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Wm. H. (William Harvey) Birkmire.

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THE



PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION
OF HIGH OFFICE-BUILDINGS.



BY

WILLIAM II. 15 IK KM IKK.




-fnllti JMlnstratcb.



S T ED 1 T I O N.
FIRST THOUSAND.



XK\V YORK :

JOHN WILEY & SONS.
LONDON: CHAPMAN \- HALL, LIMITED.

1 898.



Copyright, 1898,

BV

WILLIAM H. BIRKM1RE.



-)BKRT DRUM \IOND. F.LFCTI Ol VPER AND VR1NTPR. NKW YORK.



uonvj

MN



PREFACE.

Tins volume is presented to architects, engineers, and
builders as supplementary to the author's work on " Skeleton
Construction in Buildings," published in April, 1894.

While the latter was written during the period of the
change in building-construction methods, this is the result of
his practical experience since that time in the planning,
designing, and construction of high office-buildings, in which
these structures have attained their present development.

A number of articles on this subject, published in Ar-
chitecture and Building, were so favorably received that he
has been induced to edit this work.

WILLIAM H. BIRKMIKE.

NEW YORK, 1 898.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

REPRESENTATIVE HIGH OI-F1CE-KCILDINGS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT.

PACE

Introduction I

New York's Representative High Office-buildings 2

Chicago's 7

Cause of the Modern Office-building Development 7

Elevators, Steel and Iron , solve the Problem S

High Office-buildings Artistically Considered ... 13

A Limit to the Press Discussion against High Huildings . . . 19

Danger from Fire in High Buildings 31

The Rapid Erection of High Buildings 39

Rapid Erection of the Manhattan Life Building, New York 40

" " " Fisher Building, Chicago, 111 46

" " " Reliance " " " 51

The Progress of Erection of a High Office-building described 52

CHAPTER II.

//, OOR-PI. A VNING.

Floor-planning 66

Well-lighted Rooms 66

A Maximum of Rentable Space. 66

Schiller Theatre Office-floor Plan 63

American Tract Society Building Floor-plan 70

National Bank of Commerce Building Floor-plan 71

St. Paul Building Floor-plan 71

Commercial Cable Building Floor-plan 72

Good Elevator Service and Toilet Arrangements 74

Lord's Court Building Floor-plan , 70



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.
CEXTRAL BANK KU1LDIXG, NEW YORK.

FAGF

Central Bank Building, New York Si

" " " Style of Architecture Si

1 Office Arrangement 86

" " " Steel used in the Construction 86

CHAPTER IV.
EXTERIOR WALLS.

Exterior Walls. ... 98

Curtain-walls, New York Building Law 101

Chicago " 103

Boston 103

Dangers of Sky-scrapers 105

Exterior Walls of the Central Bank Building 1 1 1

" Decorated 114

CHAPTER V.

I-'LOOR-COKSTRl'CTION AND I- 1 'REPROOF1 'XG.

Floor-construction and Fire proofing 119

Live Loads on Floors 119

Dead " " " 121

' Floor- weights in the Central Bank Building 121

" " Old Colony Building, Chicago, 111 122

" " Marshal- Field " " " 123

Typical Floor-plan, Central Bank Building 12-;

Fireproofing Floors 126

Various Fire-proof Floor Methods in Floor-construction 130

The Columbian Floor-arch 131

Fire-test 133

The Monnier System 13;

!-"ire-test of the Boyd- Wilson Floor-arch i^(>

Details of the Columbian System described 137

Dead Load of the " per Square Foot 138

The Roebling Floor arch 138

System, Ceiling 138

" Floor-system, Weight 139

Fire and Water Test . 139

" Weight-test 14'

1 1 ol low- tile Arches 142

Method of Setting 143



TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vli



Hollow-tile Arches, Tests of Side and End Construction .......... ...... 143

" Description of Arches Tested ........................ 143

" Still-load Test ..................................... 144

Dropping Test .................................... 145

Fire and Water Test .............................. 145

Continuous Fire- tests ............................ 146

1 ' the Lee Tension-rod .............................. 141)

Process of-construction of the Lee Arch .............................. 150

Tests of the Lee Tension-rod System ........ ........................ 151

The Fawcett Floor-construction ..................................... 1=3

Tests ................................. 154

The Rapp Floor-construction ...................................... 1^4

Tests ....................... ........... 155

The Metropolitan Floor-arch System ..... ............................ 155

Fire and Water Tests ............ i 56

The Acme Floor-arch ............................................. 1 = 7

The Multiplex. Steel Plate Floor-arch System ........................ 15$

The Practical Value of the Different Systems in Buildings and Tests by

the Writer .............................................. ......... i 59

Partitions ........... .......... ................................... jt>i

Fire-proof Building Construction in the Pittsburgh Fire, May 3, 1807 101

Effects of the Fire .................................................. 166

Progress and Intensity of the Fire ...................................... i 70

Estimate of the Salvage ................... ............................ 170

The Home Office-building Fire ...................................... 1 73

The Methodist Book-building Fire .................................. i 74

The Engineering A T eu>s' Review of the Pittsburgh Fire . . ................ 178

A Lesson to be Learned by the Pittsburgh Fire ................. ........ i S i

CHAPTER VI.
COLUMNS.

Columns ............................................................ iSS

Arrangement of Columns and Floor-plan .............................. iSs

Skeleton Columns separated from Outside Walls ........................ i vj

Cast iron Columns ................................................... i^r

Steel Columns ..................................................... ii>2

Fi reproofing Columns ............................................. i<j4

Bearing Strength of Columns, New York Building Law .................. i^S

Crushing Weight of Metal in Columns, Xew York Building Law .......... i<i8

Columns in Fire-proof Buildings ' .......... 199

Columns for Curtain-walls,

Strength of Columns. Buffalo Building Law ........................... 2o< >

Cast-iron Pillar Formula, " " ......... ............. ... 201

Riveted Column Formula, Steel and Iron, Buffalo Building Law ......... jui



vi 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE

Strength of Columns, Chicago Building Law ... 202

Cast-iron Column Formula, Chicago Building Law 202

Riveted " " " " " 202

Remarks upon the Different Column Formulae 203

Column Joints 205

Wind-bracing 205

Beams and Girders 206

Connections for Beams of Different Sizes 207

Beam Connections 209



CHAPTER VII.
FOU.\'DA T1ONS.

Foundations ...... ................................................... 210

upon Firm and Compressible Soil .... .................... 210

Rock ............................................... 210

Clay .............................................. 211

" Gravel and Sand ............... ................... 211

Silt, Mud, Soft Earth, and Quicksand. ..... ......... 211

Bearing Power of Soils ............................................... 211

" Table ......................................... 212-

The New York Building Law Requirements upon Soil .................... 212

The Chicago " " " ................... 212

Foundations of the Central Bank Building . . ......................... 213

" Lord's Court Building upon Piles ....................... 214

The \ew York Building Law Requirement for Driving Piles ........ .... 214

Formula for determining the Working Load on Piles .................... 216

Table of the Bearing Power of Piles. The Engineering News Formula .... 216

Concrete Capping on Piles ............................................ 216

Shoring arid Sheath -piling, Lord's Court Building ....................... 217

Requirements, Central Bank Building ......... 217

Pneumatic Caissons ................ ................................ 2iS

Caisson Detail ................................... .................... 219

I lydraulic Caissons ............................................. ..... 220

Foundations upon Steel Beams and Concrete ................... ....... 222

Manner of Setting Steel Beams in Concrete ..... ....................... 222

Method of Calculating the Strength of Grillage Beams ............ ...... 223

CHAPTER VIII.
i in-: MA ( y/AVA'A 1 ) '-HA I.L.



The Machinery-hall .............................. ................... 226

of the Central Bank Building described .............. 230

Boilers .............................................................. 230



TABLE OF CONTENTS. ix



. .

Engines 235

Dynamos _

Electric Lighting in the Central Bank Building . 2 ^g

Switchboard of " " " ' 2

Telegraph and Telephone Systems, Central Bank Building 243

Elevators _ ,, ,.

Hydraulic Elevators, Central Bank Building 245

Electric Elevators in Lord's Court Building .... 249

Air-cushions for Elevators 254

Steam-heating 255

The Heating of Tall Buildings by Exhaust Steam 255

The Webster Vacuum System to Steam- heating 260

Description of the Heating and Power Plant in the Central Bank Building 270

A System of Temperature Regulation in Office-buildings 274

Refrigerator Apparatus and System of Cooling Drinking-water 277

Elevator Calling-signals 279



CHAPTER IX.
/'/,;/.l/7'/.V(; A XI) DKAIXAGE.

Plumbing and Drainage 287

Plumbing Rules and Regulations of the New York Building Law 287

Materials and Workmanship according to the above Law 289

Plans of Plumbing to be Approved by the Building Superintendent 294

Soil and \Vaste Pipes, New York Building Law 298

Plumbing and Drainage in the Central Bank Building 309

CHAPTER X.

MISCE1J.A NEOl 'S DE TA ILS.

Miscellaneous Details 314

Stairways 314

Passenger-elevator Fronts and Cars 314

Freight-elevator Enclosures 317

Elevator Gratings 317

Elevator Pits 317

Cast-iron Mullions and Panels 317

Doors and Shutters 318

Bulkheads on Roofs 322

Hanging Ceilings in Boiler-room 322

False Furring 3 -

Skylights and Sheet-metal Work 322

Terra-cotta Work for Skeleton Buildings. . . 325

Brick and Sione Work 32')



X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

TAGI!

Specification Requirements for Front Granite-work 329

Plastering 330

Interior Marble-work 333

Interior Trim and Woodwork 334

Painting 337

Safety Window Appliances 343

Revolving Entrance-doors 344

Hardware 344

Roofing 345



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



CHAPTER I.

mi. PACK

1. Main Entrance-hall, Metropolitan Life Ins. Bids, New York. . .Frontispiece

2. Empire Building. New York 3

3. St. Paul " 5

4. Postal Telegraph and Home Life Insurance Building, New York 9

5. Bowling Green Building, New York :i

6. Gillender Building, " 15

7. Commercial Cable Building, . \-

8. American Surety " 21

9. Manhattan Life Insurance Building. New York 23

10. American Tract Society 27

1 1 . Ivins Syndicate ;?

12. Queen Insurance Company 33

13. National Bank of Commerce " 35

14. St. James Building. New York 37

i 5. Masonic Temple, Chicago, 111 41

\(i. Old Colony Building. Chicago, 111 . 43

17. Manhattan Life Building Steel Frame. 141!] Story, Broadway Front. 45

1 3. " New Street " . 40

K). " ' " " i6th " " " " . 47

20. " " Broadway " . j3

21. " Completed Stonework, New Street ' . 40

22. " Roofed in and Tower ready for Covering "o

23. Fislier Building, Chicago. Ill =3

24. " " Starting Columns. On 12. 1^05 55

25. " " " Second Part of Third-story Set. ;i>

20. " ' Seventh Part of Eighth-story Set "

27. " " Fourteenth-story Set ^ s

23. " " Roof on, Nov. 26, 1895 hi

29. Reliance (>2

30. " " Completed Steel Frame IIT,



Xlt LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



CHAPTER II.

FIG. PACK

31. Schiller Theatre Building, Chicago, 111., Typical Floor-plan. 67

32. " " Plan of Ninth Floor 69

33 American Tract Society Building, New York, Typical Floor-plan 70

34. National Bank of Commerce Building, New York, Typical Floor-plan. 72

35. St. Paul Building, New York, Typical Floor-plan 73

36. Commercial Cable Building, New York, Typical Floor-plan 75

37. Lord's Court " 79



CHAPTER III.

38. Central Bank Building, New York 83

3g. " showing Condition, Oct. 24, 1896 . . 8"

40. " " Progress of Work, Nov.

14, 1896 91

41. Typical Floor-plan. 93



CHAPTER IV

42. Section of Warehouse Walls, New York Building Law 99

43. " " Curtain " 100

44. New Curtain-wall Section recommended by Writer 102

4 = . Curtain-wall Sections. Chicago Building Law 104

46. Guaranty Building, Buffalo, N. Y. Example of the upper Outside

Walls built before the lower Wails 107

47. Exterior Walls of the Central Bank Building 1 10

4-5. A Fifteen -story Curt am -wall Section i io

41;. Central Bank Building. Detail Second Story Window Spandrels 112

= o. " Details of Third-story Lintels and Cornice.... 11^

= i . Thirteenth-story Window Details 114

s2. " Details of a Main Cornice I I ;

53. " Terra-cotui Column, ijth and 141!! Stories. ... 117



CHAPTER V.

^4 Central Bank Building, Typical Beam-plan. ... 124

Detail of Floor-panels 12^

= f'i. Columbian Floor-arch Section 126

and suspended Ceiling 127

i -inch Ribbed Bar Section 129

E(). li-inch 129

60. '' 2-inch " " 131



t) i . Columbian Floor-arch, cA-inch Ribbed Mar Section i", i

62 Steel Stirrup Section i 32

63. Perforated Stirrup Section i ; ,

64. " " 13(1



<>(). The Roebling Floor-arch and Ceiling 140

67. Section of Pioneer Arch used in I )en.\ er T< s; ; . 144

OS. " Lee End-method Arcli used in Denver Tests 141

Oc) ' Wiijht Arch used in I Jen ver Tests 14;

70. Lee End-construction Tile-arch , . . . 14-

71. End construction A Ijutment- tile 14*

72. Side-method Arch 141

73. Detail Section ot the Lee Ten si on- rod Tile -arch . . . I ^ !

74. Weight Test " ' " " 152

75. The Fa wcett Floor-arch I ; ;

70. The Rap p Fire -proof Floor-construction 155

77. The Acme Method of Fl< lor-arch 1=7

77'/.The Multiplex Steel plate Floor-arch I ^

7>. Sketch Map, showing Relative Location of Buildings binned in the

Pittsburgh F;re Ku

7<). Third-floor Plan of llorne Store, showing Nature of Steei 1'r.mie ioj

^o. Home Store Hard-tile Floor-arcli Construction. . . . i 05

51. " " \'ie\v of Daniayed I nterinr of l-'irsi I-'loor 11,7

52. " " '' " " F.xterior 170

S^. ' 1'artitions 17-"

^4. Methodist Mook Muilding, Conciete Floor-arch C'onstruction 177

?.. " " " \"ie\v of Damaged IiHerioi



-0. Detail showing Steel C'oiumn Separated from the Wall it Si;t potts,

St. Paul Building. New ^'ork it)*<

>7. Cast Columns, Scjuaic and Circular Sections lui

SS. " 1 Sections I y I

S<). " Detail of loin ts i<>2

(jo. Steei C'oiumn Section, Annies and Plates i j ;

<li. " " Channels and Plates 1113

02. Plates and Angles Latticed v>\

(13. " " /-bars n>3

'-14. The Gray Column Sections i o?

(15. " " ' Hracket Cornice lions. tc/

i|0. Detail of Su-el-coiumn |oim, as used in the Central Hank 2O'>

()7. Beam Connections, S-inch to id-inch I beams .'07

i)S. " 6-inrh t 12-inch I beams joS



LIST OF ILLL'STKAl'lOXS.



CHAPTER VII.

I If;. I'AGE

<)(_). Section of Foundation, Central Hank Building 213

100. " " Lord's Court " 215

101. " showing Manner of Excavating Pneumatic Caisson 219

102. Detail of a Steel Caisson 220

103. Transverse Section of Manhattan Life Foundation 221

104. Detail of Steel-beam Grillage Foundation 224

CHAPTER VIII.

KK Machinery-hall Plan of the Central National Bank Building 230

106. Sectional View of a Water-tube Boiler for High Office-buildings 231

107. Section of Boiler used in the Central Bank Building 233

108. Direct-connected Engine and Generator 238

109. Vertical Arrangement of Electric Wiring System in the Central Bank

Building 239

i 10. Diagram of Switchboard, Central Bank Building 241

ill. ' '' Telegraph and Telephone System, Central Bank Building 244

ii 2. Plat) of a Coupled Elevator-car, Central Bank Building 24'>

113. Hydraulic Elevator-shaft 248

i 14. Ash-hoist, Central Bank Building 2511

i 15. Hoisting-nut for an Electric Elevator- machine 2= r

I 1 o. Double-deck Electric Elevator-machine 252

i i 7. Single-deck 253

i 18. Thermostatic Valves of the Webster System of Steam-heating 262

i 19. Other Valves of the same System 262

1 20. The Thermostatic Valves in Connection with Radiators 2(;3

121. Airangement in Boiler-room of the Webster System of Steam-heating 2(14

122 Interior View of the Webster Feed -heater 26(1

i 23. An Improved Steam -condenser on Roof 273

124. Thermostat for Temperature Regulation 27=;

125. Thermostatic Valve for Temperature Regulation 270

126. General Arrangement of a Sanitary Drinking-water System 278

127. Air-compressor as used for a Drinking-water System in High Office-

buildings 280

128. Main Commutator Switch and Control Magnets for Elevator Calling-

signal 281

129. Switch Mechanism on Top of Elevator for Calling-signals 282

130. Details of Commutators for Elevator Calling-signals 283

i"!. Diagram of Wiring Connections for Elevator Calling-signals 285



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. XV



CHAPTER IX.

FIG - PACK

132. Wash-basin Connections ... 309

133. Diagram of Pipe Connections of Men's Toilet-room 309

134. Plan of Men's Toilet-room, Central Bank Building 311

135. Diagram of Water-supply, Central Bank Building 312



CHAPTER X.

136. Detail of Elevator Fronts, Central Bank Budding 315

137. Ornamental Panel-grille Elevator Front. Central Bank Building 319

138. Detail of Fire-doors 321

139. Ornamental Elevator-car, Central Bank Building 323

HO. Lord's Court " 327

141. Detail of Elevator Fronts, " " " 331

142. " " " Bank of Commerce Building 335



THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF
HIGH OFFICE-BUILDINGS.



CHAPTER I.

REPRESENTATIVE HIGH OFFICE-BUILDINGS AND THEIR
DEVELOPMENT.

INTRODUCTION. The closing years of the nineteenth
century present to the inhabitants of the United States and
to visiting foreigners a complete transformation, in our large
cities, of building-construction methods.

Laws have been enacted from time to time to keep pace
with the rapid growth of these methods, but they are still
inadequate and cover only in a general way the requirements
of this modern and phenomenal growth.

\Yhile but a few years ago the building profession had to
concern itself merely with the simpler problems of construc-
tion, such as the erection of buildings of five and eight stories
and within 100 feet in height, it is now called upon to solve
the more difficult ones involved in the building of enormous
structures of fifteen to twenty-nine stories and 350 feet in
heiefht.



THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF

Less than five years ago the conclusion was reached that
the sixteen-story building was the limit, but since that time
we have had the twenty-story; and the most notable build-
ing, for its size, now in course of construction is being
erected in Park Row. Including the towers, it is to be
twenty-nine stories high, covering an area of nearly 15,000
square feet, and in no part will it be less than twenty-five
stories in height. The front, facing the Post-office, will be
twenty-seven stories, the top cornice being 336 feet above
the street-level. The two flanking towers will each contain
two stories to be used as offices, the cornice of the towers
being 355 feet above the street, and the top of the lantern
386 feet above the same level. The foundations extend 34
feet below the street-level, making the total height of the
structure from the top of piles to the top of lanterns 420 feet,
the total dead and live load being about 50,000 tons.

Following are the heights of twenty-nine buildings re-
cently constructed or in process of construction in Xew
York :

Ivins Syndicate Building 29 stories, 386 feet.

.Manhattan Life Building IS " and tower. 345 "

St. Paul Building 26

American Surety Building 21

Pulitxer Building i(> "

American Tract Society Building.. 21

Empire Building 20

Commercial Cable Building 20 "

Gil lender Building 19 "

Standard Oil Building (remodelled) 19

Bank of Commerce Building 19

Home Life Insurance Building.... ifi

Washington Building 13

\e\v York Life Building 12

S. L. Mitchell I->tate Building 15

Mutual Life Building 14

Manhattan Hotel id

I'r-'dnce Exchange Building 9 " and tower, 225

Bowling Green Building io - 4





Fie;. 2.-



1'HK KMTIKK Hi ILIUM;, Ni-.w YOKK.

(Kimbaii \ 'I hompsoTi, An. lntfi t~. '



HIGH OFFICE-BUILDINGS. ^

New Netherlands Hotel 16 stories, 220 feet.

Central Bank Building 15 " 219 "

Hudson Building 16 " 218 "

Lord's CourtBuilding 15 " 214 "

Johnston Building 15 " 212 "

Syndicate Building 15 " 207 "

Continental Ins. Co. Building 14 " 215 "

Postal Telegraph Building 13 " 192 "

Havemeyer Building 14 " 192 "

Mutual Reserve Building 13 " 184 "

Silk Exchange Building 13 " 180 "

CHICAGO'S RKPRESE.NTATIVE HIGH BUILDINGS OVER 180 FEET.

Masonic Temple 20 stories, 273 feet.

To apex of roof 300 "

Auditorium, with tower 17 " 265 "

Fisher Building 18 " and attic, 235 "

Old Colony Building 17 '' 213 "

Katahdin & Wachussetts Building. 17 " 203 ft. 6 in.

Unity Building 17 " 210 feet.

Marquette Building 16 " 207 "

Monadnock Building 16 " 215 "

Ashland Block 16 " 200 ft. 7 in.

The New Great Northern Building. 16 " 200 feet.

Manhattan Building 16 " 197 "

Reliance Building 14 200 "

Security Building 14 200 "

Title and Trust Building 16 198 "

Woman's Temple 13 " 197 "

Champlain Building 15 169 "

CAUSE or THE MODERN OFFICE-BUILDING DEVELOP-
MENT. While the enormous appreciation in land values is
mainly due to the concentration of vast commercial interests
within restricted areas, at the same time it is certain that in
regard to the relation of those values to the height of build-
ings the effect has in some measure become the cause.

This state of things in Xe\v York is largely brought
about by its rapidly developing' and changing character.
The island is so narrow and its trade centre so near one end.
that the tendencv of each trade is not onlv to llock to one



THE PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF

spot, but to crowd as near this centre as possible, thus mak-
ing the price of land down-town simply tremendous.

In order, therefore, to secure an adequate return on an
investment in such land more floor-space must be obtained.
The greatest increase, as was to have been expected, has
taken place upon property which fronts on Broadway, or
that lies within the banking district in the neighborhood of
\Yali, Pine, and Xassau streets and Park Row. As instances
of this may be mentioned that the lot upon which the Man-
hattan Life Building stands was purchased for $157.02 per
square foot; that Xo. 141 Broadway cost $181.12 per square
foot; and that before they could even dig the foundations
for the American Surety Building the syndicate had to pay
for the site at the rate of from $176 to $282 per square foot.

ELEVATORS, STEEL AND IRON, SOLVE THE PROBLEM.
To place buildings of ordinary height upon such property
would necessitate the charging of enormous rents to derive
an income on the ground values. Owners were therefore
compelled to erect tall buildings, give more room and get
more rent: and the higher the building the less desirable
the rooms became, for tenants would not mount stairs in
buildings of over five stories. Then steam, hydraulic, and
electric elevators were invented, and at once the problem
was solved.

Then again, with the timber construction, in case of fire it
was impossible to avert the destruction which inevitably oc-
curred, and heavy masonry walls were required to support
the superstructure. It was therefore necessary that the tim-
ber construction be replaced by fire-proof materials, and the
heavy walls by steel and iron, to protect the building from
fire and increase the area of rentable space.

This method once adopted, it soon culminated in what
is called '" Skeleton Constructed Buildings."




FIG. 4.
POSTAL TELEGRAPH HI.DG., N. Y. HOME LII-K INS. Co. Hi no.. N. Y.

(Geo. Kdw. Harding & Gooch, Architects.) (N. I.e. Hum ,V Sons. Ar. hitcc:-

9



I'lIK BiMVIIM, (iKKI-.N Bill. DING, N K\V \<>KK.




FIG. q.



HIGH OFFICE-BUILDINGS. 13

ARTISTICALLY CONSIDERED. It is not easy to imaem^

* o

the feelings of a New Yorker exiled for a period of ten or
twelve years no more who is returning- to his native land
by one of the ocean steamships.

As he looks about from the deck of the vessel as it steams
up the bay, the first glance that he obtains of the lower part
of Manhattan Island will probably be, if he has not been fore-
warned, the greatest surprise of his life.


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Online LibraryWm. H. (William Harvey) BirkmireThe planning and construction of high office-buildings → online text (page 1 of 18)