Wisconsin. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Annual report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Wisconsin online

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Point Bluff,









West Eau Claire,

Name of Principal
or Preceptress.

Rev. A. R. Cornwall,
Prof. E. F. Hobart,..

Miss B. Bassett,

Regena Malquena,
Prof. G.W. Case,...
Prof. J. R, Hanan,....
Rev. H. Colman, ...
Prof. John J. Copp,
Rey. W. C. Whitford,
Miss Grace P. Jones,

Prof. S. A. Hall,

Rey. M. Pope,

Prof. S.M. White,...






























There are, probably, schools not embraced in the foregoing table that
ought to have been reported. The German English Academy of Mil-
waukee is omitted, but it is well known to be admirably managed by its
accomplished principal and efficient board of trustees. The course of
study is practical, and its discipline excellent. It possesses a cabinet well
arranged and sufficiently extensive for purposes of instruction, and the
school is doubtless one of the best in the West.

No reports are received from the high schools, containing definite infor-
mation in regard to them. They are included in the general report.
There are schools of this class in Beloit, Berlin, Delavan, Fond du Lac,
Janesville, Kenosha, Oshkosh, Portage, Racine and Waupun which are
inferior to none in the state. It is to this class of schools and to onr
academies that we must look for the training that is to fit our young men
for the practical pursuits of life. Every city and village ought to found

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a high Bchool as soon as practicable, to complement its, primary and
grammar schools, and many of the thickly settled towns of the state could,
with great advantage, make provision for educating their children by
founding central schools of a grade higher than the ordinary public


There are nine colleges and universities in the state. Ea »h has been
struggling for a right to live ; and several, it is hoped, have secured it.
Some are endowed, and thus give promise of future usefulness. While
these endowments are small, in comparison with those of older institu^
tions, they nevertheless show an appreciation of higher culture. A large
nmmber of those attending* this class of schools are members of the pre-
paratory departments. Until the High Schools and Academies shall fit
boys to enter upon the collegiate course, the preparatory departments of
the colleges cannot be dispensed with, but it is believed that the day of
small things is passing away, and that the higher institutions will soon
bd relieved of work that does not legitimately belong to them.

The need of higher education begins to be felt by the people of the
state. If our public schools are to realize the hopes indulged in regard to
them, they must be energized by influences originating above and not be-
low them. This is the law of educational development. In the past his-
tory of our state .there is found little evidence of general interest in higher
education. Nor is this surprising, when the social condition of a new
state is considered. The first \7ork to be done is to subdue nature, and
provide for physical well being, to clear the land, to make roads, to build
houses, and to provide such institutions as are indispensable te the exis-
tence^of society. Education was early recognized as a prime necessity,but
it was that kind of education essential to society in an undeveloped state,
bnt^ with increased wealth and diversified pursuits we may look for a wi-
der popular sympathy with intellectual culture, and a more efficient sup-
port of higher institutions of learning. The wide spread sympathy with
popular education and popular literature, which we observe, must culmi-
nate in a desire for systematic and generous culture. The opinion that
our public schools can meet the educational wants of the state is both
fallacious and mischievous. In them are taught those things necessary
to be known by every member of the community. They do not rise above
the average intelligence of the people ; they are the exponents of the
average at different times. They do not represent the attainments of the
most advanced members of the community on the one hand, nor the ignor-
ance and prejudice of the least advanced on the other. But society should
be progressive. This implies the discovery of new truths and their ap-
plication to the needs of humanity. But new truths are the result of
long study and calm reflection. They are revealed to but few at first.
Necessary to their discovery are libraries, museums, apparatus. These,
with learned men, constitute a college or university. Opposition to insti-
tutions that afford leisure and facilities for research and study, betrays a
lack of sympathy with the progress of society, as well as a want of knowl-

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edge of the conditions of its advancement. It is the duty of the state ta
cherish and aid its higher institutions, for it therehy most efifeotuallj se-
cures the prosperity of all. This may not be the most propitious time
to consider the claims of these schools, hut there is little doubt that when
the time arrives, their importance to the prosperity of the state will se-
cure for them a favorable consideration*

The following is an abstract of the reports in regard to colleges and
universities returned by county superintendents :

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The amounts belonging to the productire portion of the school fund, on
the SOth day of September, 1865, were as follows :

Amount due on land sold on certificatei, $S76, 087 11

Amount due on mortgages, 289, 122 75

Amount of certificates of state indebtedness, 897,000 00

Amount of state bonds, • 108, 700 00

Fund bearing 7 per cent, interest, $1,964,869 86

The condition of this fund on the 30th day of September, 1864, was as
follows :

Amount due on land sold on certificates, f861, 217 60

Amount due on mortgages, 571, 185 90

Amount of certificates of state indebtedness, 516,800 00

Amount of state bonds, 108,700 00

Amount of swamp land certificates and loans, 66,070 09

Fund bearing 7 per cent, interest, ^,118,423 66

The revenue accruing to the school fund from the sales of swamp lands
previous to June 1st, 1865, was, by chapter 537 of the laws of lb65, abol-
ished ; and in lieu thereof, twenty^five per cent, of the income of the
normal school fund is to be annually apportioned with the income of the
school fund, until such income shall reach the sum of two hundred thou-
sand dollars. Under the provisions of the act referred to there has been
transferred from the productive school fund of 1864 to the normal school
fund 9248,460 00. This amount did not belong to the school fund on
account of sales of school lands, but was the net proceeds of money trans-
ferred from sales of swamp and selected lands to the school fund and
loaned in 185/ and 1858.

There is a decrease in t\e amount due on lands sold on certificates, of
9186,180 46 ; and in the amount due on mortgages of 9282,013 15, mak-
ing 9468,193 61. This arises from payments and forfeitures exceeding
the loans to individuals during the year. All loans made from this fund
during the past year have been made to the state. This is indicated by an
increase of 9280,700 in certificates of state indebtedness, which is 987,-
493 71 less than the decrease on individual loans. Adding to this the sum
of 966,070 09 reported last year as due on swamp land loans and certifi-
cates, and we have 9153,563 80 as the decrease in the productive portion
of the school fund for the past year.

If one« fourth of the normal school fund be added to the school fund, the


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total amount, the income from whicli will be apportioned in June next,
M follows :

Amonnt doe on land sold on certificates, $675,087 11

Amount dae on mortgages, 289, 1S8 76

Amount due on certificates of state indebtedness, 897, 000 00

Amonnt due on state bonds, 108, 700 00

One quarter of the normal school fund, 146, 645 46

Total, $2,118,506 82

The seliool fund, as reported by the superintendents of public instruction
for the past seventeen years, is as follows :

1849 $8,600 00

1860, 688, 094 41

1861, 766, 109 49

1862, 819, 200 60

1863, , 1, 141, 804 28

1864 1, 670, 268 77

1866, 1,897,269 80

1866, 1,869,242 82

- 1867, 2,007,944 16

1868, 2, 845, 846 84

1859, •. 2, 786, 767 08

1860, 2, 889, 694 49

1861 2,468,861 49

3862, 2,219,906 69

1868, 2,262,466 16

1864 1 2,118,428 66

1866, 2,118,606 82

It will be seen tbat tbe fund reacbed its maximum in 1858, since which
time it has annually decreased, except in 1861 and 1863, The loss to the
productive fund has now reached $732,340 02. Of course, this loss is
not absolute. As the productive fund diminishes, the non-productive fund
increases, but, there is reason to think that a large part of the apparent
losSyabove mentioned, is real, on account of the worthless security that
loans were based upon during the first ten years of the administration of
the fund. The manner of investing the trust funds of the state, at pre-
sent adopted, precludes the possibility of loss, and it is hoped that not
another dollar may ever be loaned to individuals. If the past shall ren-
der us wiser for the futurci it will in some degree, compensate us for the
humiliation^ although it cannot remove the disgrace which every honest
oitizen feels as he reviews the early history of the common school fund of

The non-productive portion of the school fund consists of 16th section
lands and the 500|000 acre iraet/

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On the 30th of Septomhor, 1865, of the lands owned by the state, the
Dumber of acres belonging to the JSchool Fund was as follows:



State lands forfeited,

State lands nnsold,

State lands neyer offered,...

Total numl^er of acres,

ICth section,

No. Acres.

807, 878 00




No. Acres.

102, 628. 00

102, 628. 00


Number of






The number of acres forfeited for the year ending September 30, 1865
was 25,740.65.

The dues on forfeited mortgaged lands at the same date were $144,758.
dSji^and tho payments on certificates during the last fiscal year amounted to
$143,089 49. ^

Various estimates as to the probable amount that the common school
fund would ultimately reach, have, from year to year, been prepared. In
1849 the amount it would probably reach, was estimated by the Superin-
tendant of Public Instruction, at $5,119,985 52. In 1850 another esti-
mate changed it to $5,301,943 44, As late as 1858 the annual report from
this department contained a carefully prepared estimate, fixing the sum
at $4,733,604 44. In 1860 my predecessor reduced this sum to $3,234,-
156 96, and in his report for 1861 increased it to $3,554,632 74, and in
1862, after a careful estimate made by the school land commissioners, the
fund productive and prospective was estimated at $3,480,196 95.

There is no doubt that these estimates were made with due care, but
certainly, an estimate that would now fix the school fund, both present
and projective, at $3,000,000 could scarcely be considered moderate.
Were the dues on Forfeited Mortgaged Lands all paid, and should the
fund realize $1 25 per acre for all lands belonging to it, the amount would
be but $2,763,475 84 or little more than half the estimate of Hon- IL
Boot, made in 1850.

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ne Transactions in the School Fund for the fiscal year ending September
30th, 1865, as shown by the Report of the Secretary of State, were as
foUovos :


LoMt, •

P«&altj and adTeriUing, ,



U. 8. for 6 per cent, due on lalei of pablic lands,.

Refunded from Brown countj,»

Transferred from sohool fond income, ...^

Adams conntj, delinquent tax, .

Ashland, do

Brown, ^ do

Bnffalo ~ do

Burnett, do

Calumet, do

Chippewa, do

Clark, do

Columbia, do

Crawford...... do

Dallas, do

Bane,. do

Dodge, do

Boor,.. do

Bonglas, do.

Bunn, doi

Eau Claire, do

FondduLao,» do

Qrant, do

Green, do,

Qreen Lake, do

Iowa,.. do

Jaekson, do

Jefferson, do

Juneau do

Kewaunee, do

La Crosse, do

La Fayette, do

Manitowoc, do

Marathon, do

Marquette do

Milwaukee, do

Monroe, ..do ,

Ocento, do

Outagamie, do

Osaukee, do

Pepin, do

Pieree, do

1628, 800 80


931,029 81

188,496 62

182, 176 96

8,471 96

1,692 49

22,628 06

148, 784 06

7 86

14 00


f 78 63

46 87
646 18
448 12

21 09
1,484 78
266 83
198 46
286 16
117 08
6 44
861 62

46 18
236 98

68 68
226 89
281 71
112 68

618 86
80 26
46 29

771 79

619 14
66 88

110 04
436 28
448 92
308 40
828 40
299 48
196 92
128 09
867 26
228 76

1, 690 67
10 88
18 S4

1, 698 87

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Polk, county, delinquent tax,

Portage do

Bacine,^ ..do

Richland, do

Rock, do

St. Croix, do

Sauk, do

Shawano, do

Sheboygan, do

Trempealeau, do

Vernon, do

Washington, do

Waukesha, do .^

Waupaca, do

Waushara, do

Winnebago, de

Wood, do

Atwood ft Rublee, printing and adyertising,

L. M. Andrews & Co., adyertising forfeited lands,.

. Bintliff & Carr, do

J. W. Blake, do

J. M. Brackett, do

Brannan & Turner, do

T. 0. Brainard, do

Bliss & Otis, do

J. R. Bohan, do

J. C. Coyer, do

£. Coleman, do

G. W. Carpenter, do *...

Carney & Stout, do.

Edward Decker, do .,

W. H. Famham, do

Gray & Bayis, do

Geo. Gray & Co^ do

R. Hopkins do

T. 8. Haughawout,.^ do

J, P. Humes, do •

Jos. Harris, do

C. 8. Hart, do

J. E. Ingraham, do

C.Johnson, do

Knapp, Stout &Co., do

Leland & Bennett,. do

Frank Leland, do

S. 8. Luee,... « do *....

A. J. Lawson, do

D. MeBride, do

W.J. Park, printing,

Pease & Cogan, adyertising forfeited lands,

Robinson & Bro., do

Reed & Hughes, do

S. D. Ross. do

Rockwell & Upham, do

H. N. Ross, do



$160 80

298 89

11 99

1,010 61

118 86

2, 808 61

679 18

1, 168 06

52 06

816 69

824 66

17 09

8 81

494 86

178 06

74 96

168 77

1, 716 09

20 00

14 78

29 60

28 60

80 00

82 14

26 66

8 76

16 76

22 60

11 12

12 48



16 00


10 00

20 60

26 00


88 00

10 78

19 60

12 00

10 60

2 60

26 00


27 60

446 80

41 76

19 88

IS 00

82 00

42 60

IS 16

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C. B. & L. C. Bodfield, adYertisiiig forfeited lands,.

J. A. SMith, do

Siowen & Lockerby, do

A. C. Sftnford, do

0. K. Shaw, do...

Smith & Benton, do ^

J. A. Somerby, do

S. W.Smith, do

G.Seymoar, do

Schoff, Winnegar&Go^ ....do

J. B. & H. M. Stocking, do

R. Tompkins, do :

T. L. Terry & Co., do.

Thomson & Roberts, do

H. A. Taylor & Co ..do

John Turner, do

L. A. Taylor, do

Q. Tan Waters..., do

L. B. Wright, do

T. O. Wisner, do

C. B.Waldo, ^...do ,

W. H.&. J. H. Waggoner,,..do



Transferred to normal eehool fund, ,

Balanee September SO, 1864,.
Balance September 80, 1865,..



628, 800 80
8,498 94

$581, 799 24

28 60
7 78

18 00
21 26
12 82
12 60
66 00
28 82
27 00

19 50

20 50
14 01
12 00
26 60
T4 60

21 91
82 00

4 84

18 88

24 00

10 40

80 60

480, 778 00

1, 746 79

14, 170 58

621, 884 19

$681, 799 24

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The amount received from "&nea collected in ^the several counties for
any breach of the penal laws," is 91,692 49. Attention was, in the last
report from this department, directed to the fact that the additions to the
sohoel fund from this source are but a fraction of what all believe they
should be. It was then suggested that << every county treasurer should,
by law, be required to keep an accurate account of all moneys paid to
him on account of fines, penalties and forfeitures, separate and distinct
from other accounts, and of the expenses deducted by the supervisors, as
authorized by section 7, chapter 121, laws of 1859, and a statement in
detail should be transmitted to the state treasurer accompanying the
amount paid into the state treasury. An annual report of the condition
of this account should be required from every county treasurer to the
state treasurer, whether the expenses incurred by the county for prosecu-
ting for fines, etc., exceed the receipts or not.*'

The constitutional provision making '< the clear proceeds of all fines
collected in the several counties," a source of revenue to the common
school fund of the state, is wise and beneficent, and the necessity of ren-
dering it more efficient by legislation, is respectfully urged upon the at-
tention of the legislature.

The five per centum of the net proceeds of sales of public lands, so
long withheld by the general government on account of an unadjusted
claim against the state, has been paid during the past year, and the ac-
counts between the state and the United States have been settled. The
adjustment of this claim is due to the wisely directed and persevering ef-
forts of Attorney Oeneral Smith.^

It appears that on the 31st day of December, 1862, the amount of the
five per centum fund was $250,139 11. By section 2, article X, of the
state constitution this fund is set apart as a portion of the common school
fund. It seems however that the united States has withheld $101,262 33
on account of canal lands, sold by the state, the proceeds of which accrued
to the benefit of the state. It would seem therefore that the state ow€$
the school fund $101,262 33, this being that part of the five per centum
fund, that has been used for general purposes. The attention of the leg-
islature is respectfully called to the subject. The amounts due the state
as government lands are sold, will not hereafter be withheld, and a small
increase to the school fund, year by year, may be expected.

The sum of $2,261 39 has been paid for printing. This is done uader
section 20, chapter 6 of the revised statutes. The school fund ought not
to be charged for the printing required for the use of the School Land
Commissioners and State Superintendent, and the section ought to be

Every safeguard ought to be thrown around the educational funds, and
the practice of charging them with the expense of their management ii
one that can be defended by no valid argument.

Section 2 of article 10 of the constitution is plain on this point. It
provides that <<the proceeds of all lands that have been or hereafter maj
'* be granted by the United States to this State, for educational purposes,
** (except lands heretofore granted for the purposes of a university), and
<< all moneys, and the clear proceeds of all property that may acorae to

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<< the state by forfeiture or escheat ; and all moneys which may be paid
<< as an equivalent for exemption from military duty ; and the clear pro-
•( ceeds of all fines collected in the several counties for any breach of the
<< penal laws ; and all moneys arising from any grant to the state, where
" the purposes of such grant are not specified ; and the five hundred
" thousand acres of lands to which the state is entitled, by the provisn
" ions of an act of Congress, entitled 'an act to appropriate the proceeds
<<of the sales of public lands, and to grant pre emption rights,' approved
^< the fourth day of September, one thousand eight hundred and forty-
<< one ; and also the five pec centum of the net proceeds of the public
<< lands to which the state shall be entitled on her admission into the
<^ union, (if Congress shall consent to such appropriation of the two
<< grants last mentioned), shall be eet apart as a separate fund, to be called
« the school fund, the interest of which, and all other revenues derived
« from the school lands, shall be exclusively applied to the following ob-<>
"jects, to wit:

<< 1. To the support and maintenance of common schools in each school
'< district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus therefor.

<< t. The residue shall be appropriated to the support and maintenance
<^ of academies and normal schools, and suitable libraries and apparatus
« therefor."

The provisions of the constitution are palpably violated and its re-
quirements utterly disregarded, if the ^^ proceeds " of lands granted for
educational purposes are diverted from the original purpose of the dona-
tion, and^ used to pay for printing or for any other object. The obliga«
tion resting on the people is as clear as words can express it, and that
portion of section 6, chapter 30, referred to can be justified neither by
necessity, honesty nor sound policy.

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The foUoy^ing statement thotos the transactions in the School Fund Income
for the year ending September ZOth, 1865.

I&t«reBi on land and loans,

Fenaltj for trespass on timber lands,

Sale of dictionaries, as per chap. 41, laws '61,

Sale of timber,

Transfer Arom Swamp Land Fond Income,

Apportionment to counties,

L. M. Andrews, adyertising forfeited lands

Atwood & Sublee, printing and adyertising,.. ,

H. Borcbenius, clerk, land department^

J. A. Bate, chief clerk, land department, •

C. S, Boardman, clerk, protecting lands

J. W. Blake, adyertising forfeited state lands,

Brannan & Turner, do

F. 0. Brainard, do

J. B. Bohan, ...do

J. F. Bryant, clerk, protecting lands,

W. C. Bradley, cleiQj^land department,..

Bliss & Son, adyertising forfeited lands,

J. T. Clark, appraising forfeited mortgaged lands, ....

J. B. Crosby, clerk, land department,

Carney & Stout, adyertising forfeited lands,..

C. W. Carpenter, ..do

W. B. & J. F. Cramer,

W. H. Dayenport, clerk, land department,

0. De Witt Elwood, do ,

K. J. Fleischer, do >

W. H. Famham, adyertising forfeited lands,

J. B. Gibbs, clerk, land department,

Gray & Dayis, adyertising forfeited lands,

J. B. Hurlbut, appraising forfeited mortgaged lands,.

J. J. Hawley, clerk, land department,

E. S. Hammond, clerk, protecting lands,

J. R. Hume, adyertising forfeited lands,

C.aHart, do

H. F.Hubbard, clerk, land department,..

J. E. Ingraham, adyertising forfeited, lands,

Iberg & Co., do

B. A. Jones, clerk, protecting lands,

C.B. Jackson, do

A. G. Knight, appraising forfeited mortgaged lands,..

8. B. Kinney, do

A. Eeyes, clerk, protecting lands, •

Enapp, Stout & Co., adyertising forfeited lands,

Lyon & Barts, appraising forfeited lands,

Frank Leiand, adyertising forfeited lands,

8. S. Luce, do

E. S. McBride, clerk, land department,

J. G. McMynn, Webster's dictionaries,

$168,042 47
1, 621 52
40 50
352 50
8,224 49

Receipts. Disbursem'ts.

9151,816 84

7 50

182 52.

1,000 00

1,200 00

168 00

10 62

18 28

6 68

6 00
86 78

225 00

18 58

80 48

875 00

Online LibraryWisconsin. Dept. of Public InstructionAnnual report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Wisconsin → online text (page 16 of 29)