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Division J^^^^l.Umit^^ O
Section. ..\ Ia VC? 3 1





Mosaic + Sacrifices


Leviticus i-viii



"tlbtnl? not tbat % am come to Destroy tbe law or tbe
propbets: % am not come to C)estrog but to fulfil."

— S. Matth. V. 17.

London, and Sydney, N.S.W.



**3n promptu est %cviticxxs libcVf in quo stnoula sacrificia,
immo stnaul^ pene s^llab^, et vestes Haron, et totus orOo
Xevtticus spirant coelestia Sacramenta."

— S. Jerome.

All the Books of the Pentateuch are named by the Jews in
accordance with their initial words. Thus, Genesis is called
Bereschith, since it begins with that word ; Exodus, Veelleh
Shemoth ; Numbers, Vayedabber ; Deuteronomy, Elleh Hadde-
bartm. The present book is called Vayikra. It is also called
Thorah Cohe^ian, i.e., " The Law of the Priests," and so it is
designated in the Arabic and Syriac Versions. In the Septuagint
it is called Leuiticon^ and in our version Leviticus, since it treats of
the sacrifices, the priesthood of Aaron, and various other rites and
ceremonies, the due performance of which belonged strictly to the
tribe of Levi, as being especially dedicated to the service of the
sanctuary. The author of this Book was Moses : a fact which is
not only admitted by the Jews, but which is confirmed by the
authority of the New Testament in several places, e.g., compare
S. Matthew viii. 4 with Lev. xiv. 4, 10: S. John viii. 5 with Lev.
XX. 10, Deut. xxii. 22, etc.

The Book of Leviticus may be divided into four principal
parts : —

I. — Various laws concerning the sacrifices to be offered by
the Israelites, and certain other rites connected with
them. E.g., the burnt offering: the meal offering:
the peace offering : the sin offering : the trespass
offering. Chap, i.-vii.

11. — rhe Institution of the xVaronic priesthood. This part
contains an account of the consecration of Aaron and
his sons to their office : the first offerings of Aaron :
the descent of fire from Heaven : the sin of Nadab
and Abihu in offering strange fire, and their punish-
ment. Chap, viii.-x.


III. — Various laws concerning" food, and the purifications
both of priests and people. E.g., the living creatures
that might, and that might not, be eaten : the tokens
whereby the priest was to be guided in discerning
leprosy : the rites in the cleansing" of the leper : the
scape-goat : the Day of Atonement : divers laws relat-
ing to priests : Feasts of the Lord. Chap, xi.-xxiii.

IV. — Various laws concerning Festivals, Blasphemy, the
Year of Jubilee, Vows, and Tithes. Chap, xxiv.-end.

The connection between the Christian Religion and the
Mosaic dispensation is clearly marked by Heb. i. i. We are there
told that " God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake
in times past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last
days spoken unto us by His Son." The times there spoken of
reach from the first to the last prophecy, and the maimers refer to
the types, prophetical characters, and typical deliverances with
which the Old Testament abounds. It is clear that in the judge-
ment of the sacred writer, a certain plan and purpose pervades
the whole of the Old Testament, viz. : — that it points forward to a
coming Saviour and His Church. From the first promise of the
woman's Seed in Genesis iii., to the announcement of the Baptist,
the forerunner of Jesus Christ in Mai. iii., this plan may be clearly
traced in each of the sacred Books, whether historical, or prophet-
ical, or (like the Psalms) devotional.

But Leviticus is strictly a ritualistic and ceremonial Book.
It points forward, not so much to the Person as to the Work, the
Sacrifice, the Atonement, which the Messiah when He came, would
work out, and the duties, both of minister and people in regard
to It. The religious services, however, which are prescribed in
this Book are principally the different kind of sacrifices typical of
the Sacrifice of Christ, as the climax and grand feature of His
work on earth. These sacrifices, of course, could not be offered
without the shedding of blood : and this institution of animal
sacrifices had continued from patriarchal days down to the giving
of the Law by Moses, no other offering but that of animals being
recorded in Holy Scripture, except in the case of Cain, when the
offering was rejected, and for this reason, that Cain, by merely
offering the fruits of the earth, did not own himself a sinner : but
it was this which Abel did, and hence he is said to have offered
in faith, Heb. xi. 4, and his sacrifice, therefore, was the earliest
type and foreshadowing of the Sacrifice of the Cross.


We see from the first chapter of Leviticus, that the blood of
the victim was always to be sprinkled, and the victim itself
consumed by fire. This clearly teaches us (as the Epistle to the
Hebrews shews) that the merits of the Saviour will be of no avail to
us, unless they be applied to the soul by individual faith : and that
our sins deserve, and must have incurred, the wrath of Him, Who
is a "consuming fire," Heb. xii. 29, if our Great Sacrifice had not
endured it in our stead. The same may be said of all the other
sacrifices, especially that of the Passover, which from first to last
was in every particular a type of the Sacrifice of Christ.

Then, besides the sacrifices, the Book of Leviticus prescribes
a number of ceremonies, all of which were purifications from
uncleanness, and all of which in different ways were intended to
teach reverence towards God's House, His worship, and all holy
things connected with His Service — the necessity of inward purity
of heart, and life and principles — the difficulty of rooting out evil
habits, the leprosy of sin, from the mind — the danger of sinful
affections in such as worship the true God — and the duty of thank-
fulness. The ritual, therefore of the Old Church was not only
binding upon its members, but was full of spiritual teaching, as
may also be truly said of the ritual of the Catholic Church now.

But the great value of the Book of Leviticus consists in the
clear view it gives of the Sacrifice of Christ. As in each of the
Holy Gospels we find some special attribute of the Office of Christ
laid down more clearly than in the others, so the various sacrifices
enumerated in this Book bring out the various phases of the one
great Sacrifice offered by our Saviour. That Sacrifice could not be
represented by any one sacrifice : to gain, therefore, an insight into
the fulness of the Atoning Sacrifice of our Master, we must study
each of the Levitical sacrifices separately, and by itself. These
sacrifices, be it remembered, could only be offered by the duly
constituted Jewish Clergy. This taught the Jews (and teaches us)
the necessity of a settled ministry. The Jewish threefold order of
High Priest, Priest, and Levite, finds its counterpart in the Bishop,
Priest, and Deacon of the Christian Church. These are they whom
S. Paul tells us to obey, and these alone may minister at the Altars
of the Church.

This brief Introduction may fitly be concluded in the words
of the learned Bishop Wordsworth who says : — ■" It is not too much
to assert . . . that no one can hope to have a clear view of the


sinfulness of Sin, and of the true character of the Atonement, and
also of the Holy Eiicharist, except by a diligent study of Leviticus."

And again : —

" This, therefore, is certain, that Leviticus is designed for the
edification of the Christian Church, and that its true meaning is to
be sought in the Gospel : and perhaps there is no portion of the
Old Testament which demands more careful attention from the
Christian student, or which will repay his labour with more
abundant fruit than Leviticus."

And once more : —

'* If therefore the Christian student desires to have a clear
view of the various phases, and divers effects of the One Great
Sacrifice offered once for all on the Cross : if he would comprehend
its composite universality, and analyze its distinct offices and
benefits : if he would understand the spiritual organism of each of
its parts, and admire the harmonious symmetry and Divine fulness
of the whole : and if he would rightly apprehend how that One
Sacrifice is continually represented in the Christian Church, and
how its virtue is ever communicated to the faithful in the Holy
Eucharist, he will have his desires fully satisfied, and his labours
amply rewarded, in reading the Book of Leviticus by the light of
the New Testament, and with the help of those expositions which
have been handed down from primitive times." — Introduction to
Leviticus, pp. 1,3.

The following abbreviations are used in this work




Hebrew Version.












Syriac Version.




Revised Version.




Authorized Version.




Targum of Onkelos.




Targum of Jonathan.




Junius and Tremellius.

All quotations from the Targums are taken from Etheridge's
translation, Ed. 1865.


Daily Burnt Offering.

ExOD. xxix. 38-43.


EXOD. CH. xxix. 38-43.

38. IFI0W tbis is tbat wbicb tbou sbalt offer upon tbe altar ;
two lambs of tbe first ^ear &ay bp Da^ continually?.

39. TTbe owz lamb tbou sbalt otter \\\ tbe morning ; an& tbe
otber lamb tbou sbalt otfer at even :

40. Hub witb tbe oxkz lamb a tentb Deal q>1 flour minale& witb
tbe fourtb part of an \i\\\ Qt beaten oil ; an& tbe tourtb part qI
an bin of wine for a &rinli offering.

4X. Hnt) tbe otber lamb tbou sbalt offer at even, an^ sbalt
^o tbereto accorMng to tbe meat offering of tbe morning, an&
accorMng to tbe &rinn offering tbereof, for a sweet savour, an
offering ma^e b^ fire unto tbe Xort).

42. Ubis sball be a continual burnt offering tbrougbout pour
generations at tbe &oor of tbe tabernacle of tbe congregation
before tbe OLorD : wbere % will meet pou, to speal? tbere unto

Before proceeding to consider the various voluntary and
private offerings which were such prominent features in the re-
ligious life of the ancient people of God, it is necessary to prefix
some remarks on the solemn and important offering enjoined in the
above passage. To this all the other offerings were subordinate,
and with this they were, so to speak, inseparably linked. iV clear
conception of the greater, therefore, must precede, and will afford
valuable help in, the study of the less. To have a thorough
knowledge of the ceremonial details and of the Christology of the
voluntary offerings, and yet not to have a distinct comprehension
of the powers and functions of the great daily obligatory offering,
would be to have a very imperfect knowledge of the subject. As
he who would intelligently consider the sublime doctrines of Chris-


tianity must do so in connection with, and based upon, the great
fact of the Incarnation, so must the student of the Levitical volun-
tary offerings consider them in connection with, and based upon,
the daily national burnt offering.

Two principal points at once present themselves for consider-
ation : I . The position of the daily burnt offering among the other
sacrifices; 2. its perpetual nature.

The position assigned to this solemn offering was unique.
It was the central sacrificial rite of the Jewish Church in its
corporate capacity. It was the cornerstone which bound together
the whole sacrificial structure, the centre round which all other
sacrifices were grouped, and in immediate dependance upon which
they were offered and accepted. " To secure inherence," says
Arch. Freeman, " in that one sacrifice was the object of all other
sacrifices, sprinklings, religious feastings, washings, forbearance
from particular kinds of food ; of all ceremonies, precautions, and
remedies whatsoever." As the sun is the centre of the solar
system, and controls all the bodies which belong to it, so the daily
burnt offering was the centre of the Jewish sacrificial system, and
controlled and kept in due disposition all other ceremonies and
sacrifices. That a close and intimate connexion existed between
it and the voluntary offerings is evident from the fact that such
portions of the latter as were to be burnt before Jehovah were laid
upon the embers of the continual sacrifice, Ex. xxix. 13, Lev. iii. 5,
etc. : nor can we doubt that the pious Israelite was by this pro-
vision intended to learn that his offering was to be united with,
and accepted by Jehovah through, the one great national, all
containing sacrifice which day and night was slowly and silently
burning on the Altar.

Another important point to notice is that the daily offering
was a continual offering. Nothing was allowed to stand in the
way of its daily performance. In Numbers xxviii. and xxix. the
injunction is no less than thirteen times expressly repeated that,
however numerous the other offerings might be, they were to be
" beside the continual burnt offering, and his meat offering, and his
drink offering." For this nothing could be substituted, with this
nothing might interfere. Its smoke was perpetually to rise from
the Altar, and enter the presence of Jehovah as an odour of rest
and refreshment. This was one of its distinguishing features that
it was an offering continually presented and never ceasing.

Having thus noticed the central position and perpetual
nature of the daily sacrifice we must now notice its great ac-


companiment. This was the sacred incense, compounded from a
divinely given formula, and which might only be used in the
service of the sanctuary, Exod. xxx. 34, sqq. This fact need only
be noticed here as it will be found duly annotated in ch. ii. i. The
point to be observed now is the object and office of the incense.
Here may be quoted the telling words of the above learned author
on this point. Of the incense he says that " Its function was to
carry the great covenant Sacrifice into the covenant Presence ....
The incense itself was intended to penetrate into the Holy of Holies.
And in it the whole of the sacrificial powers which gathered round
the Altar of burnt offering were summed up. By it the covenant
people were at length brought, in profoundest mystery, into the
very Presence Itself." That to the sacred incense were committed
powers of an extraordinary nature is evident from such passages
as ch. xvi. 13 and Numb. xvi. 48, where we read that by its means
the plague was stopped. Not that the incense per se had any mar-
vellous powers ; whatever might or virtue it possessed was derived
from the fact of its union with, and of its " summing up " in itself
the whole of the sacrificial powers of the great national offering.
Moreover, that the incense and the sacrifice were closely connected
is shewn by the fact that the offering of both took place as nearly
as possible simultaneously. It must also be observed that to the
daily incense, as to the daily sacrifice, the same term " perpetual "
was applied. Exod xxx, 8.

We now proceed to examine the typical nature of the offer-
ing under consideration. What was foreshadowed by the offering
itself? What by its central position ? What by its ** perpetual "
nature .?

The sacrifice of the lamb day by day was a clear type of
that One Sacrifice which in the fulness of time was to be offered
by Him who is " the Lamb as it had been slain " upon the Altar of
the Cross. That was the type, this the glorious reality. The
original type was the sacrifice of the beloved son of Abraham, the
daily sacrifice was a continuance of that type, the antitype was the
One, all-atoning, perfect Sacrifice of the beloved Son of God. The
Levitical offerings were devoid of intrinsic efficacy : they were but
figures of the reality to come. They exhibited in type and shadow
the Death and work of Christ, but in themselves they were ineffi-
cacious. It was from that Sacrifice of which they were typical that
the Jewish offerings derived by anticipation their efficacy, as it is
to that Sacrifice that the virtues of all Christian ordinances are to
be referred.


The unique position also held by the daily burnt offering
is most significant. As it was the central offering of the Elder,
so That of which it was the type holds a similar position among
the religious ordinances of the New Covenant. The Sacrifice of
Calvary is the centre around which all revolves, on which all de-
pends, the source of all efficacy whatsoever. As all the portions
of the sacrificial animal to be consumed by fire were to be laid
upon the embers of the daily sacrifice, to be consumed with and
by them, so all our service is to be offered in union with, and
accepted through, and, as it were, laid upon the Sacrifice of our
Divine Master; so that, whatever virtue that service may possess
is wholly derived from its dependance on His Sacrifice. It is to
that One central offering that the eye of faith ever turns in ador-
ing love.

We must next observe that by the continual daily sacrifice
was foreshadowed the perpetual presentation by our Saviour of
His Atoning Sacrifice in the presence of His Father. As the
typical victim was daily offered on earth by the typical priest, so
the Reality is ever pleaded and presented in the courts of Heaven
by Him who is both Priest and Victim. His work of Intercession,
i.e., of pleading His Sacrifice, never ceases. He is a Priest " for
ever," and has an "unchangeable Priesthood," Heb. vii. 21, 24,
and His work as Priest is ever carried on before the Heavenly
Altar where He continually offers Himself without spot. This His
Work is ever proceeding on our behalf, " He ever liveth to make
intercession " for us, lb. v. 25. By that term we must not under-
stand merely oral intercession, as though our great High Priest did
nothing but pray for us, but a sacrificial pleading of His Passion
and Death. The Divine Eye rests eternally on His Mediatorial
work. Tliis is His Intercession that He is ever presenting His
Sacrifice, ever pointing to His glorious Wounds, ever pleading
that great Offering of which the daily burnt sacrifice was the
shadow and the type.

But the great national offering was not merely a typical
sacrifice, but a solemn act of worship. It was the highest ex-
pression of devotion and homage of which the Mosaic system was
capable. To what conclusion does this fact point ? If, as is un-
questionably the case, the Jewish and Christian Churches are but
one body in progressive phases of developement, if, as the late
Bishop Wordsworth says (Commentary on Zechariah), Zion has
expanded into the Catholic Church of Christ, if, as S. Paul teaches,
Rom. xi. 18, Israel is the root of which the Christian Church is the


branch, then we naturally expect that in the latter there should be
a provision made for a continuation of the solemn act of worship
of the former. And this provision we find in the Holy Eucharist
regarded as a Sacrifice. That holy Rite is the highest and central
act of Christian worship, the culminating point of all service, the
one Rite ordained by Christ Himself, in which we plead the merits
of His all-prevailing Sacrifice, and shew forth His death till He
come, i. Cor. xi. 26. As the central act of Jewish worship looked
forward to the coming Offering of Calvary, so the highest and most
sublime act of Christian worship, the Eucharistic Sacrifice, looks
hack to that Offering, and is the Rite wherein " a memorial " is
made of the great work there accomplished. In Heaven and on
earth the work is identical, not here one offerer and another in
Heaven, not one Sacrifice on the Altars of the Church Militant,
and another on the Altar of the Heavenly Court, but on both
Altars lies the same Sacrifice, before each stands the same Priest,
in reality in Heaven, in figure on earth.

One more point remains to be considered. The great Mosaic
offering was to be presented " day by day " continually. This is
the pattern divinely given, and to this we ought to aspire in the
order of our sacramental worship. The daily offering of the Jewish
sacrifice should find its counterpart in the daily offering of the
Eucharistic Sacrifice on the Christian Altar. The Jewish rite was
to last till Christ the Reality abolished for ever all types and
shadows, it would seem therefore that a daily offering of the
more glorious and infinitely more efficacious Sacrifice of the
Eucharist is the rule at which we ought to aim. Circumstances,
indeed, may conspire to prevent this happy consummation, but
this should not only be the model, but wherever possible, the
practice of the Church till her Master shall come again.




Burnt Offering.

Chap. i. ; vi. 8-14 ; vii.




Chief feature. Entire consumption on the Altar.

Nature. Dedicatory to God.

Order. First in institution, second in application.

Treatment of blood. Poured round about upon the brazen Altar.

Treatment of flesh. Entirely burnt, the skin being given to the

officiating priest.
Vienio Resented of the work of Christ. Christ our Substitute, offering

to God, that He may be accepted, the entire sacrifice and

dedication of Himself, as an oblation of sweet savour.
Counterpart in the Sacramental system of the Chtirch. The Holy

Eucharist as a Sacrifice.

I. Hub tbe Xort) called unto /IDoses, ant) spafte unto bim
out ot tbe tabernacle of tbe conoreGatton, saline;,

And'] By this copulative is shewn the continuity of the Pentateuch
as a book. By the word and Leviticus is linked on to Exodus,
and Numbers to Leviticus.

—The Lord'] Targs. O. and Jon. say " The Word of the Lord."
—called] Heb. Yikra. In the Hebrew MSS. the a of this word is
in a smaller character than the rest ; thus, yikr^. Hence the Jews
suppose some mystery to be implied: e.g., that God met Moses
accidently, or that it pointed to the gentleness of the Divine call
as contrasted with the thunders on Sinai. Many such letters occur
in the sacred Text, and from them the Jewish doctors elicit endless

—out of the tabernacle of the congregation] In the holy Scriptures
we find the tabernacle designated by various names, e.g., ' The


house of Jehovah,' Ex. xxiii. 19, Josh, vi. 24, etc. : 'the Temple of
Jehovah/ i. Sam. i. 9, iii. 3 : ' the Sanctuary,' Ex. xxv. 8, Lev. xii.
4, etc. But the three names which most aptly describe the triple
design of the tabernacle are these : —

A. The Tabernacle of Meeting.

B. The Tabernacle of Witness or Testimony.

C. The Dwelling.

A. The Tabernacle of Meeting. It is unfortunate that mo'aed
should have been rendered 'congregation' in the A.V: for this
translation not only misses the significance of the Hebrew original,
but gives a false impression of the tabernacle and its uses, by lend-
ing itself to the idea that it was a place where a ' congregation ' in
the modern sense of the word, was intended to assemble. Not only
does the space enclosed by the Court (150ft. by 75ft,), and the size
of the two divisions of the Sacred building [Holy Place 30ft. by
15ft.: Holy of Holies 15ft. by 15ft.) forbid such an idea, but we
know that into the Holy Place none but the priests might enter,
and into the Holy of Holies none but the Highpriest, and that
only once a year on the great Day of Atonement.

The tabernacle, as this first name shews, was to be a place
of ' meeting,' not indeed of God and the whole congregation, but
of God with the people in the persons of His priests. See Ex. xxix.
42, 43 : XXX. 6, etc.

B. The Tabernacle of Witness or Testimony. " Where
Jehovah bears witness," says Kurtz, " through His covenant and
law that He is what He is, viz., the Holy One of Israel, who will
have Israel also to be holy as He is holy. Lev. xix. 2, and who
qualifies Israel for it by His blessing and atoning grace. Ex. xx.
24." Sacrif. Worsh. of O. T. (Clark, F. T. L.) p. 42.

C. The Dwelling. The Tabernacle was to be a divine habitation.
God was to dwell there, and that continually: and from that dwell-
ing place to pour forth blessings upon His chosen people. Ex. xxv.
8, xxix. 45, 46.

Such being the three most expressive names of the sacred
building, we must now enquire as to the mystical signification of

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