From the collection of the
San Francisco, California
EXCAVATIONS AT THE LAMB-5 SITE J
A CALL FOR FOUNDERS OF CENTRAL STATES Q?
ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, Nancy Oestreich Lurie
THE BACKLUND MOUND GROUP 34
David S. Brose
THE BOOKSHELF 52
INTERESTING WISCONSIN SPECIMENS
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
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THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN - MARCH, 1968
Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society
EXCAVATIONS AT THE LAMB-5 SITE
Saint Croix County, Wisconsin
State Historical Society of Wisconsin
The site of the Eau Galle Reservoir dam lies in Pierce
County, Wisconsin, approximately one-fourth mile north of
the town of Spring Valley. The reservoir pool, at maximum
elevation, will cover the downstream portions of several trib-
utaries of the Eau Galle River in Pierce and St. Croix Coun-
ties. These tributaries are Lohn Creek and Lousy Creek
flowing in from the east, and French Creek which joins the
Eau Galle from the west (Fig. 1). Because of the hilly topo-
graphy of the vicinity, the reservoir pool will be narrow rela-
tive to its depth, and will have a lengthy shoreline relative to
its surface area.
Archaeological work done within the maximum pool area
of the Eau Galle Reservoir was performed under the aegis of
the State Historical Society of Wisconsin and was funded by
the United States Department of Interior, National Park
The initial archaeological reconnaissance of the reservoir
was undertaken in 1962 with Mr. A. Dewey Buck heading
the field party. Fifteen site locations were recorded that year.
In 1964, exploration of the reservoir was continued under
NFS contract No. H-l 0-0529-2747, with Mr. Hank Kerr as
field supervisor. During that season, ten additional sites were
located, two partially excavated and three tested.
In 1966, NFS contract No. 14-10-0529-2874 was awarded
the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for intensive exca-
vation of selected sites within the reservoir. Of the sites re-
MAXIMUM fOOL ELEVATION
EAU QALLE RESERVOIR
corded for the area, the only site available for excavation,
which seemed promising, was the Lamb-5 site (47-Sc-25).
This site had been partially excavated by Kerr in 1964, and
his results indicated that it would be a productive site for this
region. All the other seemingly good sites in the area were
still under cultivation which precluded their being excavated.
The crew was under the joint direction of Dr. Joan E. Free-
man and Mr. Jay Brandon, both of the State Historical
The material recovered from the Lamb-5 site by Kerr in
1964 is included in this summary report, and I have drawn
heavily from the unpublished report (1965) of his work in
the reservoir. In addition to Mr. Kerr, I wish to thank Dr.
Joan Freeman, Mr. Manfred E. W. Jaehnig, and Mr. Ronald
Lofman, for their valuable assistance in preparing the photo-
graphs, drawings, and maps included herein.
The Lamb-5 site (47-Sc-25) is situated on the first and
second major terraces of the Eau Galle River where it flows
eastward through St. Croix County, Wisconsin (Fig. 2).
Reconnaissance of the second terrace, a cultivated field, pro-
duced the first evidence of a site. Several projectile points,
knife fragments, and numerous flakes were found here, but
tests revealed that this area (Grid "B") had been totally dis-
turbed by cultivation, so no further work was undertaken.
Numerous large trees growing on the first terrace sug-
gested that the land had never been plowed, and tests indic-
ated an undisturbed site. The area was designated as Grid
"A" (Fig. 3).
At the western end of the site the land rises abruptly to a
height of more than one hundred and fifty feet. To the east
(downstream) there is a gradual lowering of the land sur-
face through a succession of small, irregular terraces, to a
fairly wide, flat, flood plain. Land across the river to the
North of the site, consists of a single terrace, eight feet above
the river, lying on the same plane as Lamb-5 (Fig. 4). On
this terrace are located two sites, Strum-1 and 2 (47-Sc-14
and 15). Both sites were under cultivation at the time Lamb-
5 was excavated.
A grid system employing North-South and left-right direc-
tional coordinates was established, and each of the resulting
5' x 5* excavation units was identified by the grid point mak-
ing its southeast corner. Each square was excavated in ar-
bitrary 0.5 foot levels.
At the conclusion of two field seasons, totaling 7 weeks, 106
squares had been excavated with depths ranging from 1 .0'
Stratigraphy at the site was consistent throughout. The hu-
mus zone below the grassy surface was of nearly uniform
thickness varying from 0.3 to 0.5 feet. In color, it ranged
from black to dark brov/n, and could best be described as
loamy sand. Below this band the sand was similar in texture
FIGURE 3: View of the Lamb-5 Site looking East.
Vol. 49, No. 1
but of a lighter, gray-brown color end was of less uniform
thickness, generally measuring from 0.7 feet to 0.9 feet with
extremes of 0.5 feet to 1.1 feet.
Along the lower margins of the second zone the soil became
darker in color, although its texture did not appear to change.
This area of darker loamy sand generally ranged from 0.8
feet to 1.0 feet in thickness with extremes of 0.3 feet to 1.7
feet, and contained most of the artifacts received from the
Below this zone, a yellow-tan loamy sand was encountered.
Over most of the site this layer was traversed by numerous
irregular, super-imposed bands of dark brown sand of finer
particle size than the enclosing soil. These denser bands stood
out clearly against the light background. Average thickness
FIGURE 4: View of site lying across the Eau Galle
River from Lamb-5.
- <M 10
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 49, No. 1
was about 1.3 feet with extremes of 0.8 feet and 1.9 feet. In
some squares (e. g. Sl-Rl) this zone was found to overlie a
gravel lense contained within a tan soil of almost clay-loam
fineness. Gravel and cobble beds were encountered at var-
ious points over the site. The upper limits of gravel were 1.2
feet below surface at the shallowest point, dropping off to 4.2
feet (at the deepest). In the eastern portion of the site, where
no gravel was present below the zone of banding, a tan loam
(of clay- and sand-sized particles) was present. This zone
had no distinct boundary between it and the one above; there
was only a gradual but discernable change in soil texture. At
the western end of the site, the dark brown loamy stand was
underlain by distinct layers of gray and red loamy clay
Side-notched (Fig. 6, a-c):
Three side-notched specimens were recovered from the
site, two of which were excavated. The third was found on
One member of the group (from Sq. 0. 0, level 4) is fairly
well made, although it is somewhat irregular in outline and
notch placement. The base is straight and shows thinning.
There is slight grinding along the whole basal edge and along
the length of one of the tang "ears." The notches, rather than
being of strict "U" form, are so shaped that they produce a
rapidly expanding stem. Blade edges are convex and of un-
equal length. The specimen is retouched over most of both
facial surfaces, and the blade edges show fine pressure re-
touching which has produced shallow and irregular serra-
tions. Its measurements are: length 50.0 mm, width 32.5 mm,
stem length 14.0 mm, stem width 24.5 mm, base width 31.5
mm, thickness 10.0 mm (Fig. 6, a).
This point fits well into the side-notched tradition in Wis-
consin, and is closely similar to the Raddatz (Wittry, 1959a:
^4-45) and Madison (Baerreis, 1953:154) side-notched types
which have been attributed to the Archaic and Early Wood-
land stages of Wisconsin.
The other excavated specimen (from Sq. S1-R2, level 5)
FIGURE 6: Projectile points from Lamb-5. a-c, side notched;
d-i, expanding stem; j-m, corner notched; n and o, triangular;
p and q, straight stem; r, flared base.
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 49, No. 1
is quite crude. Only on one side is the notch distinct and is
of the form mentioned above. The general rudeness of man-
ufacture makes it difficult to classify this point, but it appears
to relate to the Raddatz and Madison side-notched types. Its
measurements are: length 32 mm, width 29.0 mm, stem length
11.5 mm, stem width 23.5 mm, base width 29.0 mm, thick-
ness 10.0 mm (Fig. 6, b).
The third side-notched point recovered was found on the
around surface. It is carefully made with fine retouching
along all edgec. The notches are of "U" shape, small and
shallow. The base and blade edges are straight, producing a
triangular outline for the point. In formal characteristics the
specimen also appears to coincide with the Raddatz and Mad-
ison types. Its dimensions, however, are below the ranges
reported for those types: length 27.5 mm, width 23.0 mm.,
stem length 10.0 mm, stem width 18.0 mm, base width 23.0
mm, thickness 6.5 mm (Fig. 6, c).
Expanding stem (Fig. 6, d-i):
All the specimens of this group were excavated in 1965, and
were found in a restricted area of the site (ranks Left-23 and
These points were produced from slender blanks, from
\vhich the corners were removed to form either rounded or
angular shoulders and slightly expanded stems. The point of
juncture of the stem edges with that of the base is distinct.
The bases range from slightly to distinctly convex. The point
of greatest width lies across the blade, slightly above the
shoulders. Blade edges are convex.
Of the three complete specimens, one appears to be the re-
worked lower section of a larger point. This is suggested by
its relative thickness and the steep flaking of the blade edges
which produces alternate beveling.
Workmanship is good and the basal and lateral edges were
retouched with pressure flaking, except in one case (from Sq.
S1-L23, level 2: Fig. 6, e) where the basal edge is an unmod-
ified striking platform.
The specimens recovered from Lamb-5 bear strong simil-
arities to the Durst Stemmed type which has been described
for Wisconsin (Wittry, 1959b:179) in all respects except size
Lambo Site 1 1
with the former being larger. Personal inspection of the Durst
Stemmed collection from the type site (47-Sk2) suggests that
incomplete specimens of size comparable to the Lamb-5 speci-
mens have been included in the type collection. These are
greatly in the minority and are only represented by basal
fragments. It appears safe, however, to assume that both the
expanding stem points from Lamb-5 and the Durst Stemmed
points found in other sites belong to the siame tradition of
manufacture, and probably occupy the same time span, i. e.
Late Archaic - Early Woodland.
Corner notched (Fig. 6, j-m):
Four specimens of this variety were recoverede from the ex-
cavations. These were produced by striking "U"-shaped
notches so placed on ovate-accuminate blanks that distinct
barbs have resulted. All the examples are rather thick in pro-
portion to their size but are of fairly good workmanship. All
show pressure retouching along blade and basal edges. In
the two complete specimens stem length is short in comparison
to overall length and base width is less than shoulder width.
Base form is convex. It is interesting to note that one of these
specimens ( 1 ) is made of red chert similar to that described
by Cooper (1933:69) as occurring above the catlinite beds
in Barron and Rusk Counties. Points of this material were
also found at the Durst Rockshelter in Sauk County (\Vittry,
In some characteristics these corner notched points resem-
ble certain Durst Rockshelter specimens which have been
classified as Monona Stemmed (Wittry, 1959b: 180). How-
ever, neither the formal nor metrical characteristics of the
Lamb-5 points correspond sufficiently to either \Vittry's
(ibid), nor Baerreis' (1953:10) descriptions of Monona
Stemmed to allow their inclusion in this type.
Triangular Points (Fig. 6, n-o):
Two points of this variety were found at the site. One
(Fig. 6, 1) was a surface find, and the other (Fig. 6, m) was
encountered in the upper half of level 1 in square N3-L25 in
association with the two rim fragments from a miniature
pottery vessel (discussed later). The excavated point meas-
ure 40 mm by 23 mm. The other specimen, made of quartz,
12 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 49, No. 1
measures 22.1 mm in length. It is impossible to ascertain its
width since one basal corner is broken away.
Flared base point (Fig. 6, r):
One point cf crude manufacure which may be described as
having a "flared" base was recovered from square S2-R],
level 3. The specimen has straight to slightly convex blade
edges and distinct, angular shoulders. The point was pro-
duced by removal of long, shallow, notches from the side of
the blank, and the resultant stem flares sharply to form the
base. In this czse the base is the unaltered striking platform
of the parent flake. On the face of the base and stem a few
flakes were removed in an apparently haphazard attempt at
basal thinning. The general rudeness of this item, its thick
stem and base, and its assymetry suggest that it may have
been rejected during manufacture. Its dimensions are: length
r-8.5 mm, width 22.5 mm. stem length 15.0 mm, stem width
'2.9 mm base width 18.0 mm, maximum thickness, 9.5 mm,
thickness of base 6.0 mm.
Straight stemmed points (Fig. 6, p-q):
Both specimens are represented by proximal fragments.
They are of apparently different types, but are not otherwise
classifiable. One of the two, made of Hixton quartzite, was
found on the surface (Fig. 6, p) and has a relatively longer
Projectile Point Measurements (in ran. )
Catalog Length Width Stem Stem Base Thickness
Number Length Width Width
N3R4-31 - 24.0 11.0 12.5 - 8.1
N4R10-3-1 34.2 22.5 8.5 12.4 16.0 7.2
N2R9-3-1 34.0 24.5 10.0 12.1 14.9 7.5
N4R1-4-1 - 19.9 9 3 10.0 12.0 7.0
Lamb-5 Site 13
stem, a convex base, and distinct basal and lateral stem
grinding. The other specimen (Fig. 6, q) was excavated from
level 2 of square O-R9. It appears to have been rather mas-
sive in proportion to its stem length, and is lightly ground
along the basal and lateral stem edges. The surface find
measures 16.5 mm in stem length, 15.5 mm in stem-base
width, and 24 mm in shoulder width. The excavated fragment
measures 14.0 mm in stem length and 19.9 mm in stem and
Worked flakes (Fig. 7, a-h):
A total of sixty implements fashioned from flakes were re-
covered from the site. In all cases there were produced by
dressing one or more edges of flakes of various sizes by fine
percussion chipping or pressure flaking. Often, the tool edge
shows a small area which has been flaked with the remain-
ing length of the edge exhibiting use spalling. It seems likely
that in these instances flaking was used to straighten or
slightly round the flake edge so that it might more conveni-
ently serve as an implement. There are no instances of bi-
facial edge preparation. Most specimens show varying de-
grees of use polish and dulling.
Three distinct implement classes comprise the sixty speci-
mens of worked flakes. The greater number (52) are simple
cutting or scraping tools. In the majority of cases the work-
ing edge is straight or nearly straight. In others it is rounded
or sinuous. Five of the group appear to be specialized tools
(Fig. 7, a-e) which might be described as concave scrapers
or "spoke-shaves." All of these objects share the common
feature of having a small area (6 mm to 8 mm) cut into the
edge of the flake by pressure flaking. In each case these con-
cavities show use spalling characteristically produced by
scraping action. From their shape it appears reasonable to
assume that these implements were used to shave and shape
shafts of wood or bone. All the members of this implement
class are made from flakes struck, apparently, from the same
core of jasper, and all were found in level one of squares
N4-L24, N4-L21, and N2-L20.
Numerous waste flakes of the same material were also
found in these and adjacent squares suggesting a short-lived,
14 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 49, No. 1
FIGURE 7: Examples of flake implements, a-e, spoke-shaves;
f-h, serrated implements.
Lamb-5 Site 15
one-man implement manufactory. The only artifacts recov-
ered which are made of this distinctive stone are the flake
tools described above. These items, easily produced from the
detritus of tool making, were probably considered expendable
and were discarded after the immediate need for them had
been fulfilled. One other representative of this tool class was
found on the surface. In this specimen the spoke-shave edge
has been made on a pointed bifacially flaked knife tip. Here
the concavity was produced by percussion chipping (Fig. 8,
The third of the groups comprising the worked flakes from
the Lamb-5 site consists of three small, serrated instruments
of distinctive "butcher knife" shape. In each specimen one
blade edge is straight or nearly straight while the other is
convex. Both are serrated except in the case of Fig. 7, f. in
which the serrations of the convex edge have been broken
off. The three items have lengths and widths of 28.8 mm x
H mm. (Fig. 7, g), 21 mm x 10 mm (Fig. 7, h) and 16 mm
x 10 mm (Fig. 7, f). In each a rude hafting base is present.
in two cases (f, h) the stem and base are produced by hap-
hazard, bilateral notch chipping. In one (g), a notch appears
to have been produced incidentally while the opposite notch
has been produced by chipping. The use of these implements
is uncertain, but their characteristics suggest a hafted, lancet-
like, cutting and sawing tool, perhaps useful in cutting through
tough animal fibers such as nerves, tendons, and heavy con-
nective tissue. All were recovered from squares N2-L2-1 and
N3-L24 in levels 2 and 3.
Good descriptions of a similar assemblage of flake tools ; s
presented by Nero (1948:23).
Ovate-accuminate (Fig. 8, a-g):
Five complete and two broken specimens have been as-
signed to this category. All the knives of this group have
been produced by bifacial percussion flaking and there is
secondary, finer chipping along the edges of each one. In
cross-section there is a strong tendency toward piano-con-
vexity. The complete specimens range from 51.0 mm to 70.0
mm in length, with the average being 58.5 mm. All were
16 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 49, No. 1
measured for width and their range is 24.0 mm to 27.9 mm
with an average of 25.4 mm.
Two members of this group (Fig. 8, a) appear to have been
somewhat more specialized tools. One, (a), has a well devel-
oped, longitudinal, keel ridge on one face while the other
face is flat. These operate to produce a triangular cross-
section. At the base the keel ridge terminated in a definite,
although blunted, graver tip. At its other extremity the keel
ridge ends in the knife tip. Both the graver point and the tip
of the artifact show use scaring, blunting, and polish that
suggest their function as burin-like tools. The lateral edges
appear to have served as a knife. The slight concavity to
the left of the graver tip (as pictured), appears to have been
employed as a spoke-shave. The graver tip was thinned by
the unifacial removal of small, narrow spalls, aligned with
artifacts' long axis. The knife tip, designated ( 1 ) in Fig.
8, has a spoke-shave concavity cut into one edge (s. v.
Ovoid (Fig. 8, j-k):
Two specimens so classified were recovered, one complete
and the other broken. Both were made by coarse, bifacial,
percussion chipping which has produced sinuous edges. The
complete knife measures 106.5 mm x 63.0 mm; the broken
one, made of Hixton quartzite, has a width of 50.0 mm.
Triangular (Fig. 8, h-i):
While they are not of strictly triangular shape, these speci-
mens have been so designated as a matter of convenience.
Both were produced through bifacial percussion chipping,
but they are of more delicate workmanship than the knives
previously described. Both bases have been thinned to a
small degree with percussion and the edges show small
amounts of secondary fine chipping and pressure flaking. The
larger of the two measures 45 mm x 36 mm; the smaller, 36
mm x 29 mm.
Irregular knives (Fig. 9, a~e):
This group of artifacts have been classed with knives be-
cause their appearance suggests that they were probably em-
ployed as cutting or chopping tools. Four of the five speci-
mens are made of poor quality chert. Only in (a) is there
unifacial chipping; the others all show varying degrees of
FIGURE 8: Knives, a-g, ovate accumulate; h-i, triangular: j
and k, ovoid; a knife with graver tip; 1, knife with spoke-shave.
18 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST
Vol. 49, No. 1
bifacial chipping. On (a), (b), and (e), a portion of the
stone cortex remains on both faces of each. All these speci-
mens were produced from random fragments of stone of con-
venient size and shape. Only (d) shows much attention to-
ward shaping, and in this case the artifact was rounded, ex-
cept along one edge which is unaltered and remains almost
Scrapers (Fig. 10, b-d):
Three artifacts of this class were recovered from the site.
Of the three, two are triangular in outline while the other is
d , lcn ?
FIGURE 9: Irregular knives.
Lamb-5 Site 19
approximately trapezoidal in shape. Only one of this group
(Fig. 10, c) is worked on more than one edge. In this case
the specimen was shaped by fine chipping around its peri-
phery and all three edges appear to have been used for
The other two items were produced from flakes of conven-
ient size and shape. In both cases the thickest edge of the
flake is steeply beveled by chipping to produce the working
edge. None are modified in their ventral surfaces, but one
v Fig. 10, d) shows chipping over its dorsal face. It seems
likely that the parent flake for this artifact was derived from
a discarded artifact.
Incidental scrapers (Fig. 10, e-j):
Six of the eleven remaining scraping implements have been
pictured. All members of this group are irregular in shape
and represent the utilization of spent cores (e and i), large,