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In this state it reappears once more with
him when he again moved to Kuilenburg.

On the 29th December, 1475,* Veldener
published his first edition of the Fasciculus
tetnporum. There is a Cologne edition of
the preceding year, ^^ per me amoldutn ther
huemen^** illustrated by cuts. These Vel-
dener, no doubt, took as models for the few
small cuts which he intersperses here and
there with his text, but he cannot by any
means be said to have copied them. They
are all small, and are not made to fit either
the pages or the columns; but they are
introduced here and there, and the type
is arranged to pad them round. They are
worked in simple outline, clean cut and
unambitious. The lines, which are not
remarkable for fineness or grace of curve,
are only those which are most necessary. A
few shade hatchings are introduced, but they
are of the simplest. In two or three of the
cuts, representing fortresses or towns, it must
be admitted that the mixture of walls and
roofs is rather confiised, and the perspective
is of the vaguest. Still the little bits of fore-
ground, witii a tree and a mound or two of
earth, are really much better than what is
found in their place in most later cuts. The
trees are natural, capable of growth, with
their foliage arranged in masses and their
trunks rough with knobs. They are not in
the least conventional. Hardly any use is
made of pointed hatchings; thin straight
ones take their place. The most important
out of the series is the Salvator mundi ; we
meet with it again in more than one of the
Utrecht books. The figure is indeed some-
what disproportioned, and the face wanting
in expression, whilst the drapery is overloaded
with small hatchings which do not conduce
to any general harmony of effect The scroll,

* The book is dated 1476, iv. Kal. %n, secundum
siilum rotnatuB curia. The year 1470 is to be con-
sidered as having begun on 25 Dec. 1475* according
to the ordinary reckoning. Hence the date of the
book is that indicated above.



too, flyuag in the air involved in coils, is not
in itself a sighdy object. Still the cut as a
whole must not be condemned ; it is evidently
the result of careful work, the lines being
evenly, and the main oudines gracefully laid.
The balance of it is good and evidently
studied, the purpose of the objectionable
scroll being in part to attain this end Other
cuts besides the nine principal ones occur ;
but, though very numerous, they are all of
trifiing importance, and represent only coats
of arms. They are carefiiUy and cleanly cut,
and seem to be by the same hand as the
rest.

It is possible that other work by this
woodcutter may exist, but I have not as yet
come across any. In April 1476 Veldener
produced an edition of Maneken's Letters,
already referred to, which he says it took
him the whole month to print. Of this I have
been unable to find a copy. One is described
by La Sema ; * it is said to have been in the
National Library at Paris, but was not forth-
coming when I asked for it in 1880. Lam-
binet t had seen two copies, one of which
used to be in the University library at
Louvain, but it is no longer there. M. E. van
Even saysj with reference to this book, " La
figure du Lys, arme parlante du collie du
m^me noro, dit Lambinet, est gravde au
dessous de cette dpitre; et plus bas, le
frontispice du Chiteau Cesar." A reference
to the authorities referred to by M. Campbell
under the No. 1 201 in his Catalogue, has not
placed me in possession of any further details ;
so that it is only an assumption on my part
that the cut referred to is a reimpression from
one of the blocks made for the Fasciculus.

When, before 8 Nov. 1478, Veldener
moved his presses to Utrecht, he took the
whole set of blocks with him, and used them
all again there in his second edition of the
Fasciculus (14 Feb. 1480). In that book,
however, new cuts by a firesh hand make
their appearance ; but we never meet \5ith
any more made by the same hand as the first
series. Veldener, therefore, was clearly not a

♦ De la Sema Santander, DicHonnaire Biblio-
graphique choisidu xv*^siicU, — Brussels, 1805 — 1807,
3 vols, in 8vo, No. 1379.

t P. Lambinet, Origine de rimprimerU, — Paris,
1 8 10, 2 vols, in 8vo. Vol. ii. p. 83.

X BulUtin du Bibliophile Be/gc.—Brvisseis, 1845—
1873, 29 vols, in 8vo. VoL i. p. 58.



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Worcester's ** Century of Inventions^



43



maker of cuts himself; he employed work-
men in the towns in which he happened to
be printing. This justifies us in assuming
that the maker of the first series was a resi-
dent at Louvam, and did not move to Utrecht
with Veldener. It is quite possible that he
was the same man as the cutter of the
portraits.

Three diagrams of the degrees of relation-
ship are employed by John of Westfalia, in
1480 and the following year, in editions of
Andreas super arboribus consanguinitatis^ etc.
They seem to have been adopted as models
by Gerard Leen of Gouda, for the diagrams
in his Seven Sacraments of 1484. Another
set of diagrams, eight in number, appear in
the Imago Mundi^ printed at this press about
the year 1483. It is impossible to refer them
to any particular woodcutter, as they can hardly
be said to possess any style.

W. M. Conway.



-^•4-




A HITHERTO UNDESCRIBED COPY
OF THE "CENTURY OF INVEN.
TIONS."

|LTHOUGH the Marquis of Wor-
cester's Ceniury of Inventions is
reckoned amongst rare books, the
work itself is tolerably well known,
pardy through the reprints which have been
issued, and partly by reason of the attention
which it has attracted as containing a de-
scription of a particular form of steam engine.
The romantic career of the author has been
made the subject of an exhaustive memoir
by Mr. Dircks,* who laboured hard to place
the marquis in his true position as an inventor.
The Century^ as its title imports, consists of
a himdred " names and scantlings " of inven-
tions. Most of them are described in vague
and mysterious language, according to the
fashion of the day, and with the exception of
a " water-commanding engine " do not appear
to be of great importance. The following is a
transcript of the title-page : A Century of the
I^ames and Scantlings of such Inventions as
at present I can call to mind to have tried and

• Lifey Timesy and Scientific Labours of the Second
Marquis of Worcester, London, 1865.



perfected^ which (my former notes being lost)
I have, at the instance of a powerful Friend^
endeavoured now in the year 1655, ^^ ^^ ^^^
down in such a way as may sufficiently instruct
me to put any of them in practice. Artis et
Nature proles. London : Printed by/. Gris-
mondy in the year 1663. It is of izmo size,
and consists of four sheets and a half, the
signatures running from a to e. The evil
practice of binders who think it their bounden
duty to cut away blank pages has rendered
the collation somewhat difficult ; but the
following is a correct account of the work.
The numbers in brackets denote the order
of succession of the pages of each separate
sheet.

Sheet A [i, 2] blank. [3] Title. [4] blank.
[5 — 8] Dedication to the King. [9—21] Dedi-
cation to the Lords Spiritual and Temporal^
[22] blanki [23, 24] A Century, etc, the
pages being now for the first time numbered
I, 2, etc., to the end.

Sheet B Century ^continued), pp. 3 — 26.

Sheet c Century (continued), pp. 27 — 50.

Sheet D Century (concluded), pp. 51 — 72.
One blank leaf.

Sheet E [i — 9] Index, not paged; [10 — 12]
blank. These twelve pages, it will be noticed,
just make a perfect half-sheet

So far all the copies which I have had an
opportunity of examining agree, except in
the absence of some of the blank leaves,
but the Century which is in my possession
contains some additional matter, and I be-
lieve it to be a unique example.

Following the above, my copy has —

Sheet F [1] blank. [2] Royal Arms. [3 —
21] An Exact and true Definition of the
most stupendous Water-commanding Engine, etc.
(These pages are numbered i — 19, with the
exception of the first two, which are un
numbered). [22 — 24], i.e. pp. 20 — 22, *M»
Act to enable Edward, Marquess of Worcester^
to receive the benefit and profit of a Water-
commanding Engine, etc.

Sheet G [i — 6], i.e. pp. 22 — 28, Act con-
tinued. [7 — 12], ie. pp. 29 — 34, Panegyric
in Latin and English upon the Marquess, by
James Rollock.

Thus my copy c^^ntains a sheet and a half,
or thirty-six pages, of additional matter, in a
form hitherto unknown, or at all events un-
known to the lynx-eyed Mr. Dircks, who



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44



Worcester's ** Century of Inventions^



devoted many years to the investigation of
the subject

It should be stated that the Definition and
the Act were printed in 4to (22 pp.), two
copies of which are known to exist, one
being in the library of the Duke of Beaufort,
and another at the British Museum. This
tract is printed by Mr. Dircks, in his book,
and it is practically identical with the Act
and Definition appended to my copy of the
Century^ which I should state was purchased in
1879, from Mr. Kerslake, of Coventry Street.

Having given an account of my bibliogra-
phical treasure, I must add a few words upon
the probable reasons for the absence of the
Definition and Act from all the copies of the
Century hitherto described.

In the first place, are such copies to be
regarded as imperfect ? The professed biblio-
grapher will not have failed to observe that
the work appears to end in a perfectly natural
manner with a half-sheet, e, the word Finis
appearing at the foot of the last page of the
index. This certainly lends force to the
supposition that the additional matter in my
copy, beginning as it does bn a fresh sheet,
was an after-thought. On the other hand, it
may be urged that the printers of that day
were not quite so methodical as they are
now. Perhaps, too, Mr. Grismond was kept
waiting for **copy," and as the index is
entirely in Italic type, he might have been
inconvenienced by so much letter of that
sort being locked up. But a careful perusal
of the introductory part almost leads to the
conclusion that the only object of the publi-
cation of the Century was to draw public atten-
tion to the " water-commanding engine," the
Act for which was passed in June, 1663. On
this theory what could be a more fitting and
even necessary conclusion to the work than
the Act and Definition^ as given in my copy ?

Secondly, supposing, as I believe, that the
Act and Definition originally formed part of
the work, how can we account for their dis-
appearance? In Desaguliers' Course of Ex-
perimental Philosophy^ 1763, an extraoidinary
charge is made against Savery — a well-known
improver of the steam engine— of having
" bought up all the Marquis of Worcester's
books that he could purchase, in Paternoster
Row and elsewhere, and burned them," so
as to destroy as far as possible any evidence



of anticipation by the Marquis, which might
be brought against him. Now, the Century
itself was not likely to be very damaging,
from the vagueness of the language. This,
however, was not the case with the Definition^
which would afford some valuable hints.
But the Act of Parliament giving the exclu-
sive right to the Marquis and his heirs to
use and make the engine for ninety-nine years
had still nearly seventy years to run. Now,
as there are penalties mentioned in the Act
for any infringement during that time, it is
natural to suppose that Savery would be glad
to suppress all reference to this special Act
of Parliament May it not be, then, that
Desaguliers* charge was so far true, that
Savery destroyed all the copies of that docu-
ment which he could procure ? It would be
interesting to know whether any existing copies
of the Century show signs of such mutilation.
Perhaps the readers of the Bibliographer
will assist me to elucidate this point

Although beside the bibliographical ques-
tion, I must ask leave to say that I be-
lieve the Marquis of Worcester to have been
a true inventor, and that he succeeded in
perfecting the first practical machine for
raising water by the power of steam. The
principle I believe to have been not unlike
that with which Savery*s name is assqciated,
based upon the formation of a vacuum
by the condensiation of steam, the water
which rushed in to fill this vacuum being
afterwards forced up to a higher level by the
direct pressure of steam. It is a most re-
markable fact that the engine is not noticed
either by Evelyn or Pepys, both of whom
were exceedingly curious in such matters.
Dr. Hooke went to see it, but either he was
shown some other project of the Marquis's,
or he did not understand it, as is evident
when he says that it appeared to be " one of
the perpetual motion fallacies." Singularly
enough, we are indebted to foreigners for
the most detailed accounts. One of these
is Sorbite, who in 1664 published a work
entitled Relation cTun Voyage en Angleterre,
etc. The other mention of Worcester's engine
is contained in the Travels of Cosmo de
Medici the Third (London, 1821), who paid
a visit to the engine at Vauxhall on the 29th
May, 1669. W. H. Prosser.



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Early Topography in Lambeth Palace Library.



45



EARLY TOPOGRAPHY IN LAMBETH

PALACE LIBRARY.

By S. Wayland Kershaw, F.S.A




|[ANY of the earliest printed books
illustrate the condition of cities
in the middle ages, and treat of
discovery and travel. The literature
of that period had developed a taste for these
enterprises. The first voyages were a proud
theme for the newly discovered art of printing,
supplemented as it was by the engraver's
skill The Lambeth collection has a large
number of such treatises, all displaying varied
and special characteristics.

The production of geographical and similar
books was the cause of much emolument
and repute, and accordingly, we find noted
examples in every large collection. The
brothers Hogenberg executed many topo-
graphical works, and one of them was much
associated with Lambeth, as having engraved
the earliest portrait of Archbishop Parker,
who was a conspicuous patron of the arts
and letters, and who employed John Daye,
the famous printer, and Lyne, another en-
graver, in his house at Lambeth.

A group of noted men continued the task
of superintending and publishing topogra-
phical books, and in the course of this paper
we shall see what were their productions as
regards those preserved in the Archiepiscopal
collection.

John Norden, so well known ia this
branch of literature, is represented at I-am-
beth in his Description of Hertfordshire^ a
MS. work dated 1597, and dedicated to
Lord Burghley. As the original treadse,
this manuscript is very rare; it is in the
author's own handwriting, and differs in
nothing from the printed copy, except in
the dedication. Some county maps, and sur-
veys by Norden, appeared on a larger scale,
in the 1607 edition of Camden's Britannia.
Norden was so representative a worker in
the matter of topography, that we can afford
to dwell a little at length on his literary
career. Several devotional books are as-
cribed to him, but without much authority ;
and his fame chiefiy rests on his well-known
Speculum Britannice^ which was issued in



parts, that of Middlesex ^nd Herts being
most noted, though other counties had been
described and prepared for publication, but
some were not issued. The maps published
by him were the first in which roads were
inserted. He was favourably received by
Queen Elizabeth, to whom he presented a
copy of his Hertfordshire. At King James'
accession he was made "Surveyor of His
Majesty's woods," and a well-known work of
this period is his Surveyor's Dialogue, 1607.
A large view of London, with the Lord
Mayor's show, once existed at Dulwich
College. Like other authors both before and
after him, his labours did not produce the
profit to which his industry should have en-
titled him, and he died in poverty. History,
however, will always associate him with that
goodly company of writers who first encou-
raged and made known antiquarian and local
researches.

Another topographical work is a MS.
description of Nuremberg by William Smith,
i594» with epistles dedicatory to Sir G. Carey,
Lord Zouch, and Lord Burghley. Coloured
maps and plans of the city and neighbour-
hood are given, also notes of the government,
customs, and ceremonies of Nuremberg,
with several coats of arms. The names of
the city gates are enumerated, the churches,
and many curious and interesting particulars,
especially one entitled " The maner of taking
safTe conduct, when the marchants go to the
fayres of Franckford or Leiptzig." The
stranger in visiting Nuremberg of to<3ay,
would be struck with the number of heraldic
bearings thickly studded over the interior
walls of many of the churches, and this
MS. no less abounds with the arms of the
old patrician families of Franconia.

Treatises on navigation are represented in a
noted work by one Lucas Waghenaer, called
Spieghel der Zeevaerdt^ printed in 1585, at
Leyden, by Christofiel Plantin, of which the
English version, The Mirror of Navigation^
is probably a translation. The charts ot
sailing are hand-coloured, and consist of
some fifty illustrative maps, with descriptive
text in old Dutch. Quaintly interspersed,
are ornamental devices, ships, animals, the
compass and other nautical instruments.

Boimd with this volume is a work on the
Spanish invasion of England, printed in



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Early Topography in Lambeth Palace Library.



1578; the track of the Armada is most
minutely given, also that of the English
Fleet; the royal arms are introduced on
several maps, the cover has the arms of
Archbishop Sheldon, and the illustrations
throughout are coloured by hand.

Among *early books of travel, may also
be mentioned Purchases jPilgrtmeSy a scarce,
though well-known work. One copy is of the
date 161 7, in four parts, and another dated
1624. The first copy has the arms of Arch-
bishop Abbot, to whom also the epistle is
dedicated, and the author styles himself
"Your Grace's vnworthy Chaplaine." Pur-
chas, a learned divine, was rector of St.
Martin's, Ludgate, and chaplain to Arch-
bishop Abbot. His Pilgrimage and Bak-
luyfs Voyages led the way to other writings
of the kind, and are a storehouse of geogra-
phical curiosity.

Of books illustrating European cities,
Lambeth has several examples. That known
to connoisseurs as Civitates Orbis Terrarum^
produced in 1599, by Braun and Hogenberg,
claims special interest for the number and
variety of the prints, coloured by hand, and
for the rich emblematical designs of the title
pages. George Braun was a canon of Cologne
Cathedral, born in 1541, and died in 1622.

The Lambeth copy of this work is in five
volumes, each containing some sixty plans
and views of European towns, chiefly in
Holland, Belgium, Germany, and the north of
Europe, with a few in England. The extent,
walls, fortifications and surroundings of a
mediaeval city, armorial bearings, costume, and
figures are also introduced. Architecture is
fully represented in the cathedrals, churches,
castles, houses, old bridges, gates, etc ; the
drawing for the period is effective and tole-
rably correct To the artist and antiquary
these pictures will have a great charm ; a
coloured allegorical frontispiece precedes
each volume, and a descriptive text in Latin
accompanies the plates.

Works on pilgrimages to the Holy Land
were a very fertile subject of mediaeval lore ;
the reverence attaching to this spot by all
classes seems to have been a reminiscence of
that devotional feeling, first awakened in the
time of the Crusaders, to the sacred shrines
of the East In this particular, Lambeth
possesses a most rare and interesting book by



one Bernhardus de Breydenbach, a canon of
Mayence Cathedral, entitled Opus transmarine
peregrinationis ad venerandum et gloriosum
Sepulchrum Dominicum tn Hierusalem^ one
OF THE FIRST BOOKS OF TRAVELS, and printed
at Mentz, i486. This work is fully described
in Dibdin's Bibliotheca Spenceriana ; the
Lambeth copy has the arms of Archbishop
Bancroft on the cover; another, with the
arms of the Primate Grindal, and printed at
Spires in 1490, is also in the Library. The
illustrations to each copy are identical, and
consist of several long folding plates graven
with much spirit and precision

The journey to Jerusalem is delineated in
a kind of panoramic fashion; each noted place
has views of its buildings : — ^Venice, with St.
Mark's, its palaces, even to the ships and gon-
dolas of the fifteenth century, are represented.
All the celebrated spots on the route — as
Candia, Rhodes, and others — are described
with great exactness, in the form of a journal
The plan and view of Jerusalem is given,
and a drawing of the Holy Sepulchre has
much architectural accuracy of detail Illus-
trations of Eastern costume and manners
occur also ; both copies have the ornamental
frontispiece ; the text is well printed, margins
are ample, the pages are without numbers,
and spaces would obviously seem to be left
for the insertion of ornamental initials.

Another work, entitled Cosmographia Pit
Papce, printed by E. H. Stephens, Paris,
1509, has a remarkable map of the world,
surmounted by four quaint figure-heads,
personifying the Winds. The book generally
treats of Asia Minor and Europe, and is
described in Panzer's Annates lypographici.

Early chronicles formed a good medium
for the production of topographical views and
antiquarian items. The Nuremberg Chronicle^
well known to print and book lovers, has
several views of cities, drawn with quaint
archaic feeling and much vigour. Produced
in 1493 by the celebrated Nuremberg printer,
Koburger, and embellished with woodcuts by
Wolgemuth and Pleydenwurff (the masters of
Albert Durer), this chronicle always creates
great interest and curiosity. Lambeth has
two copies, both in a good state, with the
map at the end ; the woodcuts are also clean
and bright. The following views of cities
are most worthy of note : Bamberg, Breslau,



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47



Buda, Cracow, Jerusalem, Lubeck, Nurem-
berg, Padua, Prague, Ratisbon, Rome,
Venice. Figures of Emperors, Saints, Car-
dinals, occupy the border margins of nearly
every leaf; the full-page engravings of the
"Creation" and the "Last Judgment" are
well known, no less for their realistic con-
ception, than for their vigorous artistic
treatment.

The combination of maps, antiquities, and
views, with letterpress, is also exemplified in
Camden's BrUannia^ a work which passed
through eight editions between the years 1586
and 1590. The Lambeth copy is of the date
1607, coloured by hand, with an allegorical
title-page; it also has maps of the several
counties by Saxton and Norden, and plates of
early coins. A new edition of the Britannia
was undertaken by Bishop Gibson in 1695 y
the Bishop was librarian and chaplain during
Archbishop Tenison's primacy. He will be
remembered as having collected the MSS.
which bear his name, the Codices Gibsoniani^
long deposited in this library.

William Camden, a voluminous author
and compiler, and one of the noted men of
Elizabeth's reign, had, as Clarencieux King-
at-Arms, great opportunities for examining
the treasures of literature in libraries and
elsewhere. Sir Robert Cotton, the collector
of the Cottonian MSS. (now in the British
Museum), was his firm friend, and he enjoyed
the confidence of Lord Burghley. It is said
that the MSS. from which Camden extracted
his Annals were to have been deposited at
Lambeth {ue. the portion which related to
ecclesiastical history) ; but in a search made
by Archbishop Sancroft on his promotion to
the See, nothing was found ; they were pro-
bably destroyed during the havoc made in
the Library at the time of the Civil War.
Camden died at Chislehurst in 1623, and the
name of Camden House is still retained,
invested with the memories of Napoleon III.

The fashion of making " surveys and views
of cities" was very prevalent towards the
end of the sixteenth century, and we find
the names of Norden, Aggas, and others
heading the list The work of John Speed,
entitled The Theatre of the Empire of Great
Britain^ Lond. 161 1, is notably famous, and
a coloured copy, with fine impressions, is at
Lambeth. This volume is sumptuously orna-



mented, from the elaborate title-page designed
in architectiual compartments, to the delicate



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