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Iowa College, the Kansas College, the Ohio and the Indiana, as I remember
it. (Applause).

The total prize winnings of these five steers is exactly $1,050 at the In-
ternational show.

Dr. Brown: What's the matter with Minnesota?

Voices: She's all right.

Member: That pays Minnesota for feeding five steers, don't it?



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MINNESOTA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 139

Prof. Boss: There is just one element of regret in this matter, and that
is that I cannot say that any of these steers were bred in the state of Min-
nesota. Clear Lake Jute you know was bred in Minnesota. I believe when
you young men will follow Dr. Brown's advice, and breed stock for the love
of the business, that then we can have such stock as this bred in Minnesota.

Member: May I ask if that leading steer there is an inbred steer?

Dr, Brown: The sire of that steer I bought in Scotland. I paid $1,000
for him, and I traveled three hundred miles to examine his ancestry before
I bought him, after I saw him. Before I started I thought his ancesters
were all brothers and sisters almost; they were so near to it that they lookea
very much alike, but nevertheless when I saw them, their individuality was
so good that I took him. On the dam side there are two direct crosses ill '
the pedigree, one on the sire's side and one on the dam's side, in which the
sire and dam are the sire and dam of the two individuals that were bred
together. That occurs twice in the pedigree, and on the sirfe's side there
was a great deal of inbreeding.

Member: He is inbred then?

Dr. Brown: Yes.

Prof. Boss: Now I have told you as briefly as possible just what the
steers have done, I cannot afford the time to tell you very much about their
feeding.

I do not wish to lo^ this opportunity to say to all these men who have
been attending the meetings, that these addresses will close tonight, and
under the auspices of the society that you have been hearing these things,
from here you cannot hear any more, but these lectures and addresses will
be followed up for a week in the Farmers' Short Course. If you want tc
hear anything more about it, you will iiave to register as a short course
student. (Applause).

Dean Liggett: I am requested to make the announcement that the
Credentials Committee will meet here at this stand immediately after the
exercises are over. Please remember that the entire committee on credentials
will meet here at this stand immediately after the exercises are over.

Prof. Shaw: Dr. Brown, is this steer ah inbred steer or a steer that is
the result of an outcross?

(The horses were brought in at this time).

Dr. Brown: The horses were making a noise, but my understanding
is that Professor Shaw wishes to know of me whether this steer is an inbced
steer or a steer that is the result of an outcross. He is the result of an
outcross upon an inbred foundation, which perpetuates and fixes the type
and holds it according to its own foundation, regardless of the outcrosses that
are put into the animal. (Applause).

Dean Liggett: The next address will be given by Mr. Crandall on draft
horses. I take pleasure in introducing to you Mr. Crandall.



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140 , ANNUAL REPORT OF

DRAFT HORSES,— PERCHERONS, CLYDESDALES, BELGIANS.

BY CHAS. B. CBANDALL, RANDOLPH, MINN.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Mr. Boss has assigned me the
pretty difficult task of giving you a little talk upon the draft horse. He has
chosen for me a subject that is a good deal like the horse I have to talk
about, — it is a pretty large one.

There was a young lady visiting a farmer, and they were engaged in
raising draft horses; she heard the little boy using the term draft horse, and
she asked him what it means; she thought it meant some new breed of
horses, and she was surprised when he said, "A draft horse is. a great big
work horse." That is a proper definition pure and simple.

I have a paper prepared here that I will read.

That agriculture is the primary base upon which the material greatness
of our country rests, no one will deny, and it is equally true that no im-
portant part of that industry- can be lon^ neglected without disaster, and
yet one of its most important branches, horse breeding. Was almost wholly
neglected for five years pi*eceding *98. .

The industry was in a state of panic. A great fear pervaded the minds
of the breeders that electricity was about to supersede horses as a motive
•power, and hence, the great mother brood-mares of this country were sent
to market. The falsity of this opinion is demonstrated by the fact that no
Invention of the century has lessened the work of the horse on the farm —
while nearly every improvement in agricultural methods has necessitated
the use of more horses, moreover it is a statistical fact that in all the great
cities more horses are now being used according to population than were
In use ten years ago.

As we are drawn together by improved transportation facilities we be-
come more and more conscious that the inflexible principles of evolution — the
survival of the fittest — is bringing every individual under its law and that every
man who would succeed must measure hi^ work by the standard of the best
that others are doing. Our horse breeders must bear in miild that their
product like all others of our field and shop are penetrating every market
of the world, and prepare themselves to meet competition of every kind
by the wise selection of the highest type, by proper mating and. good care.

Despite the fact "that the draft horses have always left with their
hreeders, at least, the costs of production, and, averaging one year with
another a handsome profit besides. Draft horses have never in the United
States laid down the swath which the utility and value have entitled them t'^
cut. Why this has been so may be explained in various ways, but a few facts
stand out so plainly that they cannot be passed over.

As affecting the market supply of draft geldings never large, and now
all too short, the main deterrent has been the lack of stability of effort.

In his horse breeding business the American farmer, and he is the horse
breeder of this country, has proved fickle, and easily diverted from his pur-
pose. His creed is buttoned with a pin, and he is switched and changed
from Shire to Percheron — from Percheron to the trotter — from that to clydes.
dale or belgian, and in the end wound up with a large amount of nothing
but the firmly rooted conviction that breeding of horses does not pay.



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MINNESOTA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 141

The net results of this off again and on again policy is that before any-
thing like a full supply of dra*ft gelding can be reared for the wholesale
markets, the mares to foal them must be born into the world.

The few men who had faith in the business and proved it by their work
in keeping on their good heavy mares are reaping a golden harvest, as good
weighty horses are selling today for more than they ever before brought
in the history of th& world. Draft horses are not native to American soil,
and the business of supplying stallions to beget them from the nktive mares
was conceived in the wrong spirit. It was brought forth as a money-making
scheme — pure and simple, and such a thing as united effort for the advance-
ment of the common good was never heard of. There is no question that
the French horses brought to Canada, and the EJhglish" cart horses brought
to Pennsylvania between the beginning of the last century, and the war of
rebellion did a vast amount of good. These two strains of draft horses that
drifted into Illinois with some of the earlier settlers certainly furnished a
foundation for the fabric raised later, but there is just a little doubt that
if earlier opportunities had been seized, greater success would have followed.
These earlier imported sires were chosen because they looked like breeding
what was wanted.

During all these years of up-breeding and importing, few men have be-
come of pure-bred draft horses. There seems to be an impression that there
can be no dignity attached to ihe production o*f heavy horses. The importers
proclaim that the native bred horses never can be bred in Amerjca as good
as across the water. The most common clincher used in such arguments
is with reference to the mares. Where were the American breeders to get
mares good enough to breed good colts? They could not be bought. Where
could they get them if the old country folks would not sell them? This
went with many a man, and from the very beginning to the present time the
importing dealer has had the best of the breeder in almost every instance.

There are a few shining examples of success in the breeding business,
but they are few indeed. It is, perhaps, an unnecessary task to prove that
such a statement is the merest buncombe. Has not Col. Hallway bred winners
male and female, at the Highland show in Scotland? And are not some
stallions of his breeding among the most successful in Scotland today?
Have not the products of Durham Lawn, and Blairgowrie been the Canadian
champions for* years? But why go further — the facts speak for themselves.

Was not the champion P^rcheron mare of the International this year a
home bred one? . And the champion group get of sire, home bred? And
how about the big geldings of Chicago? They have met and defeated all
comers. They stand pre-eminent, a living monument showing what can be
done in this country if we but would, and I want to emphasize the fact,
we have as good mares reared in this country as one will find in the world.

Dr. Curryer: Now speaking of the quality of the draft horse. You
couldn't be much of a horse talker unless you spoke of the quality of the
draft horse. Will you explain to us what you really mean by quality?

Mr. Crandall: I am just coming to that doctor. ,

Dr. Curryer: Am glad of it.

Mr. Crandall: It is that which makes it most useful for what he is in-
tended lor. The little boy says the draft horse is a "great big work horse."
The better draft horse the better work horse he is, and the better work
horse he is the better draft horse he is. Defining the quality of a draft
horse puts one in about the same position that you put a physician, — when



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142 ANNUAL REPORT OF

he once has diagnosed the case, the remedy asserts itself: the remedy is
known when you get the case properly diagnosed. If quality doesn't mean
this; if this is not a proper definition for quality, quality isn't worth bother-
ing any more with. Now most people speak of quality in just the general
term, but quality applied in a general way means to me fineness. If a horse
possesses draft horse quality, it denotes strength and power, and the capabil-
ity of getting out and horsing the big- loads of our country and standing up
under the work. . Now they speak of quality in regard 'to his limbs, as hol-
low-ground, fluted out. Let me tell you that quality should mean rugged-
ness in the draft horse, — durability, — mind you he is a work horse, and the
work horse that will outwork the other horse has the best quality. Is that
sufficient, doctor?

Dr. Curryer: That is all right.

Mr. Crandall: Well I think that is all.

Prof. Boss: Are you going to say a word about the horses?

Member: Isn't it a fact that a lot of flesh on a horse makes him look
like a better horse than he would without it?

Mr. Crandall: I would say, yes.

Member: Well if that is the case, isn't your accusation against the judge
erroneoTjs,— isn't it a fact that the exhibitor, when he feeds the horse and
puts on that excessive fat, realizes that the judge has a type in mind, and
that by fatting the horse up he will make him appear'like a better type than
he has got, and he will try to fat him up for what he lacks in ability, and
in that way influence the judge by his good appearance; isn't that the rea-
son ue puts the fat on? I have showed a little myself, and the reason I put
the fat on is because the judge always gave it to the fat horses, and I wanted
to take part of the premiums. (Laughter).

Mr. Crahdall: Excessive fat does not add to the beauty of the horse. It
makes him look more gross and heavier; and right there lies a fault, — that
we are not breeding them heavy enough, but make up the size in fat, which
is detrimental to him in every way. It brings out nothing better. Now
quality is aften-times taken for finish. Take for instance the great geldings
owned by Armour & Company in Chicago. If you reduce Jim 400 pounds in
his weight, he would not possess sufficient quality to suit most of the people
doing the judging. They would call him gross. As an .over-fat horse he
shows extreme quality. When he is thin in flesh he lacks quality. Now quali-
ty is not given by any amount of feeding. It is inherited. It is given to
him by his dam and his sire, and you can not take it away from him. But
often times I think this mistake is made, — very often,— that finish is mis-
ta'ken for quality.

Member: Is a show horse fit to go out to do the work?

Mr. Crandall: Well yes, some show horses are. I don't necessarily
mean that a show horse is not a good work horse, for a show horse shoulr
be the best work horse, but often-times it is the other way, that the show
horse, extremely fat, is not a good horse- thin or in working condition. Now
all these horses that have flash and dash and knee action, they have got tr
leave it all when they are horsing the stone boat; it is the big-over fellow,
with immense bone that is of the right quality to stand the work of all the
street and does not show grief. Invariably the high-headed, great acting
horse does not have the strength he ought to have, but he shows good at the
show.



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MINNESOTA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. J 43

You take the two first horses here: they belong to the Belgian breed, and
they are very good types of the breed. I am not a Belgian man, but I have
been around them lots. This horse (indicating) is the larger horse of the
tv/X) and shows a little more bone than the other horse. While this horse
(another horse) is smaller, he is better proportioned; he is a better turned
horse, and he has a little the advantage of this horse in the bone. This
horse is the preferable horse of the two as far as my judgment goes.

Member: What horse is that?

Mr. Crandall: ' The roan horse. The other three horses are Percheron
horses.

Member: What are the ages?

Mr. Crandall: Will you give us the ages of these horses, Mr. McLaugh-
lin?

Mr. McLaughlin: Two years old. These three are two year olds.

Mr. Crandall: They are surely wonderful specimens of the breed for
that age. You will notice they all have good rugged bones. I would like to
ask Mr. McLaughlin, the owner of these horses, to indicate to us the horses
which won prizes at the expositions or shows.

Mr. McLaughlin: This two year old we didn't show at the Internationa'
because he was hurt the night before the show.

This is "Distingue" a French coach horse. He was first, prize three
year old, French coach stallion .and the reserve champion of all ages at th
International Liv« Stock; Show at Chicago.

This is the two year old Belgian stallion "Comique." He was the firs
prize two year old at the Ohio State Fair, and at the American Royal Live
Stock Exposition at Kansas City;. first prize at the Missouri State Fair and
first prize at the Inter-State Fair, defeating among others the stallion Dragon
that won- first prize at the International, at which show he didn't show dis-
tinctly. The stallion Dragon was also own'ed by us.

This is the two year old stallion that ^won first prize at the World's
Fair, Milan^ Italy, last summer.

This is the Belgian stallion, "Cosaque de Courcelles," that won first
prize as a two year old at the World's Fair,. St. LouiS, two years ago.

This four year old Belgian won first prize as a two year old in the two
year old class at St. Louis.

Member: What are the prices of these horses?

Mr. McLaughlin: These horses range in price from about $2,000 to
$4,000. The highest priced one is the one in the middle.

Prof. Boss: I would say for the benefit of the audience that these horses
are kindly loaned by us by McL^aughlin brothers, who have a stable at Min-
nesota Transfer. We are not able to purchase the horses we would like
to have at the college, but as long as they stay there it will not be neces-
sary, for whenever we need horses for class work, Mr. McLaughlin says to
telephone down, and they will send them up, and that is the kind of sup-
port we get from them. It is very valuable to our college. (Applause).

Prof. Boss: If you will just take the horses around the ring a few-
times now, and keep this little black horse so we can show him.

Dean Liggett: We will have a few remarks now by our Senator, J. M
Hackney. You want to know why I say, "Our Senator^" Senator Hackney
represents this district as the successor of the late Gov. McGill, who was a
faithful friend of this college, and we have reason to believe that Senate,
Hackney will be as loyal as Gov. McGill. Senator Hackney. (Applause).



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144 ANNUAL REPORT OF



ADDRESS



BY SENATOR J. M. HACKNEY.



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: I am very glad of having this^
opportunity to speak for the first time to the students and friends of the.
Agricultural College of Minnesota. I have been away down south recuperat
ing of late, and while I was there I was reading occasionally in the St. Paul-
Dispatch, and among other things I read about the Agricultural College
■students refusing to violate their constitutional right. (Great applause).

When Professor Boss sent word to me that he wanted me to address,
you tonight, he didn't give me any particular subject. I don't know whethc
he wants me to ask you how you voted or not. (Applause and laughter).

When I started on my trip south my wife said to me, "You have been
pretty busy for some years at your business and you haven't been able to
do much reading, and I would advise you during your stay in the south to-
read up a little." Now I am just like any other married man, I alwajrs
take my wife's advice. (Laughter).

When I reached my destination, instead of taking a vacation, I com-
menced to read up a little so as to comply with her advice, and some of the
things I read about, I want to present for your consideration tonight. You
will pardon me if I read the larger portion of what I have to say, becausf
of the fact that it contains so many statistics and figures that it jvould bf
impossible for me to speak without referring to this paper.

Until we learn to think in billions we cannot measure the meaning of
the development of the United States during the last quarter of a century;
much less can we grasp the potentialities which the coming years have in-
store for us. Our progress, however, has only been the pioneering work o
clearing the wilderness, of ploughing and planting amid the stumps which
mark the new land of the settler. Not yet have we had time to pull the-
stumps and drain the swamps. What we have been doing is like sowing
by hand and gathering our harvest with the old sickle as compared with
what we are now preparing to do. In our pioneering work we have liad
to disregard premanency to meet the immediate needs of the hour. We have-
had to make haste even though it meant some waste. However, like the^
pioneer who built his rude log hut and tilled the stump-ridden soil into
increasing gains, made possible the building of a better honie and the clea^
ing of his land in order to utilize labor-saving implements, we had to pursue-
similar methods in our national development until now, when we have
entered upon a period where scientific farming will take the place of olf^
soil-destroying farming and where scientific skill in manufacturing will
mean changes as radical as those which mark the difference in farming
methods.

All that we have done in this work of upbuilding has been the perfectly
logical working out of conditions which have surrounded us, conditions which
in no wise need give us any concern nor for a moment be considered a?
pessimistic in their tendency. Under the old conditions it was just as muchi
the natural order of events for the western farmer to work his prairie soil-.



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MINNESOTA STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 145

and the southern planter his cotton land in a way to get the largest im-
mediate results. Nothing else than what we have done in this way could
have been expected by anyone who looked at these things from any other
than a superficial point of view. Now a point has been reached where it
can be seen that all that has gone before is but the preparation for the
real work of national growth, — growth in agriculture, in manufacturing, in
stock raising, in mining, and in all the other varied business interests of
the country.

In studying the advancement of the United States one is amazed at the
marvelous progress of the last quarter of a century. Even ten years ago
the heart of man could never have conceived the magnitude of the develop-
ment of today. But looking at this in the light of the world-wide revolu-
tion in business now in progress, considering our unique geographical posi-
tion midway between Europe and Asia and the vastness of our resources be-
yond the power of man to describe, and bearing in mind the forces which
today are making for the intensest human activities ever known, it will be
realized that the achievements of the past, compared with what the 'future
has in store for us, are but as the gentle shower of an April day in compari-
son with the mighty down-pour of the summer rain.

THE FARMER COMING l*NTO HIS OWN.

When the construction of railroads, built largely through the aid of
land grants, opened to settlement the extensive prairies of the west, agricul-
ture was pushed more rapidly than the industrial advance of the country
justified. With the rush of thousands of foreign immigrants to that section
and the movement from the east, there was brought about an increase in
agricultural products, especially in wheat and corn and live stock, in advance
of the growth af other industries. Even without immigration cotton pro-
duction was for a time in advance of the world's requirements. The inevit-
able result was a serious decline in the price of farm products. Not until
industrial growth had made great advance, increasing tiie proportion of
consumers to the number of farm producers, was there any decided improve-
ment in the financial condition of farmers as a class. Within the last ten
years a change as wonderful as that which has marked the progress of
manufactures has come about. In its far-reaching effect upon the continued
prosperity of the country, it deserves more attention than it has received.
The value of all -farm property and the number of people engaged in agri-
culture at different periods, beginning with 1870 and running to 1905, is as
follows:

VALUE OF ALL FARM PROPERTY IN THE UNITED STATES.

No. of people en-
Value, gaged in agriculture.

1870 $8,900,000,000 5,992,000

1880 12,180,000,000 7,713,000

1890 16,082,000,000 8,565,000

1900 20,439,000,000 10,438,000

1905 26,570,000,000 *11,500,000

♦Estimated.

AQR-IO



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146 ANNUAL REPORT OF

VALUE OF ALL FARM PROPERTY.

The value of farm products in the census years beginning with 1870 up
to 1900, and in 1905 and 1906, was as follows:

VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS.

1870 $1,958,000,000

1880 2,212,000,000

1890 2,466,000,000

1900 4,717,000,000

1905 6,415,000,000

1906 (Estimated) 7,000,000,000

The striking fact in this latter table is the small increase in the value
of farm products between 1870 and 1890, and the enormous increase since
1890. In the former period there was a gain of but little over $500,000,000
in the annual value of farm output, while between 1890 and 1900 the gain
was over four and a half times as great, or $2,250,000,000. The value of the
farm products of 1900 was largely more than double that of 1880, though
the increase during that period in the number of people engaged in agricul-
ture was only 35 per cent. Remarkable as was this gain, it is since 1900,
however, that the improvements in agricultural conditions has been almost
startling in its extent. Between that year with a total value of $4,717,-
000,000 and 1905 there was a gain of $1,700,000,000. The value of the farm
products of 1906 is about $7,000,000,000, or, say $500,000,000 more than for
the preceding year.

VAST INCREMENT OF FARM WEALTH.



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