a very
profitable investment for us and we will sow nearly all, if not
all, of that variety the coming spring.


I began raising Swedish Select oats in the spring of 1902, ob-
taining one sack of the seed from Prof. R. A. Moore which I
sowed on about one acre of ground. Owing to the nature of
ground and condition of the season, I harvested only about 20 bu.
of good oats as they lodged very badly. The spring of 1903

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 89

I sowed the 20 bu. on 10 acres of loose, low prairie soil and had
a very good stand, but owing to the rust they yielded only 40 bu.
per acre by weight. In conclusion will say that I regard them
the best oats there are to my knowledge as they, like our
standard breeds of livestock, have a history behind them which
tells of their performance in the past. Their superiority over
most varieties of oats are earliness, even stand, heavy grain, and
trueness to type.


Fellow students: — ^We meet here today to see what improve-
ments have been made since this Agricultural Experiment As-
sociation was formed. While sitting here yesterday and today,
I have seen that we are taking great interest in our worl^ (I say
our work.) Why? because the future of agriculture depends
quite largely on our boys who have graduated from the Short

My subject today is a short talk on Swedish Select oats. T
will in a brief way tell you my experience the past season. I
sowed these oats on a sandy clay loam soil on which the year
before potatoes were planted. I sowed them with a broad cast
seeder on a well prepared seed bed. The oats were treated be-
forehand for smut. At the time of seeding I found they w^ere
swoolen somewhat, consequently! sowed them two and one-fourth
bushels per acre with good success. They came up as green as a
lawn until they were between three and four feet high standing
as straight aud stiff as a wall. I couldn't help but get a picture
of them. See Fig. -4. I believe the treating of oats for smiut
greatly improved the crop, because the oats sprouted quicker
and grew better.

All members present who have treated seed oats in the past
for the prevention of smut can not help but note the great
improvement in appearance and general character of the grain
grown from treated seed.

The Swedish oats proved to be great yielders as we threshed
81l/> bushels per acre which we considered an excellent yield
for last year.

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90 Second Annual Report of the

We can't farm as our forefathers farmed, we must find a
better way if we wish to reach the highest degree of success.


... ^


While attending the Short Course in Agriculture I became
interested in a variety of oats known as the Swedish Select
oats. I purchased a sack of Prof. Moore, who had been
growing them for some time, and had found them to be su-
perior in quality as well as in yield to any that he had
grown. My experience was a very satisfactory one. I sowed
the Swedish oats on one end of a barley field so that they might
not become mixed with our other variety of oats. They yielded
about twenty-four bushels more per acre than did our own
variety, and they did not rust nearly as badly. The rust was
barely noticeable in the Swedish Select oats while in the others
the rust was very bad. The Swedish oats stood up w^ell, not a
single plant lodged, while our home variety was lodged to quite
an extent. In conclusion I will say that any one growing oats
either for market or for feeding purposes cannot make a more
profitable investment than to secure a few bushels of these oats
for trial purposes.



Before discussing how and what to have for our pastures for
hogs in the sunmier time we might spend a moment in consider-
ing the value and imjx)rtance of summer pastures.

In the first place abundant pastures are the cheapest feed we
can supply our hogs and the more we can get them to graze
the cheai)er the cost of i>ork production. I doubt if there would
1 e much profit in growing hogs ; all the feed was carried to them
in a concentrated forai.

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 91

Pasture also furnishes the best kind of roughage for our hogs.
So many feeders lose sight of the fact lliat, to get the best results
in pig feeding as in other lines of live stock, the ration should
have a certain amount of volume to it to get the best results.
There is notliing that will answer this purpose better than good
pastures where the pig can regulate the amount and bulk of
his food to his heart's content and he can do it better than any
feeder can do it for him.

Again we should keep in mind that pastures are about the
only succulent feed our hogs get and all good feeders realize
the importance of having sQ-me succulent food for our animals.
The dairyman realizes this perhaps more than any other farmer
because he sees the immediate effects in milk production, but it
is just as necessary that we should have succulent feed for our
hogs only we do not see immediate results quite so quickly as the
dairyman does.

Another great advantage of pastures is that they furnish a lot
of cheap protein and mineral matter tliat helps to balance the
grain rations fed them and thereby develop in our hogs strong
bones and muscles.

In planning our pastures for our hogs tliere are certain things
that we should keep in mind. We should have pasture in the
spring as early as we can possibly get it and as late in the fall,
in fact we like to have as much as we can the year around.

Next in planning our pastures we should have a gi'eat variety
so as to encourage as large a consumption of this cheap feed as
we can.

In the planning of pastures we should have started last year
by sowing a small piece of that most common and often times
despised plant, winter rye. It should be sown in August or
September in some old hog pasture, in the com field at the time
of the last cultivation or on some otiier piece of land especially

This rye will make a good fall pasture and in case of an open
winter the hogs can get a great deal of green feed. The rye
starts earlier in the spring and makes a more rapid growth than
any other plant we have but we can not depend on this for any
great length of time as it grows very rapidly and soon becomes
coarse and fibrous. We use this for first early.

Next I would mention as a valuable pasture the common

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92 Second Annual Report of the

blue gras3 or June grass as we call it. This comes on very
early and will furnish a great deal in the way of the best kind
of forage, but like the winlier rye its season of usefulness is
rather short as it soon ripens and its growth is nearly stopped
until cold weather comes in the fall.

These two plants that I have mentioned, we can have on any
farm without much difficulty, but from this time on is the diffi-
cult period of furnishing our hogs with good pasturage.

If we are successful in having a good catch of clover at this
time we will have one of the best pastures we can get for a great
part of the summer time, for I do not know of a better single
pasture plant than the common clover, but in connection with
this we want something els© for variety and especially if we are
not fortunate enough to have the clover.

For future pastures, as soon as we can get on tlie land in the
spring we prepare a piece of land and sow it with a grain mixt-
ure of 2 bushels of barley and 1 bushel of peas per acre. We
seed with this mixture 2 quarts of Dwarf Essex rape and 4
quarts of medium red clover.

We will sow two or three of these pieces at intervals of two
or three weeks. When the barley in the first field gets about one
foot high we turn the pigs in and they will eat the sweet and
juicy barley stalks and the peas very readily, but at this time do
not seem inclined to eat much of the rape. After this first
pasture is picked down we turn in the second and so on. After
the barley is picked dowTi it does not make much cf a growth
but the rape and clover come on and make a good growth and
as the ra}>e gets a little more maturity we turn in this first
pasture again and we have permanent pasture of rape and
clover for the rest of the season as the rape and clover will
always start up after being picked down but the peas and barley
will not.

This is our method of preparing pastures for our swine. Some
might ask why we sow the barley and peas? It is because it
comes on and is ready to pasture earlier than the rape and it also
furnishes a lot in the way of variety.

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association, 93


Ladies, Gentlemen and Fellow Students: —

It is with pleasure that I have this opportunity to say a few
words on this great and important subject of such vital interest
to all swine growers, and in thus speaking I do not presume to
be presenting something new, but rather a very old practice now
under consideration, and being revived and returned into actual
use. Our ancestors, many of our grand-fathers raised their
hogs on nature's wild and bounteous supply, the sows being
turned out in the spring (sometimes were out), and were seldom
if ever seen until late in fall when they were "rounded up"
with their families, sleek, plump, and fat from pasture, finished
with acorns which were very plentiful in those days in our sec-
tion of the country (when nearly all was timber land). They
were then slaughtered and packed for future use or piled like
cord wood on an old sled and drawn many miles by oxen to some
poor and distant market-, and there sold at a very low figure. So
much for the past. Why must we change? What conditions
have we at present?

First: We have rivalry, hard universal competition in rais-
ing hogs for an open world-wide market which has to some ex-
tent forced the present generation to look for something cheaper
to grow pigs, and carry over old breeding stock.

Second: Land is getting higher priced; in some localities
very high, which compels hog-raisers as well as all farmers to
try to reap all the revenue possible from a given area, in order
to get even fair interest on money invested. When we first
began to raise hogs to any great extent we built a hog-tight
fence around about five (5) acres of low wood-land (nearly all
the timber out off, with running water on one side) as a perma-
nent pasture, and that same pasture is still in use (fifteen years),
although we have added more as necessity required, and it is get-
tinisr better every year, the grass is thicker, grows faster, and
suffers drouth less. This is blue-^rass pasture, with the natural
growth each year, of clovers, timothy, etc. Adjoining this
■oasture we had for several years a clover lot, but we found the
hogs did better, were more satisfied, when they had the run of

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94 Second Annual Report of the

both at the same time, so tlioro is now no division fence, they
will feed on one, and then go to the other and feed more.

In 1901 w^e sowed c-ats and clover early, April 8, for pasture,
and turned the ho^ on as soon as oats were 6 inches hi^h, and
it made an excellent run. Along later the clover came on and
made good feed in Septemhor and O^'toter. In 1902 we fol-
lowed about the same rctatif n exceji we also sowed considerable
oats and rape which affords more })ast.ure, but I believe of poorer
quality, but possibly the greater quantity more than offsets the
better quality.* Both of these years we fed gTound rye, some
times mixed with bran, cats and corn for their slop.

Previous to 1900 we raised peas and oats and cut them as
soon as they were in the dough, and hauled them into the pasture
for the pigs — but that is unnecessary w^ork, they can do the
harvesting themselve:^, — and continued this until they were too
ripe, so they shelled badly, and they gave most excellent re-
sults, often reducing the amrunt of other food to a very light
ration. This past season we followed a little different rotation
in as much as it was more extensive and continued, and I will
also give you the dates of sowing and the method we followed
in pasturing in rotation. TTie field where these hog pastures were
the past season, is a deep black loam underlain with gravel sub-
soil, and was all fall plowed in October. The past spring was
exceptionally wet, so the first sowing of oats and rape was
late (April 17), the second sowing May 8, and the third June
10. We turned hogs on first sowing June 1, 44 days after
sowing; the rape at this time was about a foot high. We turned
on second field July 10, 04 days after sowing; the rape was an
immense growth at this time, perhaps too large. The third
sowing we turned brood sows onto, away from pigs and other

Our field peas were also sown late (April 23), atid were in
the dough and ready to turn into (we pasture them) July 28,
96 days after sowing, and w^hen these were gone we turned into
flint com which ripened in 90 days (Aug. 15). After this our
corn from the field w^as ready.

Now did it really pay to pasture so much ? We must make
a little comparison. We fed middlings the past season, some
milk. We figured that when pasture was good they took ono-
Ihird less feed. We actually know they did. This meant about
100 lbs, saved per day. An acre would last our di'ove (about 100

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 95

head) about twenty (20) days which would equal one ton of feed
saved or $17.00, the price per ton. Now two crops of oats
and rape may be grown on the same plot in one season. Fall
sown rye pastured early (I ^vill say here that we use rye as a
substitute in the absence of clover, and sometimes in connection
with clover), and then sown to oats and rape May 15 to June 1,
and also the first early sowing may be followed later by another
crop of oats and rape. You can sow as late as July 1 with good
results unless exceptionally dry. The peas yielded about the
same net returns as the oats and rape, as the seed was more
expensive. But when the peas were mature and at their best,
the pigs would not come to eat slop at all. You will understand
that during all this pasturing the past season the pigs had access
to a fountain of pure, fresh water, supplied from a tank always
clean. The pigs make much more gain on peas, than on any
other feed I know of, fed in this way. We put them in mid-
dlings and changed from one feed to another in that way, so
that we may ever keep them hearty and feeling well.

In oonclusion I will say I think land handled in this way
will yield an average of $20 per acre, considering two crops on
part of the land. And that is not all, even cash value doesn't
cover it. In what condition are our pigs? Hearty, healthy,
long in body, plenty of strong bone and muscle, and will stay
on their feet, though pushed with a heavy grain ration through
the fattening period. These things alone w^ould warrant pastur-
ing in my estimation, if there were no other real cash value in
sight. And I think if there is any one thing we are in greater
need of than ^^summer pasture for growing hogs" it is more and
better pasture.



Memhers of the Wisconmn Agriculdural Experiment AssociMion:
— ^I am a beginner in the Management of county fairs, so will
be unable to do justice to the subject assigned me. I hope that
some of this paper may fall into rich ^il and bear good ixmtn t

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96 Second Annual Report of the

Tliere are several go(x\ reasons why the short course students
should take active parts in the management of our county fairs.
L(^t us lx4ieve that we are still students (which we really are),
only in a farther advanced class. We should take our places
at the head of this class and work vrith a will that never tires,
for a ^ood end.

The state of Wisconsin supports this Short Course in Agri-
culture for young men, who wish to gain a l)etter knowledge of
j)ractical and scientific farming, that they may l>ecr>me intelli-
gent st-(>ck men, dairymen, gardeners, etc. The state gives aid
or a certain per cent, of all the premiums paid at the county
fairs, for the same pur{X)se as the aid to the Short Course;
namely, that ( f advancing and improving agriculture.

Wo are receiving the knowledge and training here at the col-
lege of agriculture, which wo are supposed to put into practical
use, when we get back to our homes and the county fair is the
place where we can display the fruits of our labor. Is it not our
duty to help the state along in this matter cf county fairs as
a small compensation for what she has done for us ? It should
1x3 our highest ambition to put more into this world than we
have taken out of it. Still further as students it widens our
ability to think and act. It puts us in constant touch with the
diiferent classes of people, especially the a^i cultural class. It
drives our minds to new and up-to-date metho<ls in the line of
agriculture. It is a great honor to the Wisconsin College of
Agriculture to send out students from its diiferent classes wdio
are capable of taking responsible positions for the purpose of
improving agriculture.

As memibers of this Experiment Association, we should take
active part in extending its experiments to every county in the
state of Wisconsin. And no better place can be had or found
in a county for the center of this experiment work than the fair
grounds. We should take the lead in these experiments. You
will probably ask why should we take this lead? Simply be-
cause we are memlx^rs of this asvsociation. We should encour-
age our neighbors to make experiments along certain lines, we
should try and get the people over the whole country interested
in this experimental work. What we w^ish to do is to get the
people out of the old ruts.

The county fair is the place of gathering for all the farmers
of that county and adjoining counties as exhibitors. They come

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Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Association. 97

for the purpose of learning better methods in their chosen pro-
fession, thus leading others to investigate and study and to
understand many things they did not know before. The county
or community where you live should be greatly benefited by
you as an active worker for the county fair. You have had
ample training at the Short Course in all the lines of agri-
culture and therefore you should not take a back seat in its
management. I do not want you to think that you should run
for an offi^^e as one of your fair managers at once. But I do
want to impress upon your minds to start as an exhibitor, super-
intendent or judge, get down on the lower step of the ladder and
work yourself up. Be present at the annual meetings, do all
you can to help the fair along. In a few years the people will
find out that you are taking an interest in the fair and that you
are an active worker for it. Then you will be climbing up the
ladder and may be elected as one of its officers. Fill your place
to the best of your ability, make the county fair a success by
studying the people's wants. Now is the time to put your
thinking cap on and act to the best of your knowledge. Let us
put our shoulders to the wheel and push to the front.

TESTS witb; grain and forage plants.


Approximately 400 members of the association signified a
desire to carry on experiments with grains and forage plants
and were furnished outlines and report blanks.

To give all members of the association a knowledge of the
scope of the work copies of the outlines given those members
desiring to cooperate are herewith published. Several of the
experiments outlined for this season will be continued next
year and members wishing to aid in the work will be furnished
information sheets and report blanks on addressing the secretary
of the association, R. A. Moore, Madison, Wis.

Reports on the various experiments should be sent to the sec-
retary promptly in order to be compiled for the next annual


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98 Second Annual Report of the

Wisconsin Agbicui.turai. Experiment Association.

Experiment I.

Trials ^Yith Alfalfa to Determine if it can he Gro^vn in Wis-
consin Successfully as a Forage Plant and the Relative
Value of the Turlcestam* Compared With
Common^ Variety,

The value of alfalfa as a forage plant in the west is becoming
more and more apparent and the area grown, which was very
small a few years ago, has gradually widened until at the pres-
ent time most of the stock producing states west of the Missis-
sippi grow it in abundance. In Wisconsin alfalfa is yet in the
experimental stage and until it has been further tried at the
Experiment Station and by members of the Experiment Asso-
ciation, it will be well for the farmers of the state to refrain
from sowing it in large quantities.

Alfalfa or lucerne is a perennial plant and belongs to the
clover family. If not killed by frost, water or some other ele-
ment, it can be cut the secx>nd year after ,sowing three or four
times per season for hay and for many years without re-seeding.

It should be sown in the spring on land that is well drained,
with oats or barley as a nurse crop or alone if the land is not

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