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that (4) The great variety of Graces
before and after meals is here very much
cut down and simplified. (5) A very brief
Catechism is here added (with the elements
of the Christian religion) which had no place
in the earlier book. At the same time, it
must be noticed that this edition occupies
a middle place between the earlier and later
books, the catechisms being singularly colour-

less, avoiding any strong expression of re-
formed doctrine, thus pointing without fail to
the very commencement of King Edward's
reign, when the authorities were feeling their
way, and were unwilling to give offence to
either party. The printer, William Powell,
commenced business early in 1547, at the
beginning of King Edward's reign, and went
on into Queen Elizabeth's reign. The prayer
is sometimes for the King, and sometimes
for the King, the Queen, and the Church.
This can only point to a time when King
Edward was on the throne, and the Queen
Dowager (Catherine Parr) was still living.
The date of this edition must therefore be
1547 or ^^ beginning of 1548; and, from
all considerations, it was most probably
issued early in 1547.

III. London, Printed by John Day, with-
out date, but between March and July 1553.

The next edition of which we have a copy
is the one printed in London by John Day
under the authority of King Edward's Letters
Patent dated March 25, 1553. Of this
edition the only known copy is preserved
in the library of Saint Cuthbert's College,
Ushaw ; but of this copy unfortunately only
half (leaves i, 4, 5, 8) has come down to us.
Still enough remains to illustrate the points
insisted on above — namely, the general idea
of the book, and its modification by public
authority. The Reformed doctrines had
made great progress between the beginning
and the end of King Edward's reign. These
changes had found their way into the Prayer-
Book published in 1552 ; and the effect of
the change is seen in comparing Powell's
and Day's editions of the ABC The Lord's
Prayer and the Creed correspond to the text
in the Prayer-Book. The Ave Maria has
disappeared altogether. The Commandments
are exactly as in the Communion Service in
the Prayer-Book, the petitions (Lord, have
mercy upon us, etc) being given after each.
The Graces at meals are altogether altered.
The old Catholic type of Grace has entirely
disappeared, and a modern invention of the
time supplies its place. Of the missing leaves,
the contents of 2 and 3 are easily determined ;
and as for leaves 6 and 7, I have little doubt
that after the Graces, which would end with
the first few lines of leaf 6, there followed a

Digitized by


The ABC.


very short catechism, such as in PowelFs
edition, which was followed in its turn by
the very brief Graces with which Powell's
edition and this of Day's both conclude.
I'he types used in the book, and its general
appearance, correspond exactly to those of
the Catechism printed at the same time by
Day, and which has the date 1553 and the
King's Letters Patent printed at the begin-
ning. A copy of the Catechism is in the
University Library, Cambridge.

IV. Dublifiy Printed for the Stationer^
Company y 1631. 8vo.

The latest edition known is an Irish
version of the book made under the care
of William Bedell, Bishop of Kilmore, and
printed in Dublin in 1631. Two copies of
this are preserved, one in the British Museum,
and one among Abp. Bancroft's books at
Emmanuel College, Cambridge. I merely
mention this to show that the book pre-
served its identity through a hundred years,
and continued to be published by authority.*
In fact, the whole history of the Irish verna-
cular press illustrates and confirms this view
in a remarkable manner. The first book
published in Ireland in the Irish language
was the Alphabet, with the Church Catechism
and Articles, in 1571. The next was the
New Testament, in 1602. The third was the
Prayer-Book, in 1608. The fourth was the
ABC, in 1 63 1, followed by a second edition,
of which no trace now remains, but which
must have been printed before 1641. The
only other Irish book known at all to have
issued from this press is a modified reprint
of this very ABC with the addition of Per-
kins's Six Principles of Christian Doctrine,
which came out under the Commonwealth in
1652. So that, whichever way we turn, we
find ^^ AB C taking its place as a book of
elementary religious instruction, by the side

• Mr. Bradshaw adds : "Within a few weeks after
my reading the above commnnication to the Society,
I received from Dr. Reeves, the Dean of Armagh, a
copy of the yf -5 C with the Assembly's Shorter Cate-
chism, printed at Glasgow in 1852. So that where I
have said that it retained its character for a himdred
years, I might with topaX justice have said three
hundred. The details in this recent edition are of
course in harmony with the doctrine of the Established
Church of Scotland ; but the old lines are all followed,
the skeleton is the same, and the A BCo{ 1852 is the
lineal descendant of the book issued in the reign of
Henry the Eighth.**

of the Bible and Prayer-Books and other
Church books issued by authority.


I. London^ Printed by Richard Lant,
Herbert, in his edition of Ame«-, p. 590, men-
tions this edition thus : " The ABC with the
Pater-noster, Aue^ Crede^ and Ten Commaunde-
menttes in Englysshe^ newly translated and set
forth at the Kynges most gracyous commaunde-
ment. It begins with five different Alphabets,
and Gloria Patri ; then the Pater-noster, &c. ;
Grace before meat, and after.*' What he
says of its being printed only on one side of
the paper merely implies that what he saw
was a proof-sheet, probably used for binder's
waste; but he does not tell us to whom it
belonged. We know of Lant's printing firom
1542 to 1562 — that is, from some time before
the death of King Henry VIH. to some time
after the accession of Queen Elizabeth.
From the words newly translated on the title,
and from the existence of the Ave Maria in
the text, I should be inclined to place this
edition of the ABC between Petit's and
Powell's editions. Herbert adds the words
"Licenced by the Company"; but as the
Stationers' Company was not incorporated
till Queen Mary's reign, and this cannot
have been printed in her reign, the Licence
must refer to an edition put forth at the
beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, of
which unfortunately not the slightest trace
otherwise has come down to us.

IL London^ Printed by Richard Jones^


Herbert, in his edition of Ames, p. 1046,
has this entry among books printed by Richard
Jones, under the year 1588: ''The ABC
for children^ newly deuised with syllables^ the
Lordes praier, our Belief and the ten Com-
mandements,^^ In a foot-note he adds : "This
was allowed him again in 1590, on this
proviso, that there shalbe no additions made to
the same hereafter. But it was cancelled by
order of a Court holden 15 May, 1605."
Here we find the ABC retaining its identity
as in all the other cases, and also allusions to
the insertion of unauthorised additions, show-
ing that the book even in 1590 retained its
character of an authorised school-book."

Digitized by



Foreign Protestant Liturgies.



|EARS ago the writer was presented
by a valued friend, now no more,
with a curious little French duo-
decimo, in red morocco binding,
suggestive, by the subtle law of association,
of the churches of two or three generations
ago, with their ceilings, galleries, and square
pews, for similarly bound were the Bibles
and Prayer-books then in use among us.
The book was bestowed by the kind donor,
who knew our love for antiquities, under
the belief that it was some rare Roman
Catholic work; but a slight examination
proved it to be a French Protestant manual,
with metrical psalms at the commencement,
and further on, catechisms, forms of prayer,
etc., etc. : in fact, it was a liturgical work of
the same description as the Swedish book
mentioned in a late number, evidently of
some antiquity, the orthography being old-
fashioned, z supplying the place of s in
some words, "Psaume" and "Bapt^me" and
** Pays " being spelt Pseaume and Batinu
and FaiSy and the letter s being usually long, —
but it is impossible to tell its exact date, from
the fact of the book lacking a title-page. This
circumstance, however, while it is vexatious
in baffling our attempts to ascertain in what
year our book was published, yet adds to its
interest in another way, from suggesting the
question, " Did it not, in all probability,
issue from the printer's or bookseller's hands
at a period when it would have been ex-
tremely dangerous for him to have avowed
the fact of having been its printer — at the
time of the Revocation of the Edict of
Nantes, probably ?" This would fix its date
about the year 1683 or 1684. But more
interesting than the mere fact of its antiquity
is the indirect corroborative evidence this
circumstance aflfords of what history and
traditions preserved in many now Anglicized
families relate, — of the cruel persecutions to
which French Protestants were subjected at
the latter end of the seventeenth century. The
atrocities perpetrated in the reign of Charles
the Ninth were indeed worse, the horrors

of the St. Bartholomew massacre being only
the beginning of sorrows to many, as Count
Jules Delaborde's monograph " Madame
L'Amirale De Coligny" so touchingly
shows. The unfortunate widow of Coligny,
we are told in this memoir, which is com-
piled from many authorities of high value,
was, though high-bom, of irreproachable
conduct, and excellent in every relation of
life, thrown into prison shortly after her
husband's assassination, and kept in durance
for seven-and-twenty years, up to the period
of her death — her only child, a daughter,
being taken from her, and she herself sub-
jected to every indignity and privation ; her
enemies, and those who, for the selfish wish
to retain possession of her property, desired
to keep her in prison, accusing her, over and
above the cri?n€ of Protestantism, of being
addicted to magical practices. The story is
doubtless but one of many in that dark age.
Allowed a breathing time after the accession
of Henri Quatre, and persecuted in vain by
Richelieu, the Huguenots received their last
and most crushing, if not more cruel blows,
at the time when, as we see by the strong
probable evidence of the book in our hand,
to be known to have printed or published
a volume of simple prayers and hymns
involved loss of freedom and goods, if not
of life.

Cruel were the persecutions of the Hugue-
nots — "but," the impartial historian would
be disposed to ask — "did they never do
anything to draw it upon themselves ? or was
it the result of pure and simple religious
bigotry ? " Perhaps we must own that in some
cases the Huguenot mixed political faction
with religious fervour, while even from the
evidence of this book itself, we see that they
themselves were occasionally guilty of in-
tolerance and narrowness. In the preface
to the Catechism, at page 443, Confirmation,
a rite held in great reverence by all the
Lutheran churches, as well as by the Church
6f England, is thus slightingly spoken of.

After having alluded to the high antiquity
and ^eat desirableness of instructing chil-
dren m the grounds and doctrines of the
faith, and in public catechisings for the
purpose, the writer goes on to say, ^^Dans
la suitgy le Demon dissipant PEglisey et causant
cette horrible miney dant on voit encore les

Digitized by


Foreign Protestant Liturgies,


marques presque partout le monde^ a detruit
cette sainte Police^ et n*en a laisskqueje ne sais
qtielles traces^ qui ne peuvent que produire de
la Superstition^ et qui ne salt nullement propres
a edifiee, Cest ce qu'on appclle la Confirma-
tion oi^ il n'y a que des pratiques vaines et
ridicules^ destitueis de fondement,^'

But leaving generalizings, let us simply
analyze the book — four-fifths of which are
occupied with psalms and hymns. The
music is also supplied — a peculiarity, we
suppose, of French and Swiss Church hymn-
boioks among other foreign Protestant ones
— at least, it is the case with the " Recueil
de Psaumes et Cantiques k Usage des Eglises
Nationales de Vaud, Neuchatel, et Geneve,"
of which we possess a copy published in
1873. When we stated that one old Hugue-
not Liturgy commenced with the metrical
psalms, we should have said that at the
very beginning come the Ten Command-
ments, the recital of which in the churches
is a constantly recurring rite in French
Protestant worship. Then come, as before
mentioned, the metrical psalms, each having
the first verse set to music We are not
aware whether this version of the Psalms of
David is the one made by Clement Marot,
who was in the service of Marguerite, Queen
of Navarre, and, before his conversion to
the Protestant religion, the writer of some-
what immoral songs and poems. Perhaps
these are a newer version, — to those of
Clement Marot what that of Tate and
Brady's version was to Stemhold and
Hopkins. These are followed by "Cantiques"
(sacred hymns and songs) consisting of the
Commandments, the Te Deum, and the
songs of Simeon and Zacharias, versified,
and hynms, by no means destitute of poetic
merit — as they are fervent, reverential, concise,
and not unmusical These hymns are for
the first day of the year, for Holy Com-
munion, and for the four great festivals of
the Church — ^for the French Protestants, in
common with the Church of England and
with the Lutheran Churches, retain from
the Romish Calendar the most important
seasons in the ecclesiastical year — Christmas,
Easter, Ascension Day, and Pentecost.
There is, as may be iniagined, no allusion
to saints* days, and neither Epiphany nor
Trinity Sunday seems to be observed. But

we fancy the Puritans of England and
America, and the Presbyterians of Scotland,
stood alone among Protestant sects in
abolishing all festivals.

There is one peculiarity of these hymns :
they are all so long that in the middle of
them pauses are introduced ; and in one, that
for the first day of the year, the word
"Pause" occurs twice, "Pause I" coming
in after verse 4, and " Pause II." after verse 9.
The metrical " Te Deum " has three pauses.

After the psalms and hymns comes the
distinctly liturgical portion of the book,
"Formulaire des Pri^res Eccl^iastiques."
As with the English dissenters, the sermon
occupies the largest portion of the ordinary
Sunday service. As with the Church of Eng-
land, the service commences with a text of
Scripture, an exhortation, and a general con-
fession. As may be imagined, there is no
form of absolution, but a somewhat long
prayer, to be read before the sermon, follows
confession of sins. The Lord's Prayer and
a benediction conclude the service, except
on days on which there is an administra-
tion of the Holy Communion. No rubric
determines when the Ten Commandments
are to be read — it is therefore, we suppose,
at the option of the minister — ^but they
usually form, we believe, part of the ordinary
service ; and the present mode of conduct-
ing French Protestant worship is much
the same, we fancy, as at the time when
our book was compiled. The sentence of
dismissal at the very conclusion of the service
is a good one : " Allez en paix, et souvenez
vous des pauvres." Possibly this was meant
as a hint to put something into the poor-box
at the door; or it may, like one of our own
offertory sentences, have accompanied the
handing round of plate or bag for alms —
though it may have been only intended as a
reminder of duty to the needy in general, a
duty especially incumbent on members of a
persecuted community, in which there must
always be some who have impoverished them-
selves for conscience' sake. After these
prayers, before sermon, come the actual
liturgies, "Liturgie pour le Bat^me," "Liturgie
de I'Eucharistie," ** Liturgie du Mariage."
All these liturgies bear a resemblance to those
of the Church of England, the same passages
of Scripture being, of course, quoted and


Digitized by



Foreign Protestant Liturgies.

enlarged upon in both. As may be imagined
in a Church eschewing, like the Huguenot,
all things in the slightest degree resembling
Romish or other superstition, the sign of
the cross is not used in baptism, nor the
ring in the marriage service The latter
begins with a beautiful passage respecting
the first institution of marriage :

" Our help is in the name of the Lord,
which made heaven and earth. Amen.

"God our Father, having created the
heavens and the earth, with all the things
that are therein, created man, and formed
him in His own image and likeness, to have
dominion over " the beasts of the earth and
the fishes of the sea, and over the fowls of
the air, and said, ' It is not good for man to
live alone, let us make him an helpmeet for
hun,' etc."

In the "Liturgie de TEucharistie " we
find the three names employed which are
used by the Church of England for that
sacrament — namely, Eucharist, Communion,
and Lord's Supper. The commonplace,
everyday word Souper is not, indeed, em-
ployed, possibly from the idea of its convey-
ing associations too vulgar; but we meet
with the old word " C^ne," from the Latin.
In like manner Italians designate Leonardo
da Vinci's famous picture of the Last Supper^
with which we are so familiar, at least through
copies— "II Cenacolo,'* i.e. "The Great
Supper." The employment of the term
Eucharisiie by the Huguenots might con-
vince those in this country who are preju-
diced against the word Eucharist that
it is by no means an exclusively Roman
Catholic expression.

There is no form for Burial or Ordination,
nor any Commination Service. A large
portion of the latter part of the book is
occupied with instruction of the young, by
way of question and answer. The system
on which this was arranged seems to us
a very good one. The instruction is broken
up into fifty foiu- Sundays — a little over a
year — and embraces, like the Catechism of
the Church of England, the four subjects,
the Creed, the Ten Commandments, Prayer
in general and the Lord's Prayer in particular,
and the Two Sacraments. This is followed
by a shorter catechism, intended as an
immediate preparation for first communion.

A few forms of prayer for private and
domestic use follow, and then come forty
articles of religion, not unlike our own
" Thirty-nine." This concluding portion of
the book is called " Confession de Foi faite
d*un commun accord pour les ^lises re-
formes de la Royaume de France."

In these articles the influence of Calvin
is manifest — indeed, probably they are from
his own pen. In the fourteenth article the
unhappy Servetus, consent to whose judicial
murder is a lasting blot on the memory of
the stem reformer, is handed down to
eternal obloquy in the words **Nous detestons
toutes ies heresies qui ont anciennement troubles
les iglises, et notamment aussi les imaginations
diaboliques de ServetJ* But in the article on
Baptism we are told that second baptism is
not necessary for those who have already
been baptized in the Romish Church —
because there is still some small trace of
the Church in the V^.^zcy^*^quelque petite
reste de Vhglise dans la Papautky A little
more tolerance than might have been ex-
pected from that quarter !

Through this book the Divine Being is
addressed in the second person singular,
"tu," or "toi," instead of with the "vous"
or "voi" of Roman Catholic devotional
poems in France and Italy. It appears
somewhat strange to an English reader that
a mode of addressing the Deity so universal
among ourselves should in France be exclu-
sively confined to Protestants ; but among
Roman Catholics it has probably been felt
that to tutoyer in prayer was hardly reveren-
tial enough.

We find no trace of the Litany or of any
of the ancient collects, few older forms seem-
ing to have been retained by the Huguenots.
A curious engraving at the beginning repre-
sents David playing his harp — no Eastern
instrument, but just one of the tall old-
fashioned harps of two centuries ago, still
to be seen in some old English mansions
and Frendi chateaux. So greatly does the
type and general appearance of this book
resemble an Elzevir Tasso in oiu* possession
that we are tempted to think it must have
emanated from the press of that famous
Dutch printer. If so, the French printer
would have been Thomas Jolly of Paris.

Jessie Young.

Digitized by


The Woodcutters of the Netherlands.




No. IX. A German Woodcutter whose


By W. M. Conway.

|E have now passed shortly in review
the woodcutters employed by
Gerard Leeu and the pupils or imi-
tators of the last of them. During
the first year after Leeu's arrival at Antwerp
he seems only to have used his old cuts in
fresh combinations. On 12th Oct. 1485,
however, we find him printing a folio edition
of Esop's Fables illustrated with no less than
a hundred and ninety-nine woodcuts. These
differ completely in style from any that we
meet with elsewhere in Holland They were
m fact printed from a set of blocks produced,
it would seem, at Augsburg at a slightly earlier
date, for they are found in a less broken con-
dition in an edition of the same book, with-
out name, place, or dateattached, but printed
in the types of Antony Sorg, who is known to
have been printing at Augsburg at this time.
There is no doubt of the blocks being the
same in both cases, for a minute comparison
between them was made by Mr. Holtrop,*
which showed that the same breakages
occurred in both cases, only that they were
larger in the Antwerp edition. It is worthy
of notice that there was an earlier German
edition, which I saw in the Biblioth^que
Nationale, from which the Augsburg cuts
were copied. The cuts of Esop's vision of
Diana, Esop beaten, the Treasure trove, the
Bishop, the Priest and his Dog, which all
occur with Leeu, are not in Sorg's edition, so
that we are led to conclude that an earlier
Augsburg edition than either may have existed
which included the whole series.

An analysis of the style oT these woodcuts
does not fall within our province. A very
few remarks must therefore suffice. They
are not all the work of the same cutter, but
give evidence of the co-operation of at least
two and possibly more. Whilst all are rude,
some are very much ruder than others. In

* Holtrop, Monuments^ p. 99. Copies of the Ger-
man edition are preserved in the British Museum, the
Biblioth^que Nationale at Paris, and the Public Library
at Deventer.

one set the lines are thin, short, and timid.
The distance is brought forward by a greater
elaboration of detail. The trees are not con-
ventional, but sketchy studies from real trees,
with an attempt to render foliage in masses
and to make it light and living. In this there
is some amount of expression, of law and
vitality, a reaction from the frozen hiero-
glyphics which had gone before, and are
noticeable in cuts by the odier hand. In
these latter the effect, such as it is, is pro-
duced by a few bold, thick strokes hacked out
as though with hammer and chisel, often not
unsuccessfully so far as they go. There is a
great amount of art-life potentially in them,
in contrast with those of the north. In the
one case we have a rising school, rude,
earnest, vigorous ; in the other we meet with
the fading remnants of an energy that had
wasted itself in the trivial carving of outlines,
and had lost all power in the strangling
meshes of a false system. These cuts, there-
fore, hideous though they be, are of great
interest, because they stand side by -side with
the work of a totally different school and
enable us to compare the one with the other —
the dying schools of the north with the rising
schools of the south. Many copies of the
editions of Esop printed by Leeu are in
existence, so that the comparison may readily
be made by any one interested in the subject
It shows with great clearness the fact to
which I have already more than once referred
— that no school of woodcutting which is to
grow and become strong and healthy will
ever be founded upon a method of careful
work in pure line. It must be built upon
a method of powerfully if perhaps rudely

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