Wisconsin. Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statisti.

Biennial report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of ..., Volume 13, Part 7 online

. (page 80 of 107)
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classes of earnings. From this fact alone it is plain that the
earnings were much higher in the fann implement line than in
dry goods. It is of course a fact that in industries where the
earnings were more nearly the same than was the case in the t\vo
which have just been used as illustrations such comparisons as
those given are somewhat less of a success, but even in such cases
the difference can usually he detected.

In the foregoing pages has thus l)een shown the ^"classified
^veeklv earnings'' in 14 retail mercantile linc^. The facts in-
cluded in this were presente<l both in t^d)ular and textual form,
and in this manner the condition in quest i(m is quite fully
descril)ed. What has thus hiH^n shown may 1)0 regarded as the
first ]>art of this investigation. •

The second part is next in order. This ])art relates to thi^
number of persons employed by months and to the range of em-



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878



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



ployment and imemploymeiit. The rau^e of employment is an
important factor in the earnings and vitally affects the well
l)eing of the wage-earners. No statement of earnings or de-
scrintion of the conditions of lal)or can possibly be complete
withont some facts bearing upon the lime it is possible to find
something to do, or to keep employed.



BOOTS AND SHOES.



PersouB Employed, by



Months, and the Unugc
Unemployment In 1900.



of Employment and



Months.


Male.


Ranffe of

omploymeut.

For cent.


RaDKe of un-

ompIoymoDt.

1*0 r cent.


January

February

March


116
114
114
114
114
114
116
116
117
117
. 120
120


96.67
95.00
96.00
96.00
95.00
K.OO
96.67
96.67
97.50
97.50
100.00

aoo.oo


3.33
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00


June


5.00


July ••

August

September

October

November

December


3.33
3.33
2.50
2.50
.00
.00


Average


116


96.97


3.33







BU'ICHERS.

Persons Employed, by Months, and the Ranye of Employment and
Unemployment in 1900.



January ..,
February .

March

April

May

June

July

Axignst

September
October . . .
November ,
Deceml)er



Months.



Male. '



I Range of
! employment.
Per cent.



Ran«e of nn-

employment.

Per ceuU



Average



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



879



CLOTHING.

Persons Employed, by Months, and the Range of Kmployment and

Unemployment in 1900.



Months.



January

February

March

April

May

June

July

Aujrust .

September

October

November

December

Average



Male.



315
311
315
321
323
320
313
316
3X0
401
3JW
389



341



RaD|?e of

employment.

Per cent.



78.55
77.56
78.55
80.05
80.55
79.80
78.05
78.80
94.76
100.00
96.76
97.01



85.04



Han^e of un-
employment.
Per cent.



ai.45

22.44

21.45

19.96

19.45

20.20

21.95

21.20

5.24

.00

3.24

2.99



14.96



Persons Employed, by



DUY OOODS.
Months, and the Range of Employment and
TTnemployment in 1900.



Months.




January

February

March

April

May ... . ■. ,

June ..

July r.

August

Sentember

Octol>er

November

December —

Average



729
729
742
7S0
790
787
135
724
790
843
868
911

786



Ranfre of

employment.

Per cent.



80.02
80.02
81.45
85.62
86.72
86.39
80.68
79.47
86.72
92.54
9.^.40
100.00

86.28



Ranse of un-
employment.
Per cent.



19.98

19.98

18.55

14.38

13.28

13.61

19.32

20.53

13.28

7.46

4.60

.00



13.72



Persons Employed, by



DRUGS.
Months, and the Range of Employment and
Unemployment In 1900.



Month.s.



January

February

March '

April

May

June I

July

August

September :

October f

November !

December • — I

Av*»rnge I





Rnnire of


Ranire of un-


Male.


emnloyment.


employment.




Per cent.


Per cent.


224


95.32


4.68


224


95.32


4.68


224


95.32


4. 68


226 1


96.17


3.83


231


98.30


1.70


234


99.57


.43


235


100.00


.00


2.'?5


100.00


.00


2?4


99.,S7


.43


227 1


96.60


3.40


228 1


97.02


2.98


2;{5 I


100. f)0


.00



2.'iO



97.87



2.13



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880



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



IVrsoiis Kini>loyotl, by



FAUM IMPLKMKXTS.

Months, niul the limine
riKMiipIoyincnt In 1900.



of Employ iiicnt and



Months.



Ma'o



Jnnunry

F«M>rnary

March

April

May

June

July

August

Septoin!»er

October

Xovenilrer ... .
December

A vera BO



49
46
6:{
64
64
75
73
60
67
63
60
47

61



RnnKO of

em ploy me Dt.

Percent.



65.33
61.33
84.00
85.33
85.33
100.00
97.33
80.00
S5.33
84.00
80.00
62.67



81.33



Ranffe of un-

employnit nt.

I tr cent.



34.67
38.67
16.00
14.67
14.fc7

*'2!67"
20.00
10.67
16.00
3i>.fi(i
37.33

18.67



Persons Employed,



July

August

September
October ...
November .
December .



FLOUH, FEED AND (JRAIN.
by Months, and the Range of
T^nemployment In 1900.



Employment and



Months.


Male.


Ranire of

employment.

Per cent.


Ranire of nn-

employroent.

Per cent.


January

February ..'

Ma rch


U9
154
157
167
163

aw


78.33
75.86
77.34
82.27
80.30
100.00 .


21.67
24.14
22.66


April


17.73


Mav


19.70


June





Average



160

17!?

19'>
1S8
779
168

172



78.82
85.22
96.06
92.61
88.18
82.76



84.73



21.18
lt.78
3.94
7.39
11.82
17.24



15.27



Persons Employed, by



FIRNITURE.
Months, and the



Range of Employment and



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



881



GENERAL MERCHANDISE.

rersons Employed, by Mouths, and the Range of Employment and

Unemployment, in 1900.



Months.



Male.



BanflTB of

employment.

Per cent.



Ranffe of un«

employ meat.

Per cent.



January

February . . .

March

April

May

June

July

AUgURt

September . .

October

November . . .
December ...

Averape



1.945
1.937
1,956
1.986
2,030
2,065
2,061
2.042
2,067
2.176
2.202
2,309



2.064



84.24
83.89
84.71
86.01
87.92
89.00
89.26
88.44
89.52
94.24
95.37
100.00



89.39



15.76
16.11
15.29
13.99
12.08
11.00
10.74
11.56
10.48
5.76
4.63



10.61



GROCERIES.

Persons Employed, by Months, and the Range of Employment and

Unemployment, in 1900.



Mouths.


Maid.


Range of

employm*'nt.

Per cent.


Bancre of un-

emplojmeut.

Per c«nt.


January

February

March

April


237
236
234
236
2Sd
241
244
246
246
243
246
245


96.34
95.9.'^
95.12
95.S3
97.15
97.97
99.20
100.00
100.00
98-. 78
100.00
99.59


3.66
4.07
4.88
4.07


May

June

July

August

September

October


2.85

2.03

.80




1.22


Novem!>er




December


.41


Average


241


97.97


2.03



Persons Employed, by



HARDWARE.
Months, and the Range of Employment and
Unemployment, In 1900.



Months.




Range of

employ' men t.

Per cent.



Ran^e of un-
employment.
Per cent.



January ...
February .

March

April

May

June

July

August . . . .
September
October ...
November .
December .



Average



.; 424



411


93.41 1


6.59


415


94.32 1


5. 68


413


93.86


6.14


418


93.00 1


5.00


425


96.59 1


3.41


423


96.14 j


3.86


435


9'^. 86 1


1.14


435


9^. SB 1


1.14


4.?0


97.73 )


2.27


44«)


lOfi.OO 1 .
97.7*? 1




430


2.?7


•»14


94.09 1


5.91



96.36



3.64



56



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882 LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.

JEWELERS.

Persons Employed, by Mouths, and the Range of Employment and

Unomnlovment. in 1900.



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



883



BOOTS AND SHOES.

Persons Employed, by Mouths, the first six months in 1901, and the Range of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.



Male.



Range of

employment.

Per cent.



Rani?e of un-
employment.
Per cent.



January

February ....

March

April

May

June

Average



119
120
120
123
124
126



122



94.44
95.24
95.24
97.62
98.41
100.00



96.83



5.56
4.76
4.76
2.38
1.59



3.17



BUTCHERS.

Persons Employed, by Months, the first six mouths In 1901, and the liange of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.



Male.



Range of

'employment .

Per cent.



Range of un-
employment.
Per cent.



January

February ....

March

April

Miiy

June

Average



74
74
74
75
71
71



73



98.67
98.67
98.67
100.00
M.67
94.67



1



97.33



1.33
1.33
1.33



5.2:i
5.33



2.67



Persons Employed, by


CLOTHING.

Months, the first six momths in 1901, and
Employment and Unemployment.


the Range of


Months.




Male.


Range of

employment.

Per cent


Range of un-
employment.
Per cent.


January


387
377
386
393
398
400


96.75
94.25
96.50
98.25
99.50
100.00


3.25


Fphmarv *


5.75


March


3.50


April


1.75


May


.50












Average


390


97.50


2.50









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884



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



DRY GOODS.

Persons Eiiiploytnl, by Months, the first six nionths In 1901, and the Range of
Employmont nnd Unemployment.



Months.




Ran^ of

employmeut.

Per cent.



Rani?e of un-

Hmployment.

Per cent.



Jnnuftry .
re!>niary
March ...

April

May

June



Average







11.60

11.25

10.99

.70



DRUGS.

Persons Employed, liy Months, the tlrst six months In, 1901. and the Range of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.



Male.



.Tan nary

Eehruary

March

April

May

June

Average



L



2t?S
22S

245
233



Ranire of

employment.

Per cent.



9."?. 06
93.06
93.08
95.51
96.73
100.00



95.10



Ranire of un-
employment.
Per cent.



).



6.94
6.94
6.94
4.49
3.27



4.90



FARM IMP

Persons Employed, by IVIonths. the first
Employment and



Months.



January

February

Mareh

April

May

June

Average



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KETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



sst



FLOUR, FEED, GRAIN.

IVrsoiis Kmployod, by Moiithn, the first six mouths In 1901. and the Range of
Kinplo^ment and Unemployment.



Months.




Range of

employment.

Per cent.



Raniare of un-
employment.
Per cent.



January

February

March

April

May

June

Average



136
137
138
144
1;>9
201

153



67.66
68.16
6S.66
71.64
79.10
lfK>.00



76.12



32.34
31.84
31.34
28.36

2().90



23.88



FURNITURE.

Persons Employed, by Months, the first six moivths In 1901, and the Range of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.



January

February

Mrtreh

April

May

June

Average



Male.



315
MJ
311
325
324
326

bl8



Rau^e of

employment.

Per cent.



96.63
94.79
95.40
90.69
99.;^9
100.00

97.55



Rancre of nn-

em ploy men t.

Per cent.



3.37

5.21

4.60

.31

.61



2.45



GENERAL MER(MIAM)1SE.

Persons Employed, by Months, Ihr first six mouths hi 1901. and /he R4inge of
EmployuHMit and UniMnjiloyment.



Months



January

February

Ma reh

April i

May

June

Average





Ran^e of


Ranee of an-


Male.


employment.


emp oymenl.




l*er cent.


Per c^>nt.


2.-: 63


93.39


6.61


2.131


92.01


7.99


2,060


88.95


11.06


2.222


95. 9t


4.06


2.2:10


96.29


3.71


2.316


1«MKU>





94.13



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886



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



GROCERIES.

IVrsons Kmploj'Ofl, by Months, the first six months In 19W, and
Employment and Unemployment.


the Range of


Months.


Male.


Range of

employment.

Per cent.


Ranffe of on-

employroeut.

Per centv


January

Fobrtia ry <


242
241
242
244
245
247


97.98
97.57
97.98
98.79
99.19
100.00


2.02
2.43


March :

April

May


2.02

1.21

.81


J ime








Averages


244


98.79


1.21

L



HARDWARE.

l^ersons Employed, by Months, the first six months In 1901^ and the Range of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.



January

February —

March

April

\i^y

June

Average



Male.



426
431
428
443
450
450



438



Range of

employment.

Per cent.



94.67
95.78
95.11
98.44
100.00
100.00



97.33



Range of nn-

employment.

Per cent.



5.33
4.22
4.89
1.56



2.67



JEWELERS.

Persons Employed, by Months, the first six months In 1901. and the Range of
EmpIo.vment and Unemployment.



Months.



Male.



Range of
employment.



Range of un-
eniployroent.

Par /VAnfr



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



887



LUMBER.

Persons Employed, by Mouths, the first six months in 1901, and the Rauge of
Employment and Unemployment.



Months.


Hale.


Range of

employment.

Per cent.


Range of nn-

employment.

Per cent.


January

Februa ry


• 735
965
806
501
541
485


76.17
100.00
83.52
51.92
56.06
50.26


23.83


March

April


16.48
48.06


May


43'.94


June


49.74


Average


672


69.64


30.36



MISCELLANEOUS.



Persons Employed, by Months, the first six mon*ths in 1901. and
Employment and Unemployment.


the Range of


Months.


Male.


Range of

employment.

Per cent.


Ran^eof un-
employment.
Per cent.


January

February

March ^

April

M^y


579
572
576

592
583
596


97.15
95.97
96.64
99.33
97.82
100.00


2.85
4.03
3.36
.67
2.18


June









Average


583


97.82


2.18



In ilie preceding two series of tables has thus been shown the
nunil)er of persons employed by months, and the range of em-
ployment in 14 mercantile industries in this state for the year
1000 and for the first six months of 1901. There are thus two
tables for each industry, one being devoted to facts for the
former year, and one to those of the latter.

These tables are important. They show for each industry not
only the number employed in each, but the extent of the varia-
ticms in this rcspect from montli to month. They are also mad.^
up in such a way tliat tli(\y may \ye readily studied and com-
pared.



■Si-



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888



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



Tho following table includes all the industries for 11)00 and
lieneo constitutes a sort of a summary of tlio facts for this year.



ALL INDUSTRIES.

Total Persons Emplo.vc(l by Months, and Range of Employment and
ITnemployment, In 19o6.



Months.



Total •

number

employed.



Ran (re of

employment.

Per cent.



RaoKe of nn-

eniploymeut.

Per cent.



January ...
hV!)ruary ..

March

April

May

June

July

August . . . .
September

October

November
December ,



Average



5.903
5.931
5,927
5,7a3
5.915
5.962
5,900
5,907
6,088
6.492
6,584
6,691



6.090



8S.22
88.73
88.59
85.98
88.40
89.10
88.17
88.27
90.98
97.02
98.40
100.00



90.98



11.78
11.27
11.41
14.02

11. eo

10.90
11.83
11.73
9.02
2. 98
1.60



9.02



Including all of tho 14 retiiil lines it is seen from this table
that the iiuml>er employed each month in 1000 ranged from
5,758 jx^rsons in April to (5, GDI in December, while the average
was 0,090 persons. The difference between the greatest and
smallest number was 938.

As tho greatest number of persons employed was 6,691, it is
proper txi regard this fi^rure as representing full emplojTuent, or
as the figure uprm which the range of unemployment should lie
l)n.se<l ; for it is plain that in ])ecemlx>r all weiT? employed who
could possibly obtain employment in the establishments included
Tliat December sliould show th(» greatest numl)er is only what
was to 1)0 ex])ected in ihv^ retail line. This is the montli when
the holiday trade comes in, and when most of the stores sell more
goods than at any otlier time during the y^^*" «"'^ ^^^'* nr»viofrxr
the sak^^ the greater is also the amount of 1

The remaining eleven months show a sn
in seine cases the difference is not great,
in Xovember, for instance^ amounted to
of the greatest nuinl)er, leaving only 1.60
In ()c*tol)er also conditions must have l)eer
lime h^s than *3 })er cent, were on the



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS.



889



September the range of unemployment stood at 9 per cent, and
for August and July at 11.73 and 11.83 per cent, respectively.
June shows a slightly narrower range, the midsummer trade re-
quiring more help, but in May the range is about what it was in
Septeuiber, while in April it is tjie wideet of any month during
tlio year, amounting to over 14 per cent. According to these
figures the retail establishments needed less help in. April than
in any other month. During the first three months of the year
the range was between 11 and 12 per cent., or approximately the
same as in July and August.

The average stood at 6,090 persons, or within 90.98 per cent.
of the highest numlier. The average* range of unemployment
was thus about 9 per cent.

The next table in order is a summary for the first six months
of *1901. For this period is includes the same establishments as
the table for 1900:



ALL INDUSTRIES.



Total PersoDft Employed, by Months, llio first Six Months of 1901, and the Range
of Employment and rnemploymont Dnrlug this Period.


Months.:


Total

number

employed.


Ranffe of

employment.

Percent.


Ranffe of an-

em ploy men t.

Per cent.


Jannary

Febniary

March

April

Mjiy

June

Average ^..


6.259
6,437


97.37
100.00
97.fiS
98.15
98.55
99.89


2.63


6,240
6,309
b.335
6,430


2.92

1.85

1.45

.11


6.327


98.55


1.45



Here are the figures for the first six months of 1901. During
this period the greatest nunil)er, or 0,4»37 persons, were eni])l(>yed
in February, and the smallest number, or G,240 persons were
found for March.

Ac?ording to these figures February had full employment, and
March the widest range of unemployment. The range, how-
ever, is narrow. In fact it falls Ixdow 3 per eent. at its widc*st
point

The average numlx^r employed was 0,327 persons, or 98.55
})er cent, of the greatest number. This leaves the average range



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890



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



of iinemployiiient at less than one and one-half per cent. The
fluctuations during tliis jx^riod are thus a trifle smaller than foi*
the same period in 1900, and the average number employed,
liowever, is greater.

Establishments employing 6,088 persons reported as to how
often they paid their help for the services rendered and whether
these pay men L« were made in cash or by checks. These facts
were compile<l and presented in the follo^Wng tables:



NUMBER OF PEKSONS WHO nECEIVEO THEIR SALARIES OR WAGES
UPON DEMAND. OR WEEKLY AND MONTHLY.



Inddstbibs.



NUMBEB OF PbBSONS, HoW PaID.



Demand. Weekly. Monthly. Total.



Boots and shoes

Butcher

Clothing

Drugs

Dry goods

Farm Implements —
Flour, feed and grain

Furniture

(ieneral store

(Groceries

Hardware

Jewelers

Lumher

Miscellaneous



Total



15
26
21
15
16
29

7
497

8
34

5
42
29



7£j4



106
16
298
132
754
23
126

jni

853
173
321
31
16
430



3,590



10
40
24
77
17
22
9
13
.714



7
581
102



1.744



116

71

348

230

786

61

164

331

2.064

241

423

43

639

571



6.088



PER CENT. OF PERSONS WHO RECEIVED THEIR SALARIES OR WAGES
UPON DEMAND, OR WEEKLY AND MONTHLY.



Pbr Cent, of Pubsons, How Paid.



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RETAIL MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS. 891

The two preceding tables relate to how often the employes re-
ceived their earnings. Some were paid whenever they happened
to ask for it. Otliers again were paid regularly every week,
while there were again others who were paid monthly. The first
table in order show the number in each case, and the second the
I)er cent.

It is perhaps well to notice the totals first. As said above,
r),()S8 }>ers<>ns are included in these tables. Of these persons,
754, or 12.J]8 j)cr cent., were paid their wages off and on as they
ha]>pened to ask for it. In a general way this can perhaps be
said to amount to very much the same as weekly payments. The
numl)er paid weekly, regularly was 3,590. This is about 58.97
[)er cent* of the total. If the former number of 12.38 per cent,
who were on demand is regarded as being in this group, those
paid weekly would numl)or 4,344 persons, or 71.35 per cent of
the tol4il. Those in the monthly group were 1,744 in number,
or 28. G5 per cent, of the total. If this grouping is correct
weekly payment would seem to be the rule in nearly three-
fourths of the cases.

Considering the three groups separately, many facts might
Ix) adduced. Thus it is seen that in farm implements over 20
per cent, of the persons were paid on the demand while this was
the case with over 24 per cent, in general stores, nearly 18 per
cent, in flour and feed, and alK)ut 11.65 per cent, in jewelry.
For the remaining industries the figures in the demand column
are small except for butchers where they foot up to 21.13 per
cent.

In luml)er the number paid weekly is extremely small,
amounting to only about two and one-half per cent. In three
other cases butchers, farm implements, and general stores, the
pn)portion is below 50 per cent. For the remaining industries
it varies from about 60 to about 96 per cent.

Those paid monthly fall below 7 per cent, in clothing, dry'
go<Kls, furniture and flour and fee<l. In eight others the numlx^r
included varies from about 10 to al)out 36 per cent, and in one
it stands at akuit 56 and in another at nearly 91 per cent. In
this colmnn therefore there is little or no uniformity as between
the industries.



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892



LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.



These facts show quite fully the general practices with regard
to how often, the employes are paid off. The next step will be
to show how they are paid, that is how many are paid in cash
and how many in checks.



NUMBER AND PER CENT. OF PERSONS WHO RECEIVED THEIR
SALARIES AND WAGES IN CASH AND CHECKS, RESPECTIVELY.



Industbibs.


NUMBBB OF PbRSONB

AND How Paid.


Peb Cent, of Pebsoks,
How Paid.




Cash.


Check.


Total.


Cash.


Check.


Total.


Boots and shoeer


114


2

71

32

12

38

16

13

34

115

12

70

2

103

131


U6

71
348
230
786

01

331
2.064
241
423

43
639
671


95.80


4.20
100.00
9.20
5.22
4.83

26.23
7.93

10.27
6.57
4.98

16.55
4.65

16.12

22.94


100.00


Butcher


100.00


Clothing

Drugs

Dry goods


m

218
748

4p
151
297
1,949
229
353

41
536
440

5,437


90.80
94.78
95.17
73.77
92.07
89.73
94.43
95.02
83.45
95.35
83.88
77.06


100.00
100.00
100.00


Farm implements

Flour, feed and grain ...

Furniture

General store


100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00


Groceries *

Hardware

Jewelers

Luml>er

i..iHcellaneou8


100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00


Total


651


6,088


89.32


10.68


100.00



Here we have a fairly good illustration of how many were
1)3 id cash and checks respectively.

Of the 0,088 persons included, 5,437, or 89.32 per cent., were
paid in cash, and 051 persons, or 10.08 per cent, were paid off
in cheeks. I^ine out of ten persons are thus receiving their
earnings in cash.

Outside of butcher where all were paid in checks the propor-
tion in this coluiuu is very small. In two industries only do
they f(K)t up to about one-fourth of the whole and in two others
they uiake up alK)ut 10 per cent, in each case, while in the re-
maining the i>er cent, is from about 10 down. Cash payments
of salaries and wages in mercantile establishments can thus al-
most 1)0 said to l>e the rule in this state.



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LABOR AND WAGES IN SIX SKILLED INDUSTRIES. 393



Em^LOYMENT AND EARNINGS IN SIX SKILLED
INDCSTEIES.

In tho following pages are presented tables showing "siini-
niariea of the number of persons receiving classified weekly earn-
ings in the skilled trades included," "persons employed by
montlis," the "number and per cent, of hours of labor per day,"
the "number and per cent of persons who received their wages
weekly, semi-monthly, and monthly," whether paid "in cash,
checks, or cash and checks," and the total yearly earnings of
each industry together with the average number of men finding
work and their average yearly earnings.

The tables include about twenty-five trades placed under six



Online LibraryWisconsin. Bureau of Labor and Industrial StatistiBiennial report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of ..., Volume 13, Part 7 → online text (page 80 of 107)