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'^cA/iecU oi



A. J. CRAIG.



/



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ANNUAL REPORT



S TIP ERINTEN DENT



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION



OV THI



STATE OF WISOONSm, %



rf-



TEAR ENDING AUGUST 81, 1868.



A. J. CRAIG,



SUPERINTBNDKNT OP PUBLIC INSTBUCTION.



DEPftRTA\IirJ OF
PUBL.I6 INGTHUGHON



MADISON, WI8 |

▲ffWOOD h RXmUEB, STATE PRtHTIB8| JOmUTAL OmOS.

1868. '



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OlIIOl 01 THl SUPIBINTIVDINT 01 PuBLIO InBTBUOTION.

Madison, December 10, 1868.

To Hi$ JBxceUenejf, Lu^zvs Faibohili^

Oovemor of Wiicontin :

Sib : — I haye the honor to traDsmit, through you, to the Legis-
lature, the Annual Beport of the Department o£ PiibUo Instruction,
for the year ending August 81, 1868.

I am, sir, yery respectfully.

Tour obedient seryant,

A. J. OBAIO,
SvperifUendent of Public In^ntetion,



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MICHIGAN OEPT.OF
PUBUC INSTRUCTION

JUN 20 -ss



ANNUAL REPORT

or THE

SUPEBBTTBUBBNT



PUBLIC INS'J'RUCTION



OfIIOB Of THB SUPEBINTBNDBNT OT PuBLIO InSTRUOTION.

Madison, December 10, 1868.

To the Legislature of Wisconsin :

Obntlbmbk : — Section 67 of Chapter 10, of the Kevised
Statutes requires the Superintendent of Pnblic Instruction to pre-
pare an annual report, containing :

1. An abstract of all the common school reports received by
him from the several clerks of the county boards of supervisors
{'County Superintendents).

2. A statement of the condition of the common schools of this
state.

8. Estimates and accounts of expenditures of the school moneys.

4, Plans for the improvement and management jof the common
school ^nd, and for the better organization of the common schools ;
and

6. All such matter reUtiog to his office, and the common schools
of the state, as he shall deem expedient.

An abstract of the reports of the county superintendents will be
jovldA in the appendix, in tables Nos. 2 to 9, which give in detail by



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counties and towns full statistics on all important points or sub-
jects embraced in our school system.

The condition of the schools can be ascertained, however, by a
consideration of the following summary of the general statistics,
which is presented under appropriate heads.

I. — SCHOOL DISTRICTS.

Counting two and one quarter parts of districts as equivalent to
one whole district, the whole number now organized is 4,728, again
01 116 over the number reported last year. The increase does not
correcily represent the number formed during the past year, as the
process of consolidation has diminished the number existing at its
commencement. The evils inherent in the district system are some-
what mitigated by judicious consolidation but they cannot be per-
manently remedied or removed, except by the adoption of the town-
ship system.

The number of districts reporting is 4,647, which is 81 less than
the whole number organized,

II. - OHILDRBN OVER FOUR AND UNDBR TWBNTT TBARS OF AGB.

The number of persons returned as over four and under twenty
years of age is 8^6,630, a gain of 15,547 f^om last year.

III. — NUMBBR OF CHILDRBN OF SCHOOL AQB IN DISTRICTS MAINTAIN-
ING A SCHOOL FIVB OR MORB MONTHS.

The number reported under this heading is 374,749. The num-
ber given in the report for 1867 was 830,263, but, as then stated,
the item was incorrect, and by application to the reporting offioei^
the number was bronght up to 861,759, before the annual appor-
ment was made.

It will be necissary to make some additions to the number re-
ported this year.

IT. — TOTAL NUMBBR OF PBRS0N8 ATTBNDINO THB PUBLIC SCHOOtS.

The number given in the reports for the past year, i^ 246,440 ;
but this is evidently incorrect, as the number who attended between



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tlie ages of fonrand twenty years, is 246,105, to wbioh, if ve add
1,194 the number who attended under four years of age, and 1,373,
the number oyer twenty years of age, we shall have a sum of
249.007.

The average length of time schools were maintained throughout
the State is 141 1-2 days, an increase of 4 1-2 days over 1867.

The following table shows : (l)r, the total number of children in
the state over four and under twenty years of age ; (2), the total
number who have attended the public schools some portion of the
year ; (3), the per cent, of attendance as compared with the whole
number of school age ; and, (4), the average number of days schools
have been taught for each year since the organization of the state.



YEAR.


Total number of chil- |
dren in the state ■
over four and under 1
twenty years of age. ^


1

Total number who at- '
tended school some
some portion of the
year.


Average number in
school a portion of |
the time, of each
hundred of school
age. 1


Average number of
da;ys schools were


1849


70,467
92,047
111,481
124,783
138,279
166,126
186,960
213,886
241,646
264,077
278,871
. 288,984
299,133
308,066
820,966
829.906
889,024
862,004
371 ,088
886,630


32,147

61,507

78,944

88,042

97,836

103,933

122,462

134,353

163,613

171,886

188,477

194,367

198,448

191,366

216,163

211,119

223,067

284,266

239,946

249,007


45

66

70

71

69

66

64

64

60

63

64

67

66

62

67

66

66

66i

66

64


71


1860,


74


1861,


74


1852, .•^...


76


1853


76


1864


77


1856,


84


1856,


99


1857,




186S,


122


1869,


121


•I860


136


1861,...*.

1862,


182
109


1863


120


1864,


120i


1866,

1866, ,

1867,


134i

128

187


1868,


14H



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6

To asoertain the whole number who have attended schools of all
kinds during the year, wa add to the number attending the public
schools the number reported bj other institutions, as follows :

Number attending the public echoole 249,0-)7

private schools 14 ,679

academies' 981

colleges and universities 2 ,1 13

Soldiers' Orphans* Home... 800

Number in Reform School, benevolent institutions, orphan asylums,

etc, estimated 1 , 500

Total 268,680



After deducting from ^e whole number of persons over four and
under twenty years of age, the number attending public schools, pri-
yate schools, academies and colleges, and the number in the benevo-
lent institutions ; and making liberal allowance for those living where
no schools have been organized, and for those who, for various
reasons, could not attend any school, there will remain about 50, 000
youth who should have been in school, but who have not attended
any part of the year.

The number the public school houses will accommodate is 271,-
009. Deducting from this. 249,007, the whole number who attend-
ed, and there remain 22,002, for whom ample provision was made,
but who neglected to avail themselves of the privileges furnished.

All thoughtful men regard with serious concern the failure of our
system to educate those most needing an education, and some advise
a resort to legislation to compel the attendance at school of all
children of certain specified ages.

Believing that the State has the same right to the time of the
child that it has to the money of the parent, and believing that the
end sought through a system of public instruction — the preservation
of our government and institutions — cannot be secured so long as a
large percentage of our youth are growing up in ignorance, they call
upon the representatives of the people to provide that those for
whom free schools are maintained shall enjoy the benefits which the
schools are designed to confer. It may be well, however, before
resorting to compulsory legislation, to ascertain whether a largely
increased attendance upon the public schools may not be secured
through modifications of the school law, especially in reference to



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Uie o^Eisation of distriots, the sapervision of aoboolSi and the
apportiouaent of the inoome of Ae sohool fond. These topios will
not be disonsaed here, bat will be treated of in another part of this
report.

OBADBD SOHOOLd.

The number reported is 226, which is 131 less than was returned
last year ; but this is manifestly incorrect, as there has been no such
diminution of this class of schools. On the contray there is reason
to believe that they have increased, and that there are a greater
number in operation now than at any previous date. It is certain,
however, that oucside of cities and villages but few such schools
can be established under our present district system, and unless we
can secure a change of organization the greater portion of our peo
pie must be denied the advantages which such schools furnish.

VI — TBAOHBRS AND TIACHBRS' WAGBS.

The number of teachers required in all the schools 5,267, and the
number actually employed for some portion of the year is 8,566. This
difference between the number required and the number actuaUy em-
ployed is partly accounted for by the fact that in a large number of
districts female teachers are employed in the summer, and male tea-
chers in the winter, and partly by the almost universal custom of
changing teachers every term without re^^d to the sez of the per-
son engaged. The disadvantages of this plan of changing teachers
are so evident that all acknowledge them, yet there is little prospect
that under our present system, a different practice will ever prevail.
A change of system is the only sure remedy for this wide spread
evil.

The average wages of male teachers is $42,97, a gain of 92,21
from last year ; and of female teachers $27,18, a gain of 84 cents.



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The following table shows (1) the monthly wages of male
teachers, (2) the monthly wages of female teaohers, and (3) the
ratio of the wages of female to the wages of male teachers, for the
past twenty years.



Tear.


Male.


Female.


Ratio
per cent.


1849


$15 22
17 14

17 15
15 88

18 17
18 75
28 10

25 88
24 60

27 02
22 98
24 20

28 01

26 82

27 11
82 89
86 46
88 68
40 76
42 97


$6 92
8 97
8 86

8 64

9 94

11 00

12 08

18 80
16 16
14 92
14 29
16 80
14 62
16 82
16 81

19 48
22 24
24 06

26 84

27 18


45


I860


62


1851


48


1862


64


1868


60


1864


60


1866


62


1866


64


1867


62


1858


66


1869


68


I860


68


1861


68


18C2


61


1868


62


1864


60


1 866


61


1866


62


1867


64


1868


68







While the average of wages increases but slowly, the demand for
thoroughly qualified teachers is so great that good salaries are paid
to principals of the best high and graded schools, and the induce-
ments presented to teachers to fit themselves for the proper per-
formance of their duties, ought in time to secure a full supply of
competent instructors. A salary of fifteen hundred dollars is now
quite common ; many small villages pay their principal teacher from
eight to twelve hundred, and in the best country districts from
forty to sixty dollars a month is received.

The standard of qualifications is raised year by year, and teachers'
wages keep pace, in a good degree, with their attainments. Arrange
matters so that they shall have permanent employment, and in the
value of the service rendered, our teachers will justify all the out-
lay made in their behalf.



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9

The number of teaohers' certificates granted during the past year
is shown by the following statement :

iBtGr. 2dGr. 8d Gr. Total.

Certificates of male teachers 66 109 1 ,478 1 , 668

Certificates of female teachers 19 166 4, 861 4, 646

Total 86 274 6.889 6,198



Tn. — BOHOOL HOnSBS.

The whole number of school houses reported is 4,646. This
leaves eighty-two districts without houses. Some of them main-
tained school in rented houses, so that there are not, probably, more
than fifty or sixty districts in which school has not been kept.
More than ten per cent, of the houses are built of stone or brick,
the number being 487 ; an increase of thirty-six from last year.
It is very gratifying to learn that there are 3,037 outhouses in good
condition. Several fine buildings have been erected or completed
during the past year. Oshkosh takes the lead with a high school
building, which, with the grounds, is valued at 965,000. It is a
fine specimen of architecture, an ornament to the city and a credit
to the enterprise and intelligence of its citizens.

Berlin comes next with a house costing (25,000, followed by Elk-
horn with one at (20,000 ; Shullsburg one at (20.000 ; Lake Mills
one at (15.000 ; Oreen Bay one at (12,000 ; Appleton one at
(11,000 and Neoedah one at (8,000. Menomonie, Dunn Oounty,
has a house nearly finished which will cost (15,000, and several
other places have erected or are erecting substantial, commodious
and tasteful structures. The high-school building at Fond du Lac,
valued last year at (34,000, was burned last winter, but the peo-
ple of that flourishing city will not long remain without a first class
house. Below are given the cities and villages having houses val-
ued at (10,000 or more.

Oshkosh $66,000

Jaoesville 46 ,000

Milwaukee 86, 000

Kenosha 28,000

Berlin 26,000

Geneva 20,000

Madison 20 ,000

Shnllsbarg 20,000

Watertown 17,000



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Elkfaorn - 16,200

Delavan 16,200

Lake Mills 15,000

Fort Atkinson 14,000

Sheboygan 14,000

LaOrosee 13,000

Beloit 12,000

Green Bay 12,000

Appleton 11,000

Platteville 11,000

ChippewB FaUs 10,000

Waukesha 10,000

Waupaca 10,000

The total valuation of all the school-hoaiieB in the state is

$2,673,393.99. The valne of sites is $358,166.62, making an in-
vestment of nearly three millions of dollars.



YII — BKOKIPTS Airn AXPlirniTUBlS.

The receipts and expenditures on account of public schools for

the past year, as reported by the county superintendents, are as fol-

lowi :

Receipts.

« Money on hand Augusi Slst, 1867 $294,688 08

From taxes levied for building and repairing 405 ,774 71

From taxes levied for teachers* wages 806, 826 38

From taxes levied for apparatus and libraries 17,483 72

From taxes levied at annual town meetings 112, 823 64

From taxes levied by county supervisors 188 , 052 48

From income of state school fund 165 ,418 61

From all other morces 825 ,594 78

Total receipts 12, 226. 560 85

EapendUmres.

For building and repairing |45?.,419 08

For apparatus 9 , ;>89 , 66

For teachers' wages 1,023,052,66

For old indebtedness 78,948 76

For furniture, registers and records 68 , 897 7S

For all other purposes. 159 , 232 61

ToUl expenditures $1,791,940 62

Money on band August 81st, 1868 484,619 88

$2,226,560 85



The financial statistics in tables 5 and 6 of the appendix
differ in some respects from the figures here given. The total re-
ceipts are there stated to be ^2, 286,288, 82 ; the total expendi-



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11

tures $1,774,478.84 ; and the amonnt on hand Augast Slat, 1868,
as 9863,276.48 ; bnt these figures are manifestly incorrect, as the
totals onght to eqnal the sum of the items, and the money on hand
the difference between receipts and expenditures.

The amount expended for all purposes equals (4.64 for each per-
son reported as between four and twenty years of age, and $7|19
for each pupil registered as having attended school. The amount
expended for tuition, for each pupil registered, is $4.18.

For convenience of reference a tabular summary of the gen-
eral statistics is here presented, and for the purpose of comparison,
the returns for 1867 are given in connection with those for the past
year.

SUMMABT 07 GINIBAL STATISTICS.*

1867. 1868.

Wholfi number of districts in the State 8, 770 8, 881

Number of districts reported 8,694 8,807

Whole number of parts of districts 1 ,896 1 ,907

Number of parts of districts reported 1 , 826 1 , 866

Number of children over four And under twenty

years of age in the State 371,088 886,680

Number of children over four and under twenty
years of age in districts maintaining school
five or more months 861,759 874,749

Number over four and under twenty years of age

who hftve attended school 283,676 246,106

Total number of different pupils who have attended

the public schools during the year 239 , 946 249 , 007

Average number of days school was maintained .. 137 141^

Number of dnys attendance of pupils over four

and under twenty years of age 17,171,187 18,681,906

Total number of days attendance of different pu-
pils during the year 17,276,686 18,602,188

Number of days schools have been taught by qual-
ified teachers 692,226 746,816

Number of pupils who have attended private

gchools 18,408 14,679

Number of schools with two departments 264 181

Number of schools with three or more departments. 108 9S

Number of teachers required to teach the schools . . 6 , 069 6 , 267
Number of different persons employed as teachers

daring the vear 8,867 8,666

Average wages of male teachers $40 76 $42 97

Average wages of female teachers $26 84 $27 18

Number of schools visited by the County Super-
intendent 4,228 4,177

♦ A report from Ashland County was received too late to be incorporated,
which adds 101 to the whole number of chijdren over four and under twenty
years of age.



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Number of public schooI-houfleB in the State 4,666 4,646

Number of pupils the school-houses will accom-
modate 269,284 271,009

Number of sites containing less than one acre. . . . 8, 621 8 ,616

Number of sites well inclosed 908 984

Number- of school-houses built of stone or brick. . 461 487
Number of school-houses with out-houses in good

condition 1,867 8,087

Highest valuation of school-houses and site |60 000 66,000 00

Total valuation of school-houses 2,140,857 98 2678,893 99

Total valuation of sites 883,677 62 868,166 62

Total value of apparatus 84,482 85 97,812 88

Whole sum expended for building and repairing

school houses.. 349,693 66 452,419 08

Whole sum expended for apparatus 6,116 97 9,889 66

Whole sum expended for teachers' wages 923,689 28 1023,052 66

Whole sum expended for old indebtedness 68,640 48 78,948 76

Whole sum expended for furniture, registers and

records 22,127 66 68,897 76

Whole sum expended for all other purposes 166,348 82 169,232 61

Total amount expended 1620,411 76 1791,940 62

Amount expended for each person of school age. 4 09 4 64

Amount expended for each pupil registered 6 84 7 19



IZ. - SCHOOL FUND INOOHl.

The amouDt apportioned , the past year is, ( 173, 644 32. The
ratio of apportionment was 48 cents per scholar.

A detailed statement, by counties and towns, will be found in
table No. I. of the Appendix,

The apportionments from 1850 to 1868, inoludve, are as follows :



Years .



No. of Children. Apportionment.



I860,.
1861,.
1862, .
1868,.
1864,.
1866, .
1866,.
1867,.
1868, .
1869,.
I860,.
1861 , .
1862, .
1868,.
1864,.
1866, .
1866,.
1867,.
1868,.



92,647
111,481
124,788
188,279
466,126
186,960
218,886
241,646
264,977
278,871
288,984
299,782
808,666
820,966
829,906
839 ,024
864,517
871,088
861,769



8 8-10 cents per scholar.

60 do

48 do

46 do

72 do

80 6-10.... do

70 do

66 do

76 do

64 do

64 do

82 do

60 do

44 do

47 do

46 do

46 do

47 do

48 do



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18

The apportionment for each year is made upon the returns for
the preceding year. The law requires that local officers apportion
to those distiicts only which have maintained school for five months ;
consequently an apportionment by the State Superintendent for the
whole number of children returned from a town, in case one or
more districts have not maintained a five months' school, gives to
the other districts a greater amount than they are entitled to on the
ratio per scholar. To correct this discrepency the town clerks were
directed to report, in addition to the whole number of ehildren, the
number in the districts maintaining school five or more months.
This has been done for two or three years past, but the returns
were so imperfect that they could not be acted on until the last ap-
portionment, when the sum of $173,644,32 was distributed to
361,769 children only, though the whole number reported for 1867
was 371,083. The apportionments will hereafter be made on the
same basis, so that the amounts apportioned to towns by the State
Superintendent will be the exact sums to which the districts therein,
that have maintained five months' school, are entitled.

Z. — KDUOATIONAL VUNBS.

By the courtesy of Gen, Allen, Secretary of State, I am permit-
ted to copy from his annual report for 1868, the following exhibit
of the condition of our educational trust funds :

SCHOOL FUND.

The school fund is composed of :

1. Proceeds of lands granted by the United States for support of schools.

2. All moneys at^cruing for forfeiture or escheat and trespass penalties on
school land.

8. All fines collected in the several counties for breach of t^e penal laws.
4. All moneys paid as an exemption from military duty, and
6, Five per cent of sale of government lands.

The amount of the productive School Fund on the 30th day of

September 1867 and 1868, was as follows :

1867 1868

Amount due on certificates of pales $535 ,015 66 |620, 557 62

Amount due on mortgages 166,892 04 150,229 81

GeHificates of indebtedness 1,894,900 00 1,584,700 00

Total productive fund $2,096,807 60 $2,206, 486 83



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14

Skowbg an increase of the prodootive fdnd of (109, 179.28,
during the past year.



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