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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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WOMAN'S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY


VOLUME FIVE


FRUIT AND FRUIT DESSERTS

CANNING AND DRYING

JELLY MAKING, PRESERVING, AND PICKLING

CONFECTIONS

BEVERAGES

THE PLANNING OF MEALS


WOMAN'S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.


PREFACE

This volume, the fifth of the Woman's Institute Library of Cookery,
deals with the varieties of fruits and the desserts that can be made
from them, the canning and preserving of foods, the making of
confections of every description, beverages and their place in the diet,
and every phase of the planning of meals.

With fruits becoming less seasonal and more a daily food, an
understanding of them is of great value to the housewife. In _Fruit and
Fruit Desserts_, she first learns their place in the diet, their nature,
composition, and food value. Then she proceeds with the preparation and
serving of every variety of fruit. Included in this section also are
fruit cocktails, those refreshing appetizers often used to introduce a
special meal.

To understand how to preserve perishable foods in the seasons of plenty
for the times when they are not obtainable is a valuable part of a
housewife's knowledge. _Canning and Drying_ deals with two ways of
preserving foodstuffs, treating carefully the equipment needed and all
the methods that can be employed and showing by means of excellent
illustrations, one of them in natural colors, every part of the
procedure followed. The fruits and vegetables that permit of canning, as
well as certain meats and fish, are taken up in a systematic manner.

_Jelly Making, Preserving, and Pickling_ continues a discussion of the
home preservation of foods, showing how they can be kept for long
periods of time not by sterilization, but with the aid of preservatives.
Each one of these methods is treated as to its principles, equipment,
and the procedure to be followed. After trying the numerous recipes
given, the housewife will be able to show with pride the results of her
efforts, for nothing adds more to the attractiveness and palatability of
a meal than a choice jelly, conserve, marmalade, or jam.

_Confections_ deals with that very delightful and fascinating part of
cookery - confection making. Not only are home-made confections cheaper
than commercially made ones, but they usually contain more wholesome
materials, so it is to the housewife's advantage to familiarize herself
with the making of this food. Recipes are given for all varieties of
confections, including taffies, caramels, cream candies, and the
confections related to them. Fondant making is treated in detail with
illustrations showing every step and directions for making many
unusual kinds.

Though beverages often receive only slight consideration, they are so
necessary that the body cannot exist very long without them. In
_Beverages_ is discussed the relation of beverages to meals, the classes
of beverages, and the preparation of those required by the human system,
as well as the proper way to serve them. In addition to coffee, tea,
cocoa, chocolate, and cereal beverages, fruit, soft, and nourishing
drinks receive their share of attention.

To be a successful home maker, it is not enough for a housewife to know
how to prepare food; she must also understand how to buy it, how to look
after the household accounts, what constitutes correct diet for each
member of her family, how to plan menus for her regular meals and for
special occasions, and the essentials of good table service. All these
things, and many more, she learns in _The Planning of Meals_, which
completes this volume.


CONTENTS


FRUIT AND FRUIT DESSERTS
Fruit in the Diet
Composition of Fruits
Food Value of Fruits
Preparing and Serving Fruits
Blackberries
Blueberries
Cranberries
Raspberries
Strawberries
Miscellaneous Berries
Apples
Apricots
Cherries
Grapes
Peaches
Pears
Plums
Quinces
Rhubarb
Grapefruit
Lemons
Oranges
Miscellaneous Citrus Fruits
Bananas
Pineapples
Miscellaneous Tropical Fruits
Melons
Fruit Cocktails
Dates
Figs
Prunes
Raisins
Dried Apples, Apricots, and Peaches


CANNING AND DRYING
Necessity for Preserving Foods
Principles of Canning
General Equipment for Canning
Open-Kettle Method
Cold-Pack Method
Procedure in the One-Period Cold-Pack Method
Procedure in the Fractional-Sterilization Method
Steam-Pressure Methods
Canning with Tin Cans
Oven Method
Preparation for Canning
Directions for Canning Vegetables
Directions for Canning Fruits
Sirups for Canning Fruits
Canning Meat and Fish
Storing and Serving Canned Foods
Scoring Canned Foods
Principles of Drying
Drying Methods
Directions for Drying Vegetables and Fruits
Storing and Cooking Dried Foods


JELLY MAKING, PRESERVING, AND PICKLING
Value of Jellies, Preserves, and Pickles
Principles of Jelly Making
Equipment for Jelly Making
Procedure in Jelly Making
Scoring Jelly
Recipes for Jelly
Principles of Preserving
Preserves
Conserves
Marmalades
Jams
Butters
Principles of Pickling
Recipes for Pickles
Recipes for Relishes


CONFECTIONS
Nature of Confections
Composition of Confections
Foundation Materials in Confections
Flavorings
Colorings
Acids
Food Materials
Equipment for Confection Making
Cooking the Mixture
Pouring and Cooling the Mixture
Finishing Candies
Taffies and Similar Candies
Caramels
Fudge and Related Candies
Fondant and Related Creams
Miscellaneous Confections
Serving Candy


BEVERAGES
Nature and Classes of Beverages
Water in Beverages
Relation of Beverages to Meals
Alcoholic Beverages
Stimulating Beverages
History and Production of Coffee
Preparation of Coffee
Serving Coffee
History and Production of Tea
Preparation of Tea
Serving Tea
Nature and Selection of Cocoa and Chocolate
Preparation of Cocoa and Chocolate
Serving Cocoa and Chocolate
Cereal Beverages
Ingredients for Fruit Beverages
Preparation of Fruit Beverages
Soft Drinks
Nourishing Beverages


THE PLANNING OF MEALS
Necessity for Careful Meal Planning
Successful Marketing
Keeping Household Accounts
Factors Influencing Cost of Foods
Economical Buying
Suitability of Food
Composition of Food
Balancing the Diet
Diet for Infants and Children
Diet for the Family
Proportion of Food Substances
General Rules for Menu Making
Card-File System for Menu Making
Dinner Menus
Luncheon Menus
Breakfast Menus
Menus for Special Occasions
Table Service


* * * * *

FRUIT AND FRUIT DESSERTS

FRUIT IN THE DIET

1. FRUIT, as is generally understood, is the fleshy, juicy product of
some plant or tree which, when ripe, is suitable for use as food.
Although some fruits are seedless, they generally contain the seeds of
the plants or trees that produce them. Many fruits require cooking to
make them palatable, others are never cooked, and still others may be
cooked or eaten raw, as desired.

Fruits, because they are wholesome, appetizing, and attractive, occupy a
valuable place in the diet. In fact, it is these qualities rather than
their food value that accounts for the popularity of fruits among all
people. In addition to causing fruits to appeal to the esthetic sense,
their attractiveness serves another important purpose. It is said that
Nature made them attractive in color, odor, and flavor in order that
birds might be allured to attack them for food and, by spreading the
seeds, assist in their propagation.

2. Fruits are gradually growing to be less seasonal and more a daily
food, and are thus constantly becoming more prevalent in the diet. This
condition may be attributed to the present rapid means of transportation
and the excellent methods of cold storage that exist. Through these
agencies it is possible to ship more or less perishable fruits long
distances from their native localities and at times of the year other
than the particular season in which they are at their best in the places
where they are grown. Thus, fruits that were formerly considered a
luxury may now be served regularly, even on the tables of persons having
only moderate means.

The fact that fruits are being more extensively used every day is as it
should be, for this food is entitled to an important place in the diet
of all persons. So important is fruit in the diet that it must be looked
on not as one of the things that may be taken or omitted as a person
wishes without making any difference either way, but as a food to
include in one form or another in nearly every meal. The child who is so
young that it cannot take any solid food may have fruit juices included
in its diet to decided advantage; but children who are slightly older
and adults may take the fruits cooked or raw instead of in the form
of juices.

3. As far as the composition of fruits is concerned, it is such that
most fresh fruits are not particularly high in food value. However, they
are characterized by other qualities that make up for what they lack in
this respect; then, too, what they contain in the way of heat-producing
or tissue-building material is easily digestible. Most fruits contain
considerable acid, and this food substance makes them stimulating to the
appetite. Advantage of this fact is taken when fruits are served at the
beginning of a breakfast or when several of them are combined in a fruit
cocktail and served before luncheon or dinner. This acid produces real
stimulation in the stomach, resulting in a flow of gastric juice from
the glands of the stomach walls. In addition, the delightful color, the
fragrant odor, or the pleasant taste of fruit, although a mental effect,
is just as real and just as valuable as the actual stimulation of
the acids.

4. Many fruits are eaten raw, while others are cooked either because
they require cooking to make them appetizing or because it is desired
not to use them in their raw state. The cooking of fruits has a variety
of effects on them, being sometimes advantageous and other times
detrimental. The flavor is always changed by the application of heat,
and in some cases the acid that fruit contains becomes stronger. On the
other hand, the fibrous material, or cellulose, of fruits is softened by
cooking and thus becomes more digestible. Then, too, the sugar that is
usually added to fruits in their cooking increases their food value.
Because of these facts, cooked fruits have considerable value and, like
raw fruits, should have an important place in the diet. Those fruits
which are dried and usually eaten raw, such as figs and dates, supply
much nourishment in an easily digestible form.

5. The medicinal value of fruit has long been considered to be of
importance, but this may be almost entirely disregarded, for, with the
exception of the fact that most fruits are valuable as a laxative, there
is nothing to consider. However, several fruits, such as blackberries
and bananas, have an anti-laxative effect, and large quantities of
these should for the most part be avoided, especially in the feeding
of children.

6. In general, fruits are divided into two classes, namely, food fruits
and flavor fruits. As their names imply, _food fruits_ are valuable as
food, whereas _flavor fruits_ are those distinguished by a
characteristic flavor. It should be remembered that the flavors, as well
as the odors, of fruits, are due chiefly to what is known as their
volatile, or ethereal, oils. Fruits in which these oils are very strong
are often irritating to certain persons and cause distress of some sort
after eating.

7. In this Section, it is the purpose to acquaint the housewife with the
relative value and uses of the various kinds of fruit, to teach her the
best methods of preparation, and to supply her with recipes that will
encourage her to make greater use of this valuable food in her family's
diet. In this discussion, however, the general classification of fruits
is not followed. Instead, the various fruits are arranged alphabetically
under the headings Berries, Non-Tropical Fruits, Citrus Fruits, Tropical
Fruits, Melons, and Dried Fruits, in order to simplify matters. While it
is hardly possible to use fruits too extensively, they must not be
allowed to take the place of other more nourishing foods that are
required by the body. Therefore, in order to make proper use of them,
their value in the diet should not be overlooked.

* * * * *

NATURE OF FRUITS

ADVANCE IN FRUIT CULTIVATION

8. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between vegetables and
fruits. For instance, the tomato is in reality a fruit, but it is
commonly used as a vegetable, and rhubarb is more of a vegetable than a
fruit, but it is always used as a fruit. It can therefore be seen that
the line between vegetables and fruits is not clearly drawn. It is well
to remember that fruit is usually the edible pulpy mass covering the
seeds of various plants and trees, and that it is generally cooked or
eaten raw with sugar, whereas vegetables are seldom sweetened
in cooking.

9. Great strides have been made in the cultivation of fruit. Many
varieties that formerly grew wild are now commonly cultivated. Most of
the cultivated fruits are superior to the same kind in the wild state,
at least in size and appearance, but often there seems to be a loss of
flavor. Through cultivation, some fruits that were almost inedible in
their wild state on account of containing so many seeds have been made
seedless. Also, through cross-cultivation, varieties of fruit different
from what formerly existed have been obtained. An example of such fruit
is the loganberry which is a cross between a red raspberry and a
blackberry and retains many of the qualities of each. However, some
small fruits, such as blueberries, or huckleberries, are still grown
wild and marketed only from their wild source.

10. While fruit is usually improved by cultivation, there has been a
tendency through this means to produce fruits that will stand up for
long periods of time, so that they may be marketed at great distances
from the place where they are grown. For instance, apples, especially
those found in the market in the spring, and other fruits, which look
very fine, will many times be found to have a tough skin and to be
almost tasteless.

In general, fruits of delicate flavor and texture cannot be kept very
long after they have ripened. To stand shipping, they must be picked in
their green stage; then if they are kept in the right temperature they
will ripen after picking. Bananas that are to be shipped a long distance
are picked when perfectly green, but by the time the consumer buys them
they are usually well ripened. In addition to bananas, a few other
tropical fruits are shipped out of their native climates in small
numbers and are sold at very high prices. However, many tropical fruits
cannot be shipped to the Northern States because of their
perishable nature.

* * * * *

COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FRUITS

COMPOSITION OF FRUITS

11. The composition of fruits is a matter of considerable importance,
for on it the food value of the fruits depends. To a certain extent, the
composition of all fruits is the same, but the varieties of this food
differ in their food values almost as greatly as do vegetables. Many of
them are extremely low in this respect, while a few of them are rather
high. In order to determine the place that fruit should have in a meal,
it is necessary to obtain a definite idea of the composition as well as
the food value of the different varieties.

12. PROTEIN AND FAT IN FRUITS. - Such small quantities of protein and fat
are contained in fruits that very little attention need be given to
these substances. Exceptions are found in avocados, or alligator pears,
and in ripe olives, both of which are high in fat. Then, too, there is a
small amount of protein in grapes and some other fruits, but it is not
sufficient to merit consideration.

13. CARBOHYDRATE IN FRUIT. - Whatever food value fruits may have, whether
it be high or low, is due to the carbohydrate they contain. Some green
fruits and bananas contain a very small amount of starch, but on the
whole the carbohydrate of fruits is in the form of sugar and is in
solution in the fruit juices. The chief form of this carbohydrate is
known as _levulose_, or _fruit sugar_. However, _glucose_, another form
of sugar, is also found in nearly all fruits, grapes and dried fruits,
such as figs, raisins, etc., containing an unusually large amount. In
addition, _cane sugar_ is contained in the majority of fruits. _Pectin_
is also a carbohydrate that is found in large quantities in some fruits,
while in other fruits it is lacking. This substance is related to the
gums and to cellulose. Although it is one of the carbohydrates from
which no food value is derived, it is of considerable importance,
because it is responsible for the jelly-making properties of fruits.

14. In fruits that are not fully matured, or, in other words, green
fruits, the sugar has not developed to so great an extent as it has in
perfectly ripe fruits. Consequently, such fruits are not so high in food
value as they are when they become ripe. As is well known, it is the
sugar of fruits that accounts for their sweet taste, for the sweeter the
fruits, the more sugar and the less acid they contain. The quantity of
this substance varies from 1 per cent. in lemons to 20 per cent. in some
other fresh fruits, such as plums. In dried fruits, the amount of sugar
is much higher, reaching as high as 60 per cent. or even more in such
fruits as figs, dates, and raisins.

15. CELLULOSE IN FRUIT. - In fruits, as in vegetables, cellulose is found
in varying quantities. The larger the quantity, the lower will be the
food value of the fruit, except where the water has been evaporated, as
in the case of dried fruits. The digestibility of this cellulose,
however, is not worth considering, for, while it is possible that small
amounts of very young and tender cellulose from fruits may be digested,
on the whole this characteristic may be disregarded. The skins and seeds
of fruits, as well as the coarse material that helps to make up the
pulp, are known as refuse and are treated as such by the human digestive
tract; but it is to this waste material, or cellulose, that the laxative
quality of fruit is largely due.

In cases where there are digestive or intestinal troubles, it is often
necessary to remove the cellulose before the fruit is eaten. The coarse
material may be removed and that which is more tender may be broken up
by pressing the fruit through a sieve or a strainer of some kind. The
cooking of fruits is another means of making the cellulose in them more
easily digested, for it softens, or disintegrates, the various particles
of the indigestible material. When fruit is taken for its laxative
effect and the irritation of the cellulose needs no consideration, the
skins of the fruits may be eaten instead of being rejected. However, to
avoid any trouble, they should be well chewed.

16. Minerals in Fruit. - All fruits contain a certain percentage of
mineral salts. The quantity varies in the different kinds of fruits, but
it averages about 1 per cent. These salts have the opposite effect on
the blood from those found in meats and cereals, but they act in much
the same way as the minerals of vegetables. In other words, they have a
tendency to render the blood more alkaline and less acid. They are
therefore one of the food constituents that help to make fruit valuable
in the diet and should be retained as far as possible in its
preparation. In fact, any method that results in a loss of minerals is
not a good one to adopt in the preparation of fruits.

The minerals commonly found in fruits are iron, lime, sodium, magnesium,
potash, and phosphorus. These are in solution in the fruit juices to a
very great extent, and when the juices are extracted the minerals
remain in them.

17. Acids in Fruit. - Some fruits contain only a small amount of acid,
while others contain larger quantities. It is these acids, together with
the sugar and the volatile oils of fruits, that constitute the entire
flavor of this food. Most ripe fruits contain less acid than unripe
ones, and cooked fruits are often higher in acid than the same
fruits when raw.

Numerous kinds of acid are found in the different varieties of fruits.
For example, lemons, oranges, grapefruit, and a few other fruits
belonging to the class known as citrus fruits contain _citric acid_;
peaches, plums, apricots, and apples, _malic acid_; and grapes and many
other fruits, _tartaric acid_.


TABLE I

COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF FRUITS

| | | | | |Food Value
Fruit |Water|Protein| Fat |Carbo- |Mineral|per Pound,
| | | |hydrate|Matter |in Calories
- - - - - - - - - + - - -+ - - - -+ - - -+ - - - -+ - - - -+ - - - - - -
| | | | | |
Apples, fresh |84.6 | .4 | .5 | 14.2 | .3 | 290
Apples, dried |28.1 | 1.6 | 2.2 | 66.1 | 2.0 | 1,350
Apricots, fresh |85.0 | 1.1 | - | 13.4 | .5 | 270
Apricots, dried |29.4 | 4.7 | 1.0 | 62.5 | 2.4 | 1,290
Bananas |75.3 | 1.3 | .6 | 22.0 | .8 | 460
Blackberries |86.3 | 1.3 | 1.0 | 10.9 | .5 | 270
Cherries |80.9 | 1.0 | .8 | 16.7 | .6 | 365
Cranberries |88.9 | .4 | .6 | 9.9 | .2 | 215
Currants |85.0 | 1.5 | - | 12.8 | .7 | 265
Dates |15.4 | 2.1 | 2.8 | 78.4 | 1.3 | 1,615
Figs, fresh |79.1 | 1.5 | - | 18.8 | .6 | 380
Figs, dried |18.8 | 4.3 | .3 | 74.2 | 2.4 | 1,475
Grapefruit |86.9 | .8 | .2 | 11.6 | .5 | 240
Grapes |77.4 | 1.3 | 1.6 | 19.2 | .5 | 450
Huckleberries |81.9 | .6 | .6 | 16.6 | .3 | 345
Lemons |89.3 | 1.0 | .7 | 8.5 | .5 | 205
Muskmelons |89.5 | .6 | - | 9.3 | .6 | 185
Nectarines |82.9 | .6 | - | 15.9 | .6 | 305
Oranges |86.9 | .8 | .2 | 11.6 | .5 | 240
Peaches |89.4 | .7 | .1 | 9.4 | .4 | 190
Pears |84.4 | .6 | .5 | 14.1 | .4 | 295
Persimmons |66.1 | .8 | .7 | 31.5 | .9 | 630
Pineapple |89.3 | .4 | .3 | 9.7 | .3 | 200
Plums |78.4 | 1.0 | - | 20.1 | .5 | 395
Pomegranates |76.8 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 19.5 | .6 | 460
Prunes, fresh |79.6 | .9 | - | 18.9 | .6 | 370
Prunes, dried |22.3 | 2.1 | - | 73.3 | 2.3 | 1,400
Raisins |14.6 | 2.6 | 3.3 | 76.1 | 3.4 | 1,605
Raspberries, red |85.8 | 1.0 | - | 12.6 | .6 | 255
Raspberries, black|84.1 | 1.7 | 1.0 | 12.6 | .6 | 310
Rhubarb |94.4 | .6 | .7 | 3.6 | .7 | 105
Strawberries |90.4 | 1.0 | .6 | 7.4 | .6 | 180
Watermelon |92.4 | .4 | .2 | 6.7 | .3 | 140
- - - - - - - - - + - - -+ - - - -+ - - -+ - - - -+ - - - -+ - - - - - -

18. The juice of fruits that contain very little sugar and a large
quantity of acid, such as the lemon, may be used for the seasoning of
food in much the same way that vinegar is used. It may also be diluted
with other liquids and used for a beverage. Then, again, various kinds
of fruit juices are subjected to a process of fermentation and, through
the production of another acid, are made into vinegar and wines. When
apples are treated in this way, the fermentation produces _acetic acid_
and, in addition, a certain amount of alcohol. It is on this principle
that the making of wines depends.

19. WATER IN FRUIT. - The water content of fresh fruits is very high,
reaching 94 per cent. in some varieties. Dried fruits, on the other
hand, contain much less water, their content being in some cases as low
as 15 to 20 per cent. It naturally follows that the fruits low in water
are high in food value, while those containing considerable water have
in their composition less of the material that adds food value. The high
percentage of water in fresh fruits, together with the acids they
contain, accounts for the fact that these fruits are so refreshing.
Fruits of this kind, in addition to having this refreshing quality, help



Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 1 of 27)