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Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 11 of 27)
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results if the bowl contains holes that will permit the juice to drop
back into the vessel, for then none of the juice will be wasted.

16. CONTAINERS FOR JELLY. - Various types of receptacles in which to keep
jelly are in use, some turning out more attractive molds than others.
The shape of the mold, however, is a matter of minor importance. Almost
any wide-mouthed glass receptacle with comparatively smooth sides will
do very well, since the sealing of jelly is not a difficult thing to do.
Therefore, new receptacles should not be purchased if there is a supply
of any suitable kind on hand, for many other containers besides
purchased jelly glasses may be used for this purpose. The most
convenient type, which may be bought in any store selling kitchen
utensils, is that shown in Fig. 1. As will be observed, these are
somewhat broad and not very tall. A mold of jelly turned from a tall,
narrow glass does not stand up so well as that turned from a flat, wide
one. Then, too, a tall glass is much more likely to tip and spill than a
more shallow one.

17. Metal covers that fit the tops of the glasses, like the ones shown,
are the most convenient kind that can be used, but they are not an
absolute necessity. In their place may be used paper caps that fit the
glasses, or the tops of the glasses may be covered with paper and then
tied. Before a cover of any kind is put on a glass, paraffin, several
cakes of which are arranged on a plate in Fig. 1, is melted and poured
in a thin layer over the top of the jelly itself.

To designate the kind of jelly, it is advisable to label the glasses
with neat labels, a box of which is included in the equipment
here shown.

18. Paraffin-covered paper cups have been recommended to take the place
of jelly glasses, and while they do very well in the case of scarcity of
containers they have some disadvantages. In the first place, they can be
used only once, as it is impossible to wash them. In addition, it will
be necessary to wait until the jelly is partly cold before pouring it
into such cups, as hot jelly will melt the paraffin on the surface of
the paper.


PROCEDURE IN JELLY MAKING

19. When the necessary utensils have been conveniently placed and the
desired fruit has been selected, the housewife may proceed at once to
the work of making jelly. Each step is here outlined in the order in
which it should be taken up in doing the actual work. The entire
procedure should be properly followed out in order to insure the best
results, and every part of the work should be carefully done so as to
avoid any waste of material.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

20. COOKING THE FRUIT. - Prepare the fruit in whatever way is necessary.
The preparation needed will depend, of course, on the kind of fruit
selected for the jelly, but usually not so much preparation is needed as
in the case of canning. For instance, when crab-apple jelly is made, the
stems are removed and the fruit is cut into halves or quarters, but they
need not be peeled nor have the seeds taken out. Specific directions for
the different varieties of fruits are given in the various recipes. The
chief precaution to take in preparing the fruit, no matter what kind is
used, is to see that it is thoroughly cleaned.

With the fruit prepared, put it into a large kettle and add enough water
to start the cooking and prevent scorching. Some fruits will require
more water than others, especially when they must be cooked a long time
in order to soften them sufficiently to extract the juice. Juicy fruits,
like plums, need only the minimum amount of water, while drier fruits,
such as apples, require more. Place the kettle on the stove, as in Fig.
2, and allow the fruit to cook until it is soft or is reduced to a pulp.
The length of time for cooking will also depend entirely on the kind of
fruit that is being used.

21. EXTRACTING JUICE. - When the fruit is thoroughly cooked, pour the
pulp and the juice that has formed into the jelly bag and allow it to
drip into a pan placed directly under the bag, as shown in Fig. 3.
Formerly, it was the custom to let the juice drip until no more remained
in the bag. This method is followed to some extent at present, but it is
falling into disuse, as it is not the most economical way of extracting
the juice from the pulp. More juice can be obtained and more jelly made
from the same amount of fruit if three extractions instead of one are
made. Make the first extraction by pouring the pulp and juice into the
bag and permitting the juice to drip only until it begins to run very
slowly. Then return the pulp to the kettle, add a small quantity of
water, and let it boil again for a few minutes. Pour it the second time
into the jelly bag, and let it drip as before. Cook it the third time in
the same way, and then allow it to drip until all the juice is
extracted. At this point, mix the juice from the three extractions. They
should not be used separately, for they are much different in quality,
the third one being not so good as the second and the second, inferior
to the first. On the other hand, when all three are mixed, an excellent
quality is the result, provided all conditions are correct, and a larger
quantity of juice is obtained for the jelly.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

22. The quantity of juice that may be extracted depends on the quality
as well as the kind of fruit. If the season is a rainy one, the fruits
will be found to contain more juice than they would in a dry season.
Then, too, if the fruits are picked immediately after a rain, they will
contain more juice than the same fruits before the rain. The amount of
juice the fruit contains determines, of course, the quantity of water
that should be added in the cooking. If only one extraction is intended,
3 to 4 quarts of water may be used for 8 quarts of fruit, depending on
the kind of fruit; but if three extractions are to be made, less water
should be added for each extraction. In case the extracted juice
contains more water than it should have, either because the fruit
contains an excessive amount of water or because too much water was
added to the fruit in its cooking, the superfluous water will be
extracted by boiling the juice with the sugar a little longer as the
jelly is being made.

It is not always necessary to have the fleshy part of fruit for jelly
making, for often the skins, seeds, and cores of fruits may be cooked
with water and the juice then extracted from them. Another point to
remember is that the pulp from which the juice is extracted may
sometimes be used for jam or marmalade. If points like these are taken
into consideration, it will not be necessary to waste any part of
edible fruits.

23. TESTING THE JUICE FOR PECTIN. - When the juice has been extracted
from the fruit, it should be tested for pectin in order to determine
whether or not it will be satisfactory for the making of jelly. A test
that can be applied by the housewife is illustrated in Fig. 4. Into a
tumbler, put a tablespoonful of juice and with this mix a tablespoonful
of alcohol. If, upon adding the alcohol, the fruit juice turns into a
gelatinous, or jelly-like, mass that may be easily gathered up on the
spoon, it may be known that pectin is present. As has already been
stated, the presence of this substance in fruit juice insures the fact
that jelly can be made from the juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

24. USING JUICE LACKING IN PECTIN. - If, in the test for pectin, the
addition of alcohol to the fruit juice does not turn the juice into a
jelly-like mass, pectin is not present. Such juice, or juice that
contains only a small amount of pectin, will prove unsuccessful in jelly
making unless some substance or juice high in pectin is added to it. The
white skin from the inside of orange, lemon, or grapefruit peelings or
the juice from apples, crab apples, currants, green gooseberries, or
other fruit containing a large quantity of pectin may be used for this
purpose. Also, commercial pectin may be purchased and used with fruits
according to the directions that accompany it.

It is always necessary to supply pectin in some way to such fruits as
strawberries, peaches, raspberries, blueberries, cherries, pears, etc.
To the sweet ones, like peaches and raspberries, lemon juice or other
acid fruit juice also must be added if satisfactory jelly is desired.

25. DETERMINING PROPORTION OF SUGAR. - The only other ingredient used in
jelly making, besides the fruit juice, is sugar. After the juice has
been strained from the fruit, the next step is to determine how much
sugar must be used. This is of extreme importance, as the success of the
jelly depends very largely on whether or not the correct proportion is
used. If too much sugar is added to the juice, a greater quantity of
jelly will result, but it will not stand up as it should when it is
turned out of the glass. On the other hand, if too little sugar is used,
a smaller quantity of jelly than the required amount will be made and it
will be tough and sour.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

26. It is difficult to give the exact proportion of sugar to use with
every kind of fruit, for some fruits require more than others. However,
in general, 3/4 cupful of sugar to each cupful of juice, as shown in
Fig. 5, will be sufficient. This is especially true if the season has
been a dry one and the fruits are neither very sour nor very juicy.
After a wet season or with very sour or very juicy fruits, it will
usually be necessary to use 1 cupful of sugar to each cupful of juice.

27. Much waste of sugar and spoiling of jelly can be avoided by the use
of the test for pectin, which has just been described. After the juice
and the alcohol have been mixed, pour the mixture slowly from the glass,
noting how the pectin is precipitated. If it is precipitated as one
lump, a cupful of sugar may be used for each cupful of juice; if in
several lumps, the proportion of sugar must be reduced to approximately
three-fourths the amount of juice. If the pectin is not in lumps, but is
merely precipitated, the sugar should be one-half or less of the amount
of the juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

28. To assist in determining the correct proportion of sugar to use in
the making of jelly, the hydrometer, or sirup gauge, which is explained
in _Canning and Drying_, will be found helpful. After the juice has been
extracted, mix with a small amount of it the proportion of sugar that is
to be used when the jelly is cooked. Allow the sugar to dissolve
completely, pour a little of the mixture into a glass or a graduate, and
insert the hydrometer, as shown in Fig. 6. Regardless of the kind of
juice, the hydrometer should register 25 degrees for perfect jelly. If
it registers less than 25 degrees, more sugar should be added. Then if
it is necessary to add either sugar or juice, the additional ingredient
should be carefully measured in order that the proportions may be
correct for the making of jelly. It must not be understood that a
hydrometer is an actual necessity in the making of jelly, for very good
jelly can be made without measuring the ingredients in this manner.
However, if a hydrometer is not used, it will be necessary to apply the
best judgment possible to the rules given for the proportion of
ingredients used in jelly making.

29. COMBINING THE JUICE AND SUGAR. - The mixing of the juice and the
sugar may seem like a trivial matter, but in reality much is involved in
combining these ingredients properly. It may be done in three different
ways. In the first method, which is called _long boiling_, the sugar and
the juice are mixed cold and are then allowed to come to the boiling
point together. The second, which is known as _mean boiling_, consists
in putting the cold juice on the stove, allowing it to boil about half
the required time, and then adding the sugar, which has also been
heated. In the third, which is known as the _short-boiling method_, the
juice is boiled without the sugar almost the full length of time
required for making the jelly, and the sugar, which has been heated, is
added just before the boiling is completed.

30. Experience in the use of these three methods has shown their
advantages and disadvantages. The first one, or the long-boiling
process, has the disadvantage of losing sugar through the skimming that
is always necessary in the making of jelly. In addition, the long
boiling often causes the sugar to crystallize and thus produces a jelly
that would not score very high. The short boiling is not entirely
satisfactory, because of the difficulty in determining just when to add
the sugar to the juice. The process of mean boiling, having neither of
these drawbacks and usually resulting in jelly of excellent quality, is
the most satisfactory and the one that is recommended.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

To carry out this method, place the sugar in a pan in a warm oven or
other place where it will gradually become heated without either melting
or scorching. Put the juice over the fire in a saucepan and let it boil
for 5 to 8 minutes. Then, as shown in Fig. 7, slowly add the correct
proportion of hot sugar to the boiling juice, stirring constantly so
that the sugar will dissolve as quickly as possible.

31. BOILING THE JUICE AND SUGAR. - The boiling of the juice, both before
and after the sugar is added, should be done rapidly. During this
process, it will be found that a scum will form over the top of the
juice. This should be skimmed off as it forms, for it is a detriment to
the jelly. As shown in Fig. 8, draw a large spoon over the top of the
boiling juice from time to time and skim off the scum that rises,
placing it into any small dish that is handy. It is usually advisable
to do as much skimming as possible before the sugar is added, so that
only a minimum amount of sugar will be lost.

The length of time required to boil the juice after the sugar is added
depends very largely on the way in which the boiling is carried on. If
the mixture is boiled rapidly, less time will, of course, be needed than
if it is boiled slowly. Therefore, no definite time can be set for the
cooking. However, several tests may be resorted to in order to determine
whether the sugar and juice have boiled long enough to jell when the
mixture is cold.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

32. TESTING THE JELLY MIXTURE. - The testing of the mixture can be done
in various ways, the one to select depending on the success the
housewife has in using them. A means very often resorted to consists in
dipping a spoonful or two of the mixture out of the kettle and pouring
it on the flat surface of a cold dish. If it is cooked sufficiently, it
will solidify when it is cold and will appear just like jelly. The
disadvantage of this test lies in the fact that the jelly on the stove
continues to boil while the test is being made, and as this takes
several minutes, the jelly is likely to overboil to a considerable
extent. Tests that can be performed more quickly are therefore more
satisfactory.

33. A test that invariably proves successful consists in dipping up a
spoonful of the juice and allowing it to run slowly from the spoon back
into the pan. If, as shown in Fig. 9, a double row of drops forms on the
spoon with the last of the jelly that remains, it may be known that the
cooking is finished.

34. Another very satisfactory test is called _sheeting_. In the
performing of this test, a spoonful of the jelly is dipped from the pan
and then poured from the spoon into the pan again. If it is cooked to
the proper consistency, large drops will form at the edge of the spoon
and break off quickly.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

35. FILLING THE GLASSES. - As soon as it has been determined that the
jelly is sufficiently cooked, it should be removed from the stove. The
glasses may then be filled at once. These, together with the covers,
must be thoroughly cleansed before being used, and this can be done
while the jelly is cooking. After being thoroughly washed, submerge them
in a pan of hot water and allow them to remain there until they are to
be used. Keeping them hot in this way will prevent them from cracking
when the hot jelly is poured into them. Take out one glass at a time,
place it on a small plate or any small dish, and, as shown in Fig. 10,
pour the hot jelly into it from the pan to within 1/4 inch of the top.
Fill the remaining glasses in the same way, and then set them somewhere
out of a draft to cool. If, as the jelly cools, it seems to be a little
bit thin, place it somewhere in the sunshine and the heat of the sun
will help to thicken it.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

36. CLOSING AND STORING THE JELLY GLASSES. - The jelly should be allowed
to cool completely and should then be closed for storing. The best
results are obtained by putting a thin layer of paraffin over the top of
the jelly in each glass before applying the cover. To do this, put into
a small saucepan as much paraffin as you think will be needed to cover
the jelly you have made and set this on the stove to melt. When it has
melted, pour a layer about 1/8 inch thick over the surface of the jelly,
as shown in Fig. 11. As soon as it cools, it will harden and thus form a
protective covering for the jelly. When it is hard, cover the glass in
the desired way. Covers of tin are perhaps the most satisfactory, but if
these cannot be secured, heavy paper covers that fit into the glasses
snugly will answer the purpose very well. In the event of not having
covers of either of these kinds, cover the tops of the glasses with
paper - any good wrapping paper will do - and then tie this paper
securely. Just before putting the jelly away, label each glass with a
neat label on which is written the name of the jelly. Then no difficulty
will be experienced in selecting at once the kind of jelly desired when
one is taking a glass from the place where it is stored.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]


SCORING JELLY

37. With jelly, as with canned fruit, it is a splendid idea for every
housewife to score each kind she makes, so that she can determine how it
measures up in its various characteristics. If it falls below the
standard, this fact should be known, so that the fault can be remedied
the next time. On the other hand, extreme satisfaction is felt if it is
found to score high. To assist in scoring jelly, a score card is here
given, and following it each one of the characteristics is discussed.

SCORE CARD FOR JELLY
Per Cent.
Color 20
Solidity 25
Flavor 25
Sugar Content 25
Method of Sealing 5
- -
Total 100

_Color_.-For jelly having the proper color, 20 per cent. is given. The
fruit used in the making of jelly determines to a great extent the color
of the finished product, but it is possible to have a very wide
difference in the colors of jelly made from the same fruit. To be right,
jelly should be clear, bright, and not too dark. If the juice is boiled
too long, the jelly will be darker than it should be. If pulp has been
allowed to pass through the jelly bag in straining out the juice, either
through squeezing the bag or using a bag that is too thin, the jelly
will be found to have a cloudy appearance.

_Solidity_. - When jelly is turned from the glass, it should be firm
enough to stand alone. If it has not been boiled long enough, it will
crush down and perhaps run like sirup. If it is boiled too long or the
proportion of juice to sugar is not correct, it may be tough and
leathery. Jelly whose solidity is correct scores 25 per cent. in
this respect.

_Flavor_. - The characteristic flavor of the fruit used in making jelly
should be retained as much as possible, and when this is the case 25 per
cent. is given to the product. The flavor of the jelly is therefore
dependent on the flavor of the fruit. In addition, the flavor depends on
the amount of sugar used, the amount of acid in the fruit, and the
length of time consumed by the boiling. Jellies boiled too long will be
strong in flavor.

_Sugar Content_. - The sugar content of jelly should be determined by the
amount of acid that must be sweetened. An insufficient amount of sugar
will result in tough, sour jelly, while too large a quantity will make
the jelly taffy-like. The correct amount of sugar, which produces the
right degree of sweetness, receives a score of 25 per cent.

_Method of Sealing_. - The method of sealing may seem like a matter of
little importance, but if jelly is not sealed properly, it will not be
in good condition when it is to be served. To score in this respect, for
which 5 per cent. is given, the jelly should be covered with paraffin
and then closed with a cover or with paper in order to exclude the
dust and dirt.

RECIPES FOR JELLY

38. Recipes for the kinds of jelly usually made are here given. If the
directions given in the procedure for jelly making are thoroughly
mastered and then applied to these recipes, the housewife will
experience very little difficulty in making any of these varieties.
Other jellies may, without doubt, be made by combining the proper
fruits. All that has to be done in order to determine whether a certain
fruit juice or combination of fruit juices will make jelly is to apply
the test for pectin already explained. Whatever quantity of jelly is
desired may be made, but usually it can be handled best if not more than
6 glassfuls are made at one time.

39. CRAB-APPLE JELLY. - Crab apples are much used for jelly, as they make
a product of good consistency and excellent flavor. Apples may be used
in the same way as crab apples with equally good results.

Wash the apples thoroughly, remove the stems, and cut into quarters.
Make sure that the apples contain no worms. Put them into a kettle, add
about half as much water as apples, and cook slowly until the apples are
soft. Strain the juice through a jelly bag. Before it stops dripping,
return the pulp to the kettle, add half as much water as pulp, and allow
the fruit to cook again. Make a second extraction, and in the same way
make a third one. Then combine the juice, and strain all of it through a
bag to make it clear. Measure 6 or 8 cupfuls of juice, and pour it into
a preserving kettle. Boil for about 5 minutes, straining off the scum
that rises to the top. To each cupful of juice, add 3/4 to 1 cupful of
sugar that has been heated. Crab apples will require 1 cupful of sugar,
but apples milder in flavor will not need more than 3/4 cupful. Boil
until the test shows that it has boiled long enough. Pour into hot
glasses, cool, and seal. Label and then store for later use.

40. CURRANT JELLY. - If jelly having a tart flavor is desired, currant
jelly should be tried. This kind of jelly is especially good to serve
with the heavy course of a meal.

Wash and stem the currants. Put them into a kettle and add about
one-fourth as much water as currants. Boil until the currants are
reduced to a pulp. Pour into a jelly bag and strain. Make at least one
more extraction, and a third extraction if there is a fairly large
quantity of pulp. When all the juice has been strained from the pulp,
strain it again through the bag or a heavy cloth. Measure 6 or 8 cupfuls
of juice into a kettle, boil for about 5 minutes, and then add from
three-fourths to an equal amount of heated sugar. Remove the scum as it
forms, taking off as much as possible before the sugar is added.
Continue to boil until the tests show that the mixture has cooked
sufficiently. Remove from the heat and pour into hot glasses. Cool,
seal, label, and store.

41. GRAPE JELLY. - Thoroughly ripe grapes may be used for jelly, but they
are not so satisfactory for this purpose as grapes that are only partly
ripe. This is due to the fact that green grapes contain more pectin and,
upon being cooked, produce fewer of the cream-of-tartar crystals usually
found in grape jelly than do ripe ones. The procedure for grape jelly is
the same as that for currant jelly. If ripe grapes are used, 3/4 cupful
of sugar will be needed to each cupful of juice; but if only partly ripe
grapes are used, 1 cupful of sugar will be required for every cupful
of juice.

42. QUINCE JELLY. - Because of its attractive color and delicate flavor,
quince jelly is much favored. The quinces may be used alone, but if a
still more delicate flavor is desired, apples may be added to the
quinces, or the parings and cores of the quinces may be used with apples
or crab apples. To make quince jelly, proceed in the same way as for
apple jelly, using 3/4 cupful of sugar to 1 cupful of juice.

43. RASPBERRY JELLY. - Either black or red raspberries may be used for


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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 11 of 27)