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PEOPLE'S EDITION, AND ONLY COMPLETE EDITION OF MOORE'S
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t mnu-

trl AHDIAJf.



that,
of t!i



" THIS is the first number of a scries of
* ten of Moore's Melodies, with Symphonies



M

iU-



patronage."

OO.K K'S Melodies liave always been !

: from '

ils and I
rietors

tv/fcTfi*






NEWS OF TUB WOELD.



"W E ,,;

Moore's /((



pleasure



nies and Ac-
he best
aside
ind ac-

.> '!. i> tn lie



" MOORE'S Irish Melodies must ever
-"-*- be appreciated by every lover of true me-
lody. To obtain a pianoforte airan^cment, how-
eyer, has hitherto subjected u to two crcat uilfu-ul-

ties on the 0111 : In

hand, cl: , . ; ...



i; A .IMiOPLE'S EDITION,
t*- cheap rate, of Moore's Irish 3
n a desideratum; and the we
bids fair to supply the want. !

tain* nvenl-. -fciur .iiiarto I-M..-I s of nni'



work will be completed in ton numbers, at one
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"*- conferred a great boon upon the lovers of
true melody by their issue of these beautiful M bo-
dies in sii cheap :.! ao< c.-r-iblc .i form. Tao i.rjiv



HITS " JOHN BULL.

li A TOO'K IvS Irish Melodies are too well

U L ., t,, t),o wlmlp worl.l lo iv.niM-P n wnnl



"T

lived



f HE announcement of the People's

1 Iv.lition of Moore's Melodiet, to be coinpieled
in ten parts at <nu- shiilin , , . i m-

;i and most we'. . ;-, . . .. ' , . .
BW- ever heard. There i- , : music to

which ' ' .and there ai , lyrics t.

, ii ', ' ". .
1 to the I:...,., ri.-; v, .', , ..'.' BIB



London : L0>^( ; MA X, J',U( ) WX, and CO. ; and ADDISON and C< >,

Manchester: IIIAIK and
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ESSAYS



ON



POLITICAL AND SOCIAL
SCIENCE,



CONTKIBUTED CHIEFLY TO



THE EDINBURGH REVIEW,



BY WILLIAM R. GREG.



IN TWO VOLUMES.



VOL. I.



LONDON:

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS,

1853.



LONDON

SPOTTISWOODRS and SHAW,
New-street-Square.



35



V.I



CONTENTS



OF



THE FIRST VOLUME.



Page

DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY - 1

DR. ARNOLD'S LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE - - -47

LAING'S GERMAN CATHOLIC SCHISM - - 81

LAING ON PEASANT PROPRIETORSHIP, &c. - 113

UNSOUND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY - 207

PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION - - - 237

ENGLAND AS IT is - - 297

MARY BARTON - - - - 344

INVESTMENTS FOR THE WORKING CLASSES - 389

ENGLISH SOCIALISM - 458

PROGRESS AND HOPES OF SOCIALISM - - 505
ALISON'S HISTORY OF EUROPE .... 526



ESSAYS

ON

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE

CONTRIBUTED TO VARIOUS REVIEWS.-



DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES ON MODERN HISTORY.*

FEW names have been more widely known, and none
have been more universally respected, in England, than
that of Dr. Arnold. As head master of Rugby school,
his sphere of usefulness was extensive, and his reputa-
tion deservedly high ; while his various theological
writings insured him a corresponding estimation in the
religious world; and, to say nothing of his valuable
edition of Thucydides, his History of Rome, unhappily
still a fragment, which was destined to supply a long-
felt desideratum in our literature, placed him at once
in the very foremost rank among scholars and historians.
Unfinished as it is, it will always retain its place as one
of the finest historical fragments in our language ; and
in our humble opinion, enough even now remains to
justify a conviction that, had he lived to complete it, it

* From the " "Westminster Review."

1. Dr. Arnold's Sermons on the Christian Course and Character.
1841.

2. Introductory Lectures on Modern History. By Dr. ARNOLD.
Oxford: 1842.

VOL. I. B



2 DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES

would have stood at the head of our classical literature
in that department. It is a work, even in its present
form, in which the experience of the past is brought to
bear, with singular force and discrimination, upon the
exigencies of the present ; to solve many of the per-
plexing problems which are now evolving before our
eyes ; and to enlighten that dark cloud which, even to
the most hopeful and trusting minds, involves much of
the future destinies of our country and our kind. More
than this we cannot here say of it : that it is a work
which cannot fail to be admired by thousands who are
neither scholars nor philosophers, but which will be
more fully appreciated and more highly estimated by
every one, in exact proportion to the extent of his
scholarship and the soundness and depth of his philo-
sophical conceptions.

In the year previous to his untimely death, Dr.
Arnold, to the great joy of all to whom historical pur-
suits were dear, was appointed to the professorship of
modern history in the University of Oxford. It had
not been customary for any lectures to be delivered
from that chair; but Dr. Arnold was not a man to
make a sinecure of any office which he held. Moreover,
his heart was in his subject, and he rejoiced in the
opportunity thus afforded him of developing and pro-
mulgating his own well-considered conceptions of the
moral and political philosophy to be deduced from
history. Had he lived to complete his plan, his lectures
would have been, we cannot doubt, one of the richest
treasuries of wisdom and of learning extant; and he
could scarcely have failed to instil some portion of his
own lofty and upright principle into the minds of those
whom he addressed : but, unhappily for us, it was other-
wise decreed : and a brief sketch of what he had intended
to do is all that he was permitted to accomplish. The
volume of " Introductory Lectures," which he delivered



ON MODERN HISTORY. 3

at the close of 1841, now lies before us; and though
marked, perhaps, by a certain want both of terseness of
language and concentration of thought (owing, no
doubt, to the very short period allowed him for its
preparation), it contains much valuable matter, and
will furnish food for much careful reflection. We
cannot, however, do more than direct the attention of
our readers to two or three points of peculiar moment,
which he has propounded for our consideration.

In the Inaugural Lecture Dr. Arnold expresses an
opinion, with great diffidence indeed, that the elements
of modern civilisation are exhausted ; that we have now
before us, and already brought into operation, all the
materials for the future history of our race : in a word,
that we are living in the latest epoch of the world's
existence. He conceives that the Greek and Roman
character was destined to be modified by amalgamation
with the Teutonic nations; but this having been
accomplished that now the world affords no new race
which can effect a corresponding modification on the
existing elements of the civilised portion of the globe :

" This leads to a view of modern history, which cannot indeed
be confidently relied upon, but which still impresses the mind
with an imagination, if not a conviction, of its reality. I mean,
that modern history appears to be not only a step in advance of
ancient history, but the last step ; it appears to bear marks of
the fulness of time, as if there would be no future history
beyond it. For the last 1800 years Greece has fed the human
intellect ; Rome, taught by Greece, and improving upon her
teacher, has been the source of law and government and social
civilisation ; and what neither Greece nor Rome could furnish,
the perfection of moral and spiritual truth, has been given by
Christianity. The changes which have been wrought have
arisen out of the reception of these elements by new races ;
races endowed v,-ith such force of character, that what was old
in itself, when exhibited by them seemed to become something
new. But races so gifted are, and have been from the beginning

B 2



4 DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES

of the world, few in number : the mass of mankind have no such
power ; they either receive the impression of foreign elements
so completely that their own individual character is absorbed,
and they take their whole being from without ; or, being in-
capable of taking in higher elements, they dwindle away when
brought into the presence of a more powerful life, and become
at last extinct altogether. Now looking anxiously round the
world for any new races which may receive the seed (so to
speak) of our present history into a kindly, yet a vigorous soil,
and may reproduce it, the same and yet new, for a future period,
we know not where such are to be found. . . . Everywhere
the search has been made, and the report received : we have the
full amount of earth's resources before us, and they seem in-
adequate to supply life for a third period of human history."
Inaug. Lecture, pp. 36 38.

It is assuredly in no spirit of idle paradox or wanton
speculation that we venture to differ with this estimable
author. We are disposed, however, to think that there
does exist a new race not yet brought within the arena
of civilisation a stranger and an outcast from the
great commonalty of nations, known to us, no doubt,
and in contact with us, as the barbarians were known
at Rome, and in contact with the Roman empire,
but not yet brought to bear upon the European ele-
ments of character, under relations which admit of its
exercising its proper and allotted influence; we
mean tbe African race. The suggestion will startle
those who have been accustomed to regard the Africans
as savages, and will disgust those who have always
considered them as beasts of burden ; but if they will
grant us a few moments of patient attention, we will
explain, as briefly as we can, both our opinion and the
considerations on which we ground it. We may be in
error ; in differing from Dr. Arnold it is probable we
are ; but if we are right in our anticipations, thus much
is certain that the future contains within it greater
moral changes than any developed in the past; since



ON MODERN HISTORY. 5

the African race differs far more in all its elements of
character from the European, than the Teuton did either
from the Roman or the Greek.

In casting our eyes over the various countries of the
globe, and considering both the past history and the
intrinsic qualities of their peculiar races, we cannot fail
to come to the conclusion that several of these have
been destined by Providence for early extinction, and
were created merely as temporary occupants to fill the
void, till pushed out of existence in the fulness of time
by other races of more commanding energies and greater
capacities, exhibiting a higher development of humanity,
and bearing upon them the marks of a more permanent
duration. When brought into juxtaposition with Euro-
pean nations, some tribes have sunk from the effect
of physical weakness some from moral inferiority
some from incapacity of acquiring civilisation. The
barbarity of the stronger races has, no doubt, in
most cases hastened the catastrophe ; but from the
moment the Caucasian race came into collision with the
Red Indians, the tribes of the Caribbean Sea, and the
Papuan savages, the ultimate decay and extinction of
the latter became a matter of certainty, and a question
only of time. The North American Indians, from the
hardihood of their habits, and the iron determination of
their character, were, of all these, the most competent
to make head against Avhat Lord Erskine called " the
knavery and strength of civilisation," and accordingly
their resistance has been the most protracted and
severe : yet what says M. de Tocqueville (certainly no
hasty or prejudiced witness) on this point ? After
describing the effect of the gradual progress of the
whites in driving away the game, and consequently
displacing or destroying the Indians who depend upon
that game for support, he proceeds :

B 3



6 DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES

" These are great evils ; and it must be added that they ap-
pear to me to be irremediable. I believe that the Indian nations
of North America are doomed to perish ; and that whenever
the Europeans shall be established on the shores of the Pacific
Ocean, that race of men will be no more. The Indians had only
the two alternatives of war and civilisation ; in other words,
they must either have destroyed the Europeans, or become their

equals From whichever side we contemplate

the destinies of the Aborigines of North America, their ca-
lamities appear to be irremediable : if they continue barbarous
they are forced to retire ; if they attempt to civilise their man-
ners, the contact of a more civilised community subjects them
to oppression and destitution."*

Why, or with what object, Providence should have
peopled so many countries with races of men destined
to answer only a temporary purpose, and then to be
swept away before the advancing tide of human civili-
sation, it would be useless in us to conjecture. That
such, however, is the plan of Providence, we think no
doubt can remain. Many races have already been
swept away as completely as the Mammoth and the
Megatherion, and others are in process of extinction.
Which of the many barbarous tribes still existing in the
Archipelagos of the two great oceans are destined to
destruction, and which are intended to be amalgamated
and absorbed into the more civilised and powerful
nations of the earth, it is not easy to foresee. Their
respective capacities for improvement, combined with
the hardihood of their physical constitution, will pro-
bably decide their future fate ; for we consider that all
savage tribes must either be civilised or be extinguished.
But if we might hazard a conjecture, we should conceive
that the Papuan race is destined to the latter fate, and
the New Zealanders, and it may be some among the
Polynesian tribes, to the former and happier lot.

* De Tocqueville's Democracy in America, vol. ii. pp. 295 316.



ON MODERN HISTORY. 7

Be this, however, as it may, everything points to the
one certain conclusion, that whatever other tribes may,
in the wise counsels of God, be destined to extinction,
the African race is not of the number. It bears the
marks of too hardy and enduring a vitality. The
physical strength of the Negroes is great, and their
activity, under due stimulus, unwearied. When first
introduced by the Spaniards into the West Indian
Islands, it was found that one African could perform
the work of four Indians ; the labour under which the
unhappy natives sunk by wholesale, they throve and
flourished while performing ; and so strong and healthy
a race were they considered, that Herrera informs us
it was a saying current among the Spaniards, " that,
unless a Negro were hanged, he would never die."
Even in the present day, we do not find that they are
materially, if at all, inferior in physical powers to the
generality of Europeans ; which is far from being the
case with other savage races.* Under favourable cir-
cumstances they appear to be a prolific race ; nor have
we any reason to believe that, when subjected to no pecu-
liar noxious influences, the rate of mortality is higher
among them than among many European nations.f

* By means of an instrument called the dynamometer, M. Peron
subjected the relative strength of individuals to trial, and found the
mean result to he as follows :

The mean strength of In the Arms. In the Loins.

29 Natives of New Holland, &c., was - 50-7 - 10-2

56 Timor - - 587 - 11 '6

17 Frenchmen - - 69'2 - 15-2

14 Englishmen of New South Wales - 71'4 - 16-3

See "Lawrence on Man," vol. ii. p. 138. "Foreign Quarterly
Review," vol. i. p. 181.

t Berard : " Influence de la Civilisation sur la Sante," p. 63.
"Foreign Quarterly Review," vol. i. p. 187. It appears that the West
Indian Negroes often attain a remarkable longevity. See, on this
point, Lawrence, vol. ii. p. 192. The following table shows the rate

B 4



8



DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES



The Africans are equally exempt from the other
main distinction which characterises those tribes on
which Providence has set the seal of decay and mor-
tality. They are apt to imitate, quick to seize, ambi-
tious to achieve civilisation. Whenever brought into
contact with Europeans, they ape their manners, imbibe
their tastes, and endeavour to acquire their arts. The
imitative disposition and the imitative faculty are both
in them particularly strong. They are not unwilling,
like the Indian, nor unable, like the Papuan, to learn
the lessons, and endure the toils and shackles, of civi-
lised existence. Compared with the Mohawk or the
Iroquois, they are as the horse compared with the zebra,
as the dog or the elephant compared with the tiger and
rhinoceros. In those qualities of acquiring and pro-
gressing, which distinguish man from the brutes, they
resemble man. In many of those qualities of combina-
tion and civilisability which distinguish the Caucasian
from the Papuan, they resemble the Caucasian. They
have now been for three centuries in contact with
Europeans, exposed during that period to the most
barbarous treatment and the most destroying and de-

of increase in the United States of the total population (including
emigrants) and of the slaves, who, since the abolition of the slave
trade, increase only by propagation:







Rate of




Rate of




Total. Population.


Increase per


Slaves.


Increase per






Cent.




Cent.


Census of 1790


3,929,827




697,897




1800


5,305,925


35


893,041


28


1810


7,239,814


36


1,191,364


33


1820


9,638,131


33


1,538,064


29


1830


12,866,920


33


2,009,031


30


1840


1 7,068,666


39


2,487,113


34



Considering, therefore, the gain of the total population by emigra-
tion, and the loss to the slave population by manumission, we may
conclude that even under the unfavourable circumstances of slavery,
the Negroes have increased nearly at the same rate as the most
rapidly increasing European nation in the world.



ON MODERN HISTORY.

pressing influences ; yet not only has nothing occurred
to indicate for them the fate of other unhappy races
whom European cruelty or European superiority has
trodden out, but they have actually advanced under
circumstances the most hostile to advancement ; and
the Negro in Jamaica or Carolina is, beyond all question,
a more civilised being than the Negro on the coast of
Guinea.*

The African race, then, is clearly not destined, like
so many others, to be superseded and extinguished.
Neither can we believe that it is destined to supply a
perpetual helotry for superior tribes. It stands upon
the earth a permanent member of the great human
family a joint inheritor of the globe one among the
elements out of which are to be evolved the future forms
of the civilisation of mankind. What are the peculiar
characteristics, the distinctive features, of this new
element ? What the nature and direction of the influ-
ence it is destined to exert on the previously existing
developments of human character ? These are specula-
tions so veiled in the mist of the future, that a few
conjectures and suggestions will be all we can venture
to offer.

Our opportunities for observation of the Negro cha-
racter have so far been very inadequate and unsatisfac-
tory. We have seen him only in the unpierced darkness
of his native forests, or amid the brutalising slavery of
North America or Cuba, or in the anomalous position
he has hitherto occupied in our own sugar islands. We
have never yet seen him fairly exposed to civilising in-
fluences. Hence our knowledge of his character must
necessarily be both superficial and imperfect. We have
only contemplated him on one side, and from one point
of view. Thus much, however, we think appears clearly.

* See Combe's Notes on America. Gurney's West Indies.



10 DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES

His character is rather that of the infancy of civilised
than of the maturity of savage life. He has much of
the child and much of the uneducated man about him.
Like most children, and like most uncultivated minds
in all countries, he has inordinate fondness for dress, for
gaiety, for show. Like all persons of buoyant spirits,
but of no mental resources like the Roman savages
under the Empire his chief demand is for food and
amusement, panem et circenses. Like the children of
most countries, like the grown up children of France, he
delights in gaudy and flaunting spectacles. Like all
men who have no intellectual pleasures and no moral
refinement like many, indeed, who are possessed of
both, he is addicted to sensual enjoyments ; but we do
not know that he is so in any inordinate degree.

He appears to learn quickly fully as quickly as most
Europeans ; to have great facility for the acquisition of
knowledge, but to be defective in the inventive and ini-
tiative qualities. He seems to want logical capacity, at
least in practice. Like the Irish, he is remarkable for
faourderie* But much, if not all, of this may be ac-
counted for by the fact that we have never seen him
fairly thrown upon his own resources, and compelled to
think for himself. Whenever he has been in contact
with civilisation, he has always been in leading strings.
Now, there is no degree of helplessness to which this
may not reduce a man, or a nation.

As far, then, as we can form an estimate of the in-
tellect of the African race, from the unfavourable cir-
cumstances under which alone we have been able to
view it, we should pronounce it to be quick and ready,
but not strong ; imitative, not original. We should
imagine that the Negro would not be likely to add to
the stock of human knowledge, but that he would

* Journal of a West Indian Proprietor. By M. Lewis. Passim,
especially p. 393.



ON MODERN HISTORY. 11

readily acquire whatever others had discovered ; that,
unassisted, he would not probably achieve any high
degree of civilisation * ; but that, when brought into
connexion with European advancement, he will rise
rapidly in cultivation ; and that he is quite capable of
holding a most respectable station in that congeries of
ranks and classes which compose the great fabric of
civilised society.

But it is from the peculiar moral qualities of the
Negro that we anticipate the principal modifications of
the future aspect of human civilisation. In these the
African and the Caucasian race seem to be radically and
essentially distinct. The one character seems to be, as
it were, the complement and counterpart of the other.
The European is vehement, energetic, proud, tenacious,
and revengeful : the African f is docile, gentle, humble,
grateful, and commonly forgiving. The one is ambi-
tious, and easily aroused ; the other meek, easily con-
tented, and easily subdued. The one is to the other as
the willow to the oak. The European character appears

* See, for many examples of Negro capacity, and the testimony of
many writers to their moral qualities, Lawrence's " Lectures," vol. ii.
pp. 217 222. If, as many eminent writers imagine, and as there
seem ample grounds for concluding, the ancient Ethiopians were
genuine Negroes, though exhibiting the peculiar features of that race
in a less aggravated degree than the dwellers on the coast of Guinea,
we should be justified in ascribing to that race far higher intellectual
capacities than we have here claimed for them. The Ethiopians
appear to have been the parents of Egyptian science and civilisation,
and to have attained, as existing monuments attest, a high eminence
in many arts in the very earliest periods of history. Those who
wish to enter into this question in detail will find ample materials
in Volney's " Ruins of Empires," App., p. 278 ; Pritchard's "Physical
History of Man," vol. ii. pp. 282. 289. 330; Burkhardt's " Travels;"
Denon, " Description de 1'Egypte."

| There is no doubt considerable variation in the degree to which
this delineation will apply to the different tribes of Africa. "We
speak of the generality of them.



12 DR. ARNOLD'S LECTURES

to be the soil best fitted for the growth of the hardy
and active virtues hallowed by Pagan morality ; the
African character to be more especially adapted for
developing the mild and passive excellences which the
gentle spirit of Christianity delights to honour.

There is a time for all things. There is a place, and
an hour, in the divine plan, for all modifications of
human character. Intellectual energy and Christian



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