Wisconsin Dairymen's Association.

Annual report, Issue 20 online

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^ Comparing cornstalks with mixed hay, when supple-
mented by 280 lbs. of corn meal and 392 lbs. of bran, we
find —
2,374 lbs. of cornstalks yield 1,120 lbs. 12 oz. milk, making 75 lbs. Oi oz.

butter;
755 lb& of mixed hay yield 1,063 lbs, 15 oz. milk, mikiag 53 iba. li oz.

butter ;



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 1T3

or, 56 lbs. 13 oz. milk and 15 oz. of butter more from the
stalks than from the mixed hay.

Comparing cornstalks with clover hay, as in the previous
instance we find —

1,867 Iba. cornstalks' yield 1,079 lbs. 3 oz. milk, making 52 lbs. 2i oz.

butter;
642i lbs. clover hay yield 1,059 lbs. 1 oz. milk, making 54 lbs. 8^ oz. butter;

or, 20 lbs. 2 oz. more milk, and 2 lbs. 6 oz. less butter from
the cornstalks than from the clover hay.

Taking into consideration the fact that the milk and but-
ter yield are both larger from the stalks than from the
mixed hay it is fair to say that the com stalks were worth
one-third as much as the mixed hay; that is, one ton of
mixed hay is worth three tons of stalks fed as these were.

From the second trial we see that one ton of clover hay
was worth somewhat more than three tons of cornstalks fed
as described.

In the two trials 4,2 il pounds of stalks were fed, and 1,450
pounds weighed back as coarse parts that the cows refused
to eat. This is over 34 per cent, of the whole amount of the
stalks, by weight, lost by feeding in this manner. Whether
the part thus lost is proportionally as valuable as that
eaten, and what amount can be saved by passing the
stalks through a feed cutter is work for future experiments.

Arranging our figures in another form, we have the fol-
lowing:

Food required for 100 pounds of milk when feedisg cornstalks;
193 pounds of cornstalks.

25 pounds of Cf>rn meal.

35 pounds of wheat bran.

Food required for 100 pounds of butter when feeding cornstalks:
3,880 pounds of cornstalks.
514 pounds of corn meal.
719 pounds of wheat bran.

Food required for 100 pounds of milk wh«n feeding mixed hay :
71 pounds of mixed hay.

26 pounds of corn meal.

36 pounds of wheat bran.



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174 Fourteenth Annual Report op the

Food required for 100 pounds of butter when feeding mixed hay:
1,348 pounds of mixed hay .
500 pounds of com meaL
700 pounds of wheat bran.

Food required for 100 pounds of milk when feeding clover hay:
60 pounds of clover hay.
26 pounds of com meal.
37 pounds of wheat bran.

Food required for 100 pounds of butter when feeding clover hay:
1,179 pounds of clover hay.
513 pounds of com meal.
718 pounds of wheat bran.

From the data here given one can easily calculate the cost
of food necessary to produce one hundred pounds of milk or
butter. Supposing hay is worth $8 per ton, then the corn-
stalks would be worth $2.66, or one third the value of the
hay, as shown by these experiments. Suppose further, that
bran can be had for $12, and com meal for $15 per ton. As-
suming these prices we will find that the food necessary to
produce one himdred pounds of milk costs, as the average
of the before detailed experiments, about sixty-six cents,
and the food to produce one hundred pounds of butter costs
about $12.84.

In considering these experiments the reader should bear
in mind that during each of the four periods lasting three
weeks each, including the week of preliminary feeding, the
cows were upon one variety of food, and that only. Variety
in food is as essential to beast as to man, if we wish the
best results, and these results may be looked upon as the
lowest we should receive from these food articles, rather
than average or high results. Any careful feeder of dairy
cows has observed that the cow is the quickest of all ani-
mals on the farm to appreciate and respond to variety and
a change of diet from time to time.

The cornstalks used in these experiments were from a

plot of ground 3.27 acres in area. This corn was grown

upon tile drained land that in former years had been of

little value owing to crops drowning out almost every year.

The corn was of the Pride of the North variety, a small



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 1 75

stalked, small eared, early yellow dent corn. The 3.27 acres
produced 14,684 pounds of stalks and 16,160 pounds of ears,
or 4,490 pounds of stalks and 4,941 pounds of ears of corn
per acre. This was 68 bushels of 72 pounds each.

With these facts and those of the experiments before us,
let us attempt to estimate tl^e butter that can be produced
from an acre of corn land.

For this purpose let us assume that the 4,941 pounds of
ears from an acre would make 4,000 pounds of com meal
allowing for shrinkage and grinding about twenty per cent,
which is fully enough for corn as dry as this at husking.

Now most farmers would be unwilling to trade a ton of
corn meal for sL ton of bran, but let us substitute bran for
corn meal, pound for pound in part, so as to have seven
pounds of bran for each five of corn meal. The two tons of
corn meal then would give us 2,334 pounds of bran and 1,666
pounds of corn meal.

By our experiments we have shown that by feeding as de-
scribed, 193 pounds of cornstalks made 100 pounds of milk
and for 100 pounds of butter 3,874 pounds were required;
also that 25 pounds of corn meal and 35 pounds of bran
were required in addition to the cornstalks for 100 pounds
of milk; and 514 pounds of meal and 718 pounds of bran
for 100 pounds of butter.

From this we see that an acre of land produced suflBcient
grain food for 6,664 pounds of milk, or 324 pounds of butter,
and suflBcient cornstalks for for 2,324 pounds of milk or 115
pounds of butter.

Valuing milk at $1.00 per 100 pounds and butter at 20 cents
per pound (winter prices) we find that one acre of Jand pro-
duced suflBcient corn stalks for $23.24 worth of milk, or $23.00
worth of butter, and meal suflBcient for $66.64 worth of milk,
or $64.88 worth of butter.

It will be noticed that about three acres of corn stalks are
necessary to supplement the com from one acre, as we fed
it. Practically the farmer can grow hay in part for coarse
feed, thus giving variety and maintaining the balance be-
tween crops so essential in successful farming.

During the coming winter it is designed to continue ex-



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176 Fourteenth Annual Eeport of the

periments in this direction, using: the feed cutter to reduce
the corn stalks to a condition in which they can all, or
nearly all, be eaten.



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RESOLUTIONS.

Your committee beg leave to submit the following resolu-
tions:

Resolved, That this convention place itself on record as emphaticallv
demanding laws, both state and national, which shall regulate the traffic
in counterfeit and substitutes of dairy products; to the end that the dairy-
men shall have their commercial right upon the one hand and the con-
sumer upon the other shall be protected from imposition, so that all
products of the cow shaU be sold upon their individual merit?, and we, as
a convention, call the attention of our law-makers, national and state, to
this most important matter.

Resolved, That this association gives its hearty endorsement to the spirit
of the bills lately introduced in congress, placing the manufacture and
sale of all counterfeits of butter and cheese under the control of the United
States revenue department, whereby they may be made subject to a special
revenue tax. and we hereby 'ask our representatives in congress for their
earnest co-operation in securing the final passage of a*law embodying such
provisions.

Resolved, By the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association, that*the interest of
both producers and consumeri of dairy products would be best served by
the stamping of cheese and butter packages with the date of manufacture
and the name and address of the makers.

Resolved, That in view of the momentous fact that the dairy products of
the state have reached in value to the enormous sum of $20,000,000, this
association respectfully petition the next legislature for the passage of a
law similar in its provisions to that enacted by the state of Minnesota,
providing for the appointment of a dairy commissioner and the appropri-
ation of a sufficient sum of money to suppress the illegal sale of all coun-
terfeits of butter and cheese.

Whereas, The Illinois stat6 board of agriculture at its late fat stock
and dairy show in Chicago, invited the dairymen of this state and the
northwest to make a competitive exhibit of butter, cheese, and dairy cat-
tle, and by their subsequent truckling to the butter counterfeiter's inter-
ests showed plainly that they cannot be counted as friends of the dairy
interest, therefore

Resolved, That in the opinion of this association no self-respecting dairy-
man can afford to be again caught in such company, as it might be rightly
inferred that we were birds of like feather.



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 1Y7

Resolved, By the Wisconsin Dairymen's Association, that the railroad
companies of this state in granting reduced rates upon their roads to all
in attendance upon the sessions of this association, have manifested an
intelligent sympathy with the producing interests of the commonwealth^
and are entitled to our sincere thanks, which are hereby extended.

Resolved, That in the broad, generous and intelligent hospitality extend-
ed to this association by the people of Richland Center and Richland
county there has been a most complete recognition of that friendly and
divine sentiment, that it is more blessed to give than to receive, and that
we shall recollect with special pleasure the gentlemen who have so liber-
, ally contributed their time and their money, and the ladies who have
rendered our stay in this community ^i^o delightful by their tact, their grace
and thoughtful care.

Resolvedy That as dairymen believing in the special mission of the, dairy
cow, we have lost confidence completely in the friendliness of the Illinois
State Board of Agriculture towards this mission and the vast interest
which rests upon it. We believe the time has come for the organization
of a permanent dairy and dairy stock show in'the northwest at some avail-
able point, and the secretary of this association is requested to forward
copies of this resolution to all dairy associations in the United States and
Canada, and invite their co-operation to this end.

Resolved, That the thanks of this association are hereby tendered to its
officials for their wise administration of its affairs during the past year.

Resolved, That the secretary of the association is hereby instructed to
prepare suitable blanks for petitions to congress for the passage of a law
in conformity to preceding resolutions and forward the same to every
creamery and cheese factory in the state, with request to secure signatures
of their patrons to the same and to be returned to the secretary and by
him forwarded to the several members of congress from our state.

W. D. HOARD,
JOHN GOULD,
H. C. ADAMS,

Committee^

. Resolution unanimously adopted.

A committee consisting of W. D. Hoard, Fort Atkinson^
D. W. Curtis, Fort Atkinson, N. L. James, Richland Center^
H. C. Adams, Madison, were appointed to carry out the
indicated in the resolutions relative to a permanent Dairy
and Dairy Stock Show in the Northwest.

12



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178 Fourteenth Annual Eeport of the

HOW SHALL WE IMPROVE WISCONSIN CHEESE ?
A. J. Decker, Fond du Lac.

If we note carefully the condition under which the cheese
in Wisconsin is now made we may suggest some improve-
ments.

^' The system almost universally practiced in Wisconsin
in cheese factories is to make the cheese on a co-operative
plan. The factory doing the work of making the cheese
and furnishing the materials of manufacture for a given
sum per pound. Usually one and one-half cents per pound.
The cheese maker agrees to warrant his cheese to bring the
ruling price. The patrons who furnish the milk receive
credit for ihe number of pounds of milk they deliver with
little reference to quality and receive the returns from the
cheese in proportion to the amount of milk furnished. If
the cheese maker suggests to a patron that his milk lacks
strength or quality, the answer usually is, " If you do not
like it I will go to the next factory or I will build a factory
myself. Add to this the idea held by some patrons that the
cheese factories are making the largest share of profits.
Factories in many localities have become so numerous that
they have become weak. The small amount of milk re-
ceived at each factory compels retrenchment in expendi-
tures and a low-priced cheese maker; cheaper materials
used in cheese making are tried. The old vat that has been
patched and mended until it has become a stink pot to con-
taminate every batch of milk that is put into it, because the
factory has not made enough to buy a new one.

This same influence applies to the patrons and their old
cans. I have been at factories when the milk has been
taken in and often one-half of the cans in which milk is
brought, should never receive a batch of milk again.

These patched cans when the milk is empted are filled
with sour whey, and taken home and often remains in the
•cans during the entire day, and at milking time is empted
and rinsed out with cold water and the warm milk turned



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 179

in. This is I think the general practice, and the result is,
tainted milk, when the first requisite of good cheese is good
milk. Another practice is, commencing to bring milk when
they get a good ready in the spring and quitting in the fall
by the same standard without notice or consideration of the
factory's interests. In this a grand mistake is made for the
success of the patron is based on the success of the factory.
The patrons should feel that the factory is theirs and to
make it give them good returns they must give it good
healthy support in quantity and quality of milk.

Patrons, watering and skimming milk is a willful practice
that depreciates the quality of Wisconsin cheese to a large
per cent.

One of our factories in Fond du Lac county that was re-
ceiving 3,800 pounds of milk, detected a patron skimming
the milk he brought to the factory. The next morning the
cheese maker told each patron as he delivered his milk, that
a skimmer had been detected and he was going to be ex-
posed and prosecuted, but did not tell who it was. The next
day, the cheese product was fifty pounds more than on pre-
vious days, although the amount of milk was not any
greater.

The solution to this problem was very plain. It showed
that skimming or watering had been a regular custom to the
amount of twelve per cent, of the cheese product of the fac-
tory, which was shown by the abrupt stop put to the prac-
tice by fear of detection.

Many factory men know that this state of things exist,
but say that if you go to rooting round to find these fellows
you will loose their patronage, and the factory can hardly
live as it is, and besides the law is so complex and uncertain
that the chances of correction are slim. These things exist,
but what are you going to do about it?

The subject of this short paper is to answer that question.

The question of producing rich milk by good rich food,
and good rich milk producing cows is but a question of time,
and is being^ pushed to a higher standard by the leading far-
mers and dairymen, led by the agricultural and dairy organ-
izations of the state.



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180 Fourteenth Annual Eeport of the

To keep the milk pure until it is delivered at the factory,
a system of paying according to its cheese value and not by
the weight of the full bulk delivered, must be adopted. It
has been plainly shown that different cows vary forty per
cent, in the richness of their milk, and the amount and qual-
ity of cheese it will make.

One patron may furnish one hundred pounds of milk that
will make twelve pounds of cheese; another patron furnish
one hundred pounds of milk that will make but eight pounds
of cheese, and both receive the same amount of money.

One man looses two pounds of cheese, while the other gets
pay for two pounds that he did not deliver. While if the
system of paying according to the cheese value, each would
have received pay for exactly what he had delivered.

Another man adds ten per cent, of water to his can and
gets paid for the water according to the present system.
But if he received pay according to the cheese value, his
watering or skimming would injure none but himself. This
system would not only correct the injustice of scaling down
good milk to make up the deficiency of poor milk, but would
effectually prevent watering or skimming, and thereby give
Wisconsin a richer, purer milk, from which to make cheese,
than we have had before.

The great Ailesburry company, of London, who furnish
great quantities of milk, test their milk with alcohol and
ether which separates the solids from the water, and the per-
centage of each is shown in fifteen minutes. A company in
Saint Louis, is making a similar test with similar results. I
had hoped to be able to learn the exact formula before the
time of this meeting, so I might be able to make practical
tests here. But I have been able to make certain results
plain by simply coagulating the milk and filtering, which
gave the range of difference in quality referred to. The
question may be raised that the average cheese-maker will
not be competent to make these tests of figures the proper
percentage for his dividends. But the cheese-maker that is
not competent and will not learn to come up to the highest
point of the profession should be dropped and never re-
instated unless he advanced with his business. By sifting out



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 181

indolent and ignorant cheese-makers it will improve Wis-
consin cheese. The system of paying for making the cheese
is one-sided and defective. It matters not whether cheese
is five or ten cents in the market the making is the same.

The interests of the patron and factory man should be alike
in producing the best results and both showing in the profit
or loss. As it is there is often an antagonistic feeling and
interest between the f actoryman and patron. The factory-
man works for his regular price per pound and feels per-
fectly safe, while the patron feels if the price is running below
the cost of produce it invites watering, skimming or any
fraud that may appear likely to make his loss good. Often
lack of care in milk will send poor milk to the factory. The
cheese-maker does not detect it in time, and a sour, bad
flavored batch of cheese is the result. The cheese-maker,
not feeling that he was to blame keeps the bad flavored
cheese out of sight in boxes or elsewhere when the buyers
comes to inspect them. But when the shipment is made,
they are substituted for an equal number of those accepted,
and the fraud is not detected until after the cheese have
been delivered and paid for. This creates a question of
fraud between buyer and salesman, and the factory suffers
in reputation.

Establish a system of dividends based on the price received
and make the cheese maker a salesman, and you will make
a co-equal interest in quality that will raise the standard of
Wisconsin cheese.

There are too many small weak factories whose profits
will not pay a good intelligent cheese maker and boys of a
few weeks' practice with small pay is considered all they
can afford. The boys work to a disadvantage by having not
milk enough to work to advantage.

The buyers, as a rule, avoid the small factories, and the
cheese is often left on the shelves until past the proper
season, and an uneven lot is the result and the lowering the
average of the state product is the result.

Establish a standard of skill in manipulating. A knowl-
edge of the elementary principles of chemistry suflBcient to



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182 Fourteenth Annual Report of the

know, when, how, and where, the chemical changes take
place in the formation of the cheese.

how to care for and cure cheese properly.

Have a state superintendent that would visit the factories
and examine into the cheese maker's qualifications, and
give or hold certificate as the case may require, give direc-
tions as to the proper methods of operating, and after the
first year no cheese maker would be qualified to accept eny
position without the certificate of the superintendent. This
will raise the standard of Wisconsin cheese.

The question of expense of an instructor, and the arbi-
trary rule of compelling the cheese maker to leave his busi-
ness is brought in question.

But careful thought shows that the opposition to this plan
is penny wise and pound foolish. We felt keenly the fact
for several years past that Canada was selling ter cheese
product at a cent in advance of what we were selling ours,
after Mr. Harris had spent several seasons instructing their
cheese makers. Add one-half cent to the product of Wis-
consin cheese, and you would pay the salary of a competent
superintendent, and leave a handsome sum of profits in your
treasury.

In times of depression in business, profits lie only on the
highest points of success, and manufacture must reach high
to get them.

The Wisconsin State Dairymen's Association has raised
Wisconsin dairying from a low disgraceful grade to respect-
ability. But more work is yet to be done, and I fairly be-
lieve that in the near future the clear-headed dairyman of
Wisconsin will adopt measures in substance of the sugges-
tions in this paper and Wisconsin cheese will stand pre-
eminently the model of elegant perfection and bring the
prices that such goods merit. And any factory man that
does not push ahead with the tide of advancement, must
keep in the old rut and continue to take the same old scrub
price for his goods.



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Wisconsin Dairymen's Association. 183



DISCUSSION.

Question — I would like to know a little further about the
employment of women in the cheese factory. Can a woman
manage a cheese factory without any men to help do the lift-
ing and attend to the pressing of the curd?

Answer — They do do it, and yet it is generally pretty hard;
harder than I should want a woman to do. Yet, if you have
got to have two in the factory, have the woman always
first and a man to help under her direction.

Question — Isn't that a little woman's rights?

Answer — I believe that woman should have every right
that is given to a man, no matter what it is. They are
better than men, or else let the men come up to the standard
of the women, and we would have a better government
to-day.

Question — What wages can a woman get at the head of
a cheese factory? What are they getting now in your
county?

She ought to get precisely what any competent man can
in the same position, and a woman that could not earn just
as much for the same work as a man, I wouldn't have in the
factory. They are actually getting about $40 a month, and
cheese makers who perform the same service are paid $50,
$55 and $60. That is $40 and board in most cases.

Question — Have you tried these experiments you spoke
of, with two or three samples of the same milk to start
with?

Answer — I have not.

Prof. Henry — In all chemical work. Dr. Armsby always
starts with two samples, and if he doesn't come out within
two-tenths of each other, he says " my work is worth noth-
ing." I would suggest, if you were testing, that it would be
better to compare two samples nearer together.

Answer — My experiments were crude, but it merely
showed a point to start from.

Prof . Arnold — I have been over that ground very care-
fully, and made the tests just as accurately as I possibly
could, and repeated them, and I found that in making the


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