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realize the volume of work that this will entail, and the word "Pre-
paredness" assumes a special meaning. We are not prepared for
the work that must be at least attempted this year.




I9i6]



Overwhelming Need



543



Then and Now

I knew Tientsin in the late seventies, — a city bound tightly within
its walls, surrounded by suburbs and full of the noise and hurry of
traffic. There were long, almost uninhabited spaces between the
city and the foreign settlement. The chair, the cart, the donkey
were the means of transportation.

Last autumn I traversed the distance between the American Board
Compound northeast of the city, and the Methodist Episcopal Mis-
sion southwest of it, a route which led me in at one city gate and out




"Waiting for the Teacher



at another. The city wall taken down in 1901 is replaced by a mac-
adamized road and the population thus freed has burst out all over
the surrounding country. Large foreign style buildings abound,
tramways carry an unceasing stream of people. Automobiles are
to be seen, carriages and jinrikishas also, alongside the primitive
vender with carrying-pole and baskets. Electric lights, theaters,
and movies have come. Bookstores are here and quantities of goods
made for the new Chinese, foreign in style, but of native manufacture.
I was particularly struck with the drug stores, so numerous and so



544



Life and Light



[December



showy, advertising quack nostrums, some of which are known to
contain opium and other deleterious things.

Seeing these, I thought with hope of the projected Union Hospital
and Dispensary, with a nurse and a physician as our share, opening
hearts to the message of the evangelist in a field where already by
the testimony of an experienced worker not of our denomination the
need is phenomenal and the people more accessible each year.



A Strategic Point

The winds are southerly and blow us up the river to Tungchow as
in the old days before railway travel. This site of Tungchow, not
an hour from Peking by rail, is a strategic point and may well take
its place in the developing medical work of China. A large area of
"good will" toward foreign medicine secured by years of faithful
work, first, by a woman physician then by a medical man and his
wife, a trained nurse, we have here. Clinics for women have been
large and now call for full time of a woman physician.




Gospel Chapel at Tungchow
Showing' the Opportunity at its Door



19 i6]



Overwhelming Need



545



A much-valued worker having left the field for health reasons,
the need is now for two single women for educational and woman's
work in the Tungchow District. It is evident that the cares are too
heavy and the nervous strain too great for one. We scan the list
of those commissioned and find one of these much-desired young
women, Miss Margaret Smith of Vancouv'^er, just adopted by the
W. B. M. and on her way to China.




The New Girls' fcchool Building at Paotingfu



Fii-TY Waiting Cities

At our last district
meeting a map of Pao-
tingfu with its country
district was displayed.
It contained fifty hsien
cities and covered more
ground than the Tient-
sin, Peking, and Tung-
chow fields combined.
It seems hopelessly large. Yet hopefulness and achievement charac-
terize its band of workers. Paotingfu has long craved a physician,
a dispensary, and "follow-up" tours to the country. How the
ignorance of first principles of healthful living cries out for such en-
lightenment! Just one foreign doctor is asked for all that region,
which has a river population extending the chance for influence up and
down the waterways, and only one ordained man for the increased
volume of evangelistic work that medical work is sure to bring.

With the fifty cities waiting for the evangelist, what woman will
join our forces and share the touring and city work? To secure the
right proportion of men and women in the church, to reach our ideal,
the Christian home, we must have some one out in the field practi-
cally all the time. The enlargement of the school keeps one woman
at home, and there is more than enough work in city and country
for two others.

Investment in Peking

In addition to the "teaching physician" needed for the Woman's
Union Medical College we have asked for a normal teacher to train



546 Life and Light [December

for efficient teaching in our elementary schools. It is an axiom
that a broad foundation is needed to insure the permanence of any
structure. The application of this is now being made to our system
of schools, our elementary schools upon which academy and college
stand. Failure here means a paucity of material for the super-
structure. So the word is passed along the line to nourish existing
grade schools, improve the housing conditions, and, where possible,
open new schools.

But here is our "Pei Yuan" South Church elementary school for
girls, trying the past year to do its work in borrowed, scattered, and
inadequate buildings, though this school receives the largest number
of children of officials and scholars. The need is imperative for
funds to purchase land and erect the needed building. Through
revolution and change, whether monarchy or republic, when non-
Christian or Government schools have closed, we find mission schools
moving along the quiet tenor of their way, and the knowledge of
this gives us assurance in asking for further investment to enable
us to expand, as such events give us opportunity. The sum asked
for this school is really at the head of the list, with that for the Yii
Yin g chain of schools on the men's side of the field.

Those who have watched our work the last two years realize that
we are meeting a generally felt need in organization and conduct of
the Union Training School for Christian Workers, usually spoken of
as the Woman's Bible School. The unanimity with which members
of four missions have come forward to help in this work, and the
growth in numbers, with the decision of some who have finished the
elementary course to undertake the advanced course, all augur well
for the development of the school. Our part in it should be a strong
one. It is adjacent to our church, the land given as our part of the
enterprise. Its principals, thus far, have been of our mission.

We ask therefore for two women, one to teach in the Bible School,
and the other an evangelist. That is, one needs special gifts as a
teacher and organizer, with breadth enough to follow her pupils
in thought to their fields of work, and sometimes to visit them and
help solve their problems. The other woman should be gifted in
meeting all sorts of people, drawing out their latent desire of improve-
ment. She should show the church members how to keep the church



igi6] Overwhelming Need 547

life warm, how to attract strangers to it ; she should plan the work
of the district with the Bible women, examine their classes, recom-
mending suitable ones for entrance to the Bible School. In short,
these two, one mainly in the field, city and country, and the other
mainly in the school, should co-ordinate their work. The appeal
is for added funds to secure adequate housing for the rapidly growing
school for Christian workers. Our feeling of the dignity and im-
portance of the work should be shown by the character of the housing,
and as we predict for it a development which will secure even better
prepared students, and teaching commensurate, we should plan
for housing suitable for the enterprise.

It is doubtless for the growth of the College (Women's Union Arts
College) that it is removing to its own location, which to our joy is
not far away from the American Board Compound. It is a fine
old property, with much rare old cedar timber in its buildings, but
in such a run-down condition that months of repair have been neces-
sary, and in this day one can but feel the urgent need of the dormi-
tories, and for equipment of many sorts. The crown of its work,
the graduates, are absolutely essential to the social reconstruction
now upon us. In its President, Miss Miner, we have a woman gifted
beyond most in her ability to lead out into broad fields of thought
and activity. May the women and funds requested be cordially
supplied.



How can I Keep Informed about Missions?

1. By spending some money on my own missionary education.

How much has it cost thus far?

2. By reading missionary books and magazines.

How many have I read this year?

3. By joining a missionary discussion group.

Is there one in my church?

4. By attending missionary conventions.

How many have I attended?

5. By contact with missionaries.

How many do I know? — Missionary Monthly.



Our Field Correspondents



Dr. Ruth P. Hume writes from Ahmednagar : —

We have been having an unprecedented epidemic of plague in
Admednagar. At least it is the worst. one which I have personally
seen. But before I came to India, there was one with a heavier
mortality. Ten days ago I thought the epidemic might possibly
be just beginning to wane. But instead it is gaining more headway.
The report for yesterday shows thirty-seven new cases, whereas the
highest report previous has been twenty-one cases. A good many
thousand people have already been inoculated. A great many left
the city. Some of those I understand are returning and are con-
tracting the disease. And unfortunately it is being carried to sur-
rounding villages. Our staff has attended to over 2,800 cases thus
far. Of course a large number of these are women.

It is a pity that the people have had such a fear of inoculation.
To be sure, it does give considerable discomfort for a while. But it
varies with the individual, and some people have comparatively no
trouble. Although it does not give absolute immunity and the
immunity runs out for the most part in six months, it is so great a
protection that every one ought to submit to it. But the people's
prejudices had to be gradually overcome. In fact, they were given
the option of being inoculated or leaving, but that order had to be
carried out with discretion.

I had great pleasure three weeks ago in giving a lecture on tuber-
culosis in Marathi in a lecture course in Poona for fairly well educated
Indian women. This was repeated by request at the Government
Training College for women teachers. That was a particularly
interested audience. But I think the most appreciated part of the
talk was a set of illustrations the ideas for which I took from some
American cartoons. The drawing master entered into their spirit
and put them into Indian setting — with Indian people in Indian
clothes, and living, eating, sleeping and dying and being burned, or
else getting well in Indian fashion. I was particularly amused at a
picture intended to carry the point of having an abundance of good
food. The artist showed a Brahman sitting at his meal on the floor

(548)



igi6] Our Field Correspondents 549

and his wife waiting on him. I think, however, that there are a few
Brahman homes where, when there are no guests, the wife sits down
with her husband. I wish I had time to do a lot of work in getting
up health exhibits.

Another of our graduate nurses left us the first of the month to take
a position in a government hospital at a pay nearly three times what
she was getting here. Our nurses realize that it is worth while to
know English, so they have asked Dr. Proctor for an English class.
To be sure, from the very beginning all written orders and reports
have been in English but there has been a very great deal of Marathi
used. Of course it must be continued to a very great extent, both
with nurses and especially with patients. We certainly do not want
them to give up their own language. Dr. Proctor said, "All right,
I will give you an English class every week." And they replied,
"We want one every day." Accordingly they come to the bungalow
every night except Sunday and Wednesday for an English lesson.
Wednesday the Station has its regular prayer meeting. They all
did well in their last examination, which rewarded Dr. Proctor and
me for all the time we had put on them.

Mrs. Amy Bridgman Cowles writes from Umzumbe, South Africa: —

We are not just working for girls here, we are training and inspiring
the future mothers and home-makers of this Zulu race, the finest race
of savages in all Africa, we believe, in all the world, perhaps. If
only miserable white civilization would let our people alone! That
is our worst problem, the corrupting towns of civilized Europeans.
If we could only be delivered from all that, a warfare against straight
dead black heathenism would seem comparatively simple. Our
girls must face that. They must raise up clean homes right in the
midst of the double heathenism of savagery and corrupt white people.
Is not theirs a task fit to make the best trained of their teachers quail?
But it is through these girls, through the homes which they will
eventually establish, that the salvation of this Zulu race must be
wrought. To bring this about is the task to which our Woman's
Boards have set their hands. Because we realize so constantly the
serious nature of our task, because we know that without deep-down
religion, all this work will be of no avail, therefore it was most grati-



550 Life and Light - [December

fying to have last term close with a strong, quiet religious awakening
among our girls. Mr. Cowles had taken over the Bible teaching of
the school early in the term. For weeks the girls had been having
pretty solid instruction in the Bible. I had also organized a. Chris-
tian Endeavor Society which the girls took hold of wonderfully in
all the various committees, etc. Still we did not see the real awaken-
ing and interest we longed for. Finally just before the term closed,
our Mr. Taylor, the head of our theological school, came to us on
an evangelistic tour. Mr. Taylor's searching sermons gave us just
the help we needed. There was a general breaking down among
the girls. Before they left for their homes, every girl in school with
two or three exceptions had signed a card of reconsecration. It was
lovely to have them express such gratitude for the help they had
received, as they were leaving. In my last Christian Endeavor meet-
ing for the term, two or three girls stood up at a time and for an hour
all testified to the great help the special meetings had brought them.

As to the schoolroom work proper, the actual teaching of the three
R's, Miss Tebbatt must report on that. Suffice it to say that in
the Government "exams" of two years ago, this school came out
second in the Colony, — another feather in Miss Tebbatt's cap.

Toward the end of the term I distinguished myself by breaking my
right arm. I had been across the river to caU on a dying woman.
On my return it was getting late, so I told a native boy to put Freder-
ick up on the horse behind me. Very promptly the old nag, who had
never been known to buck before, put down his head and threw up
his heels and in a few moments he succeeded in sending Frederick
and me flying through the air. Frederick landed on all fours "like
a cat," he says, and was absolutely unhurt, but I, alas, came down
on my right arm, which snapped in two just below the shoulder.
Soon Mr. Cowles and the girls were flying down the hill through the
deep grass and past the euphorbia trees; then a score of willing hands
were bearing the canvas cot and its burden up the precipitous hill.
As the little procession tugged and panted along its way in the twi-
light, and all so dear and sympathetic, those words about Livingstone's
Faithfuls rang through my head, "Borne by loving hands over land
and sea," etc., and like him I knew the broken bones of my arm would
brand me for life, so felt really quite distinguished, and through



igi6] Our Field Correspondents 551

it all the uppermost feeling was only one of deep thanksgiving, to
think that after all it was only an arm that was broken. A midnight
ride to the railway station, 24 miles away, and a telephone message
by our kind, trader friend, brought our mission doctor the next day.
That was quick work for Africa; nevertheless it was quite an expe-
rience to He for 24 hours with broken bones waiting for the doctor to
come and set them. He came at last, however, and gave ether,
and here endeth this film.

Our vacation has been filled with annual meetings mostly. With
my arm in a sHng and an empty sleeve, I went to our own annual meet-
ing at Inanda, 130 miles away. It was rather difficult traveling and
as my mending bones were joggled over the stones for 24 miles to our
railway station, I sighed again for that other road, only 12 miles
long, which we could cut through the bushes in the opposite direction,
had we only the dollars to do it with. We rushed home from our
own meeting to prepare for the native annual meeting, which came
here this year. It was a big event, and a tremendous crowd for this
Httle station to entertain. Some of our people had 20 and 30 to
feed and sleep for the five days of the meetings. How they ever
managed it in their tiny homes and with only pots to cook in, I do
not see. I do feel proud of our women. I had ten in my family,
missionaries of course, and with meetings going on at all hours of
the day, it was contract enough for me, even with a big house and
things to do with. We had overflow meetings at nearly every ses-
sion and on Sunday we all overflowed out onto the grass under some
big shade trees. There were 500 of us here, and, oh, it was a beauti-
ful service, followed by Communion all together. Some of our
Zulu pastors are certainly grand, and there was a magnificent array
of them here, — great big, fine-looking men, with abihty and brains,
and yet none of them doing a more beautiful work than our little
hunchbacked pastor, Qanda. His station at Dweshulahs is one
which Mr. Cowles has been given to supervise. I will tell you about
it some day. During the meeting we entertained two chiefs, one
for Sunday dinner only. Both "His Royal Highnesses" were
delightful. I do like royalty, the Zulu variety, I mean.

It would have interested our W. B. M. ladies to have attended the
sessions of our Zulu mothers' organization. This is a society organ-



552 Life and Light [December

ized by our Zulu mothers themselves and on their own initiative.
Its object is especially the protection of Zulu girls as well as the bet-
terment of home conditions. It certainly was of absorbing interest
to see those Zulu women presiding, passing motions, appointing
committees, etc. They have also raised $150 with which their society
has opened a bank account, and they suggested using it to pay the
expenses of a lady missionary who should go to the different stations
and conduct Bible classes.

Miss Lucy K. Clark writes from Uduvil, Ceylon : —

To-day is one of those absolutely breathless days when one feels
just like a limp rag. It has been raining this morning, which has
added to the steaminess and made the atmosphere more humid than
usual. Jaffna is considered about as dry a section as there is in
Ceylon, so it is not common for us to have this depressing heat.
This is "Colombo" weather.

We are thankful that we have no flies and no mosquitoes to molest
us. That is because the compound is so thoroughly swept and
cleaned every day. Not having a large compound and having 300
girls to sweep it, it is possible to Hve in quite sanitary surroundings.
Could you stay here overnight, early in the morning about five
o'clock you might be awakened by the sound of voices singing Tamil
lyrics. Then a while later, about six, you would hear a vigorous
sweeping going on all over the compound and with it a lively chatter
from the numerous girls at work. Looking out, you would see them
squatting on the ground and dexterously wielding brooms which
are merely a bundle of small supple sticks tied together. Then
they have their rice and curry, after first attending prayers (in Tamil)
at seven. At eight o'clock the Tamil school alone again has pray-
ers, and at 8.45 the English school meets (this time in English
for the older standard — and Tamil for the younger), after which
commences the regular work of the day, the first period in all classes
being devoted to Bible study. It is so arranged because it is felt
that, the children's minds being fresher during the first period, the
Bible should then be taught. This policy I understand is carried
out in most of the village day schools, though of course it depends
there largely upon the teacher.



igiS] Our Field Correspondents 553

At 4.30 the English school has its closing exercises, devotional of
course, and after that there is often a meeting in the church which
the girls attend. Besides this the pastor comes regularly on Tuesday
evening and conducts a prayer meeting of the united schools. Then
on Sundays there is an early prayer meeting at 6.30 a.m. (optional
with the girls as to their attendance, but most of them go), a preaching
service at 9.00, Christian Endeavor meeting at 11.00, Sunday school
at 3.00, and vesper service at 6.00. Often after the vesper service
the Tamil school girls will gather in the Tamil hall or verandah and
sing lyrics, and many of the English school girls will come into the
sitting room and sing hymns in English. You cannot wonder that
the girls living in such an atmosphere absorb some Christian truths.

One of the Wesleyan missionaries in Jaffna Town is said to have
characterized the girls' school in Jaffna as follows: "Uduvil is noted
for its religion, ChundicuUy (the C. M. S. girls' school) for scholar-
ship, and Vernabadi (the school of which the one quoted is head)
for practical, useful things." We are not so sure about that; when
our girls are v>^inning honors in their studies, we do not feel they are
much behind in scholarship. One of our girls has just been given
"an exhibition," which means a prize of rupees sixty for being the
highest in the island of Ceylon in her junior piano examination.
And so far as "practical, useful things," our girls have to do most
all their own cooking, and besides they all take sewing, in which
they do well. Besides this they make their own beds and help in
keeping everything in order about the school. No, I do not feel
that our girls are so "religious" that they fail otherwise. Rather,
I am glad our girls can show their religion by attaining scholarships
and doing helpful things.



The fundamental mission of the church is not to bestow alms but capacity, not
to offer temporary comforts but a sound, permanent, spiritual health. This is to
be the church's distinction , as it was ever the distinction of our Lord. She is to
be the herald and minister of a unique and altogether unshared service. Her
blessed work, in Christ Jesus, is to make the lame man leap, and to make the
dumb man sing, and to make the wounded spirit whole, and to make all moral
cripples like unto angels which excel in strength. — /. H. Jowett.



The Wider View



Korean Christians in Manchuria.

Over 200,000 Koreans have recently moved into Manchuria, where
they have started farms. In one district every Korean has become
a Christian and is a regular attendant at the church services. For
the week's Bible study 202 men registered, some of them having
walked 80 or 100 miles, carrying their food on their backs to save
the expense. The life in these little communities is similar in many
ways to that of the early church as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.
If any family is unfortunate with their harvest, their more fortunate
brethren make up the lack from their own supply. The Korean
readily learns the Chinese language and already a number of them
have become members of the Chinese church established by the
Irish and Scotch Presbyterian Missions.

The Cost of the War.

Since the beginning of the great war not less than 2,000 mission-
aries have been recalled or deported from foreign fields, schools
have been closed, churches have been turned over to natives, many
mission hospitals are now used only for wounded soldiers, and valu-
able mission presses are idle. The cost of the war has already
reached the fabulous sum of $35,000,000,000 — ten times the amount
spent in Christian work in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the
Islands of the Sea since Christ gave to His disciples the great com-
mission.

Lessening Use of Intoxicants.

One good result of the war is the hard blow that has struck the sale
of intoxicants. Russia is already feeling the benefit of the vodka
prohibition and France is blest by the destruction of the sale of
absinthe. When Germany gives up her beer, France foregoes wine,


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