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Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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jelly making. To give jelly made from these fruits a better consistency,
a small quantity of green grape, crab-apple, or currant juice should be
added. The procedure in this case is the same as for currant jelly.

44. STRAWBERRY JELLY. - Unripe strawberries contain a small amount of
pectin, but thoroughly ripe ones are almost lacking in this respect. For
this reason, strawberries cannot be used alone for making jelly. They
make a delicious jelly, however, if currants are combined with them. For
each 5 or 6 quarts of strawberries, 1 quart of currants will be
sufficient to make a jelly of good consistency. Wash and hull the
strawberries and then proceed as for currant jelly.

45. PLUM JELLY. - Plums make a jelly that many persons like. If it is
desired to use plums alone, those which are not thoroughly ripe should
be selected. Ripe plums do not contain enough pectin for jelly;
therefore, a fruit high in pectin, such as crab apples, must be added.
The procedure for currant jelly should be followed for plum jelly.

46. PEACH JELLY. - Peaches contain so little pectin that it is almost
impossible to make jelly of them unless some other fruit is added in
rather large quantities. Currants, crab apples, or green grapes may be
used with peaches, and whichever one is selected will be needed in the
proportion of about 50 per cent.; that is, half as much additional fruit
as peaches is needed. In the making of peach jelly, proceed as for
currant jelly.

47. CANNING FRUIT JUICES FOR JELLY. - During the canning season, when a
great deal of such work is being done, the housewife often feels that
making jelly and preserves is an extravagant use of sugar. Still, fruit
juices left over from canning and large quantities of fruit, such as
crab apples and currants, that are not suitable for other purposes, will
be wasted unless they are used for jelly. If it is not convenient to use
the fruit at the time it is obtained, a good plan is to extract the
juice as for jelly making and then can it. In case this is done, jelly
may be made from the juice during the seasons of the year when less
sugar is required for other things.

48. To can fruit juice, extract it from the fruit as for jelly making
and then bring it to the boiling point. Select bottles or jars that may
be tightly closed, sterilize them, fill them with the boiling juice, and
seal them. Bottles may be used for this purpose if they are well corked
and then dipped into melted sealing wax or paraffin. When properly
sealed, fruit juices will probably keep without any further effort to
preserve them, but to make positively certain that they will not spoil,
it is a wise precaution to process the filled bottles or jars in boiling
water for about 6 or 8 minutes in the same way in which canned fruit is
processed. When treated in this way, fruit juices will keep perfectly
and may be made into jelly at any time during the winter.

* * * * *


PRESERVING

PRINCIPLES OF PRESERVING

49. PRESERVING consists in preparing fruits in perfect condition to
resist decomposition or change by cooking them in heavy sirup. The
cooking is done so slightly that the original form, flavor, and color of
the fruit are retained as far as possible. This process is similar to
that of canning by the open-kettle method; that is, the fruit and sugar
are combined and cooked to the proper consistency in the preserving
kettle. Sugar is used in such quantity in the preparation of preserves
that it acts as a preservative and prevents bacteria from attacking the
foods in which it is used. If preserves of any kind ferment, it may be
known that not enough sugar was used in their preparation. The
sterilization of the product and the air-tight sealing of the
containers, which are necessary in the canning of fruits and vegetables,
need not be resorted to in the case of preserves.

50. SELECTION OF FRUIT. - When fruit is to be made into preserves, much
attention should be paid to its selection, for, as a rule, only the
finest fruits are used for preserving. This is especially true of the
smaller fruits, such as berries and cherries, for they are preserved
whole. Therefore, in order that they may have a good appearance when
preserved, it is necessary that they be as perfect as possible to begin
with. In addition, the fruit should be thoroughly ripe, but not mushy
nor overripe. As the cooking of the fruits in sirup hardens them to a
certain extent, fruits that are not sufficiently ripe cannot be used,
for they would be too hard when done. If care is used in selecting
fruits that are to be preserved, a good-appearing product will be the
result, since this process is carried on in such a way as not to impair
their shape.

51. METHODS OF PRESERVING. - Several methods of preserving fruit are in
practice, but in general the same principles characterise each one.
Probably the most successful method consists in bringing a certain
proportion of sugar and water to the boiling point, dropping the fruit
into the sirup thus formed, and cooking it for a definite length of
time. Boiling fruits in heavy sirup has a tendency to make them firm and
solid, rather than to cook them to pieces, as would be the case with
water or a thin sirup. Even very soft berries, when used for preserves,
will retain almost their original size and shape if they are properly
cooked. Except for the fact that a heavier sirup is used, the process of
preserving fruit is exactly like that of canning fruit by the
open-kettle method. The chief precaution to take in this method is that
as little water as possible be used, so that the sirup may be very thick
when the fruit is added.

Another method that may be recommended because it helps to keep the
fruit in good condition consists in cooking it in its own juice. In this
method, equal quantities of fruit and sugar are put together and allowed
to stand until enough juice is formed, preferably overnight, so that the
fruit may be cooked without the addition of any water. Strawberries are
excellent when preserved in this way.

Whichever method is followed, better results will be obtained if only a
few quarts of fruit are cooked at a time. When a large quantity of
berries, for instance, is added to the boiling sirup, they will form
such a thick layer that they will have to remain over the fire a long
time before they come to the boiling point. They will therefore be much
more likely to crush and give the finished product a mushy appearance
than if a smaller quantity, which will form a thinner layer, is cooked
each time.

52. UTENSILS FOR PRESERVING. - The equipment necessary in the making of
preserves is similar to that used for making jelly, with the exception
of the dripping bag and the hydrometer. A good-sized preserving kettle
is, of course, required for the cooking of the fruit and sirup; a
measuring cup and a quart measure are needed for the measuring of the
ingredients; and a long-handled wooden spoon or paddle is the most
convenient utensil with which to stir all foods of this class.
Containers similar to those used for jelly will be satisfactory
receptacles in which to put preserves, but as preserved fruits are not
turned out in a mold, almost any kind of wide-mouthed bottle or jar may
be used for this purpose. Paraffin should also be provided, as this
should always be used for the first covering to prevent the formation of
molds, which are likely to grow on moist sweet substances exposed to the
air. Before using paraffin for preserves, they should be allowed to
stand until the surface has become absolutely dry. It is well to label
preserves, too; so labels should be kept on hand for this purpose.

* * * * *


RECIPES FOR PRESERVED FRUITS

VARIETIES OF PRESERVED FRUITS

53. The several methods of preserving fruits result in considerable
variety in the finished product. _Preserves proper_ are those cooked in
a heavy sirup, either whole or cut into pieces. In addition to being
prepared in this way, fruit may be made into _conserve, marmalade, jam_,
and _butter_. Specific directions for the preparation of each one of
these varieties are here given, together with a number of recipes
showing the kinds of fruit most suitable for the different varieties. No
housewife need deprive her family of any of these delicious preparations
if she will familiarize herself with the methods explained and will
follow out minutely the directions given. In the making of the various
kinds of preserves, just as much care must be exercised as in canning
and jelly making if the best results are desired.


PRESERVES

54. STRAWBERRY PRESERVE. - Strawberries selected for preserves should be
of the dark, solid variety, if possible, since these shrink less and
retain their shape and size better than do the lighter varieties. This
fruit is made into preserves probably more often than any other kind,
and this is not strange, for it makes a most delicious preserve.

STRAWBERRY PRESERVE

2 qt. strawberries
1/2 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar

Clean the strawberries by placing them in a colander and raising and
lowering them into a large pan of water. Remove the hulls and make sure
that all the water is carefully drained from the berries. Add the water
to the sugar and place over the fire in a preserving kettle that has a
smooth surface. Stir until the sugar is dissolved, and allow the mixture
to come to a rapid boil. To the rapidly boiling sirup, add the
strawberries by dropping them carefully into it. Allow the fruit to
come to the boiling point in the sirup, and continue to boil for 10 or
12 minutes. If the berries seem to contain an unusual amount of water,
boiling for 15 minutes may be necessary. Remove from the fire and fill
into hot sterilized glasses at once, or set aside to cool. It has been
found that if the preserves are allowed to stand in the kettle
overnight, they will improve in flavor and, because of the absorption of
oxygen, which they lose in boiling, they will increase in size. If the
preserves are treated in this way, it will be necessary to pour them
cold into the sterilized glasses. When the preserves in the glasses are
cold, pour melted paraffin over them. Cover them with metal or paper
covers, label, and store for future use.

55. CHERRY PRESERVE. - If sour cherries can be secured, an excellent
preserve can be made of them. Cherries should, of courser be seeded, or
pitted, when they are prepared in this way.

CHERRY PRESERVE

2 qt. seeded sour cherries
1 c. hot water
1-1/2 lb. sugar

Drain off the superfluous juice from the cherries. Add the hot water to
the sugar in a preserving kettle, and allow the mixture to come to a
boil. Add the cherries and boil for 10 or 12 minutes. Have hot
sterilized jelly glasses ready and fill with the hot preserves. Allow
the preserves to cool, cover first with paraffin and then with metal or
paper covers, and label.

56. RASPBERRY PRESERVE. - Although red raspberries are a rather soft
fruit, they can be used very well for preserves if care is taken not to
break them into pieces by too long cooking or too rapid boiling.


RASPBERRY PRESERVE

2 qt. red raspberries
3/4 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar

Wash the raspberries by placing them in a colander and raising and
lowering them in a large pan of cold water. Mix the hot water with the
sugar in a preserving kettle, place the mixture over the fire and bring
to the boiling point. Add the raspberries to the boiling sirup, and when
they have come to the boiling point, cook for 8 to 10 minutes. Remove
the hot preserves from the fire and pour into hot sterilized jars. Allow
them to cool, seal with paraffin and metal or paper covers, and label.

57. PLUM PRESERVE. - A very rich, tart preserve can be made by cooking
plums in a thick sirup. Those who care for the flavor of plums will find
preserves of this kind very much to their taste.

PLUM PRESERVE

2 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
1-1/2 lb. sugar

Select any variety of plums desired for preserves, and wash them in cold
water. Cut them in half and remove the seeds. Place the hot water and
the sugar in a preserving kettle, and bring to a rapid boil. Add the
plums and boil slowly for 15 minutes. Remove from the fire, pour into
hot sterilized jelly glasses. Allow them to cool and cover first with
paraffin and then with metal or paper covers. Before storing, label each
glass neatly.

58. QUINCE PRESERVE. - Quinces combined with apples make a preserve that
finds favor with many. As shown in the accompanying recipe, about
one-third as many apples as quinces make the required proportion.

QUINCE PRESERVE

3 qt. quinces, peeled and quartered
1 qt. apples, peeled and quartered
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Select well-ripened quinces. Rub the fuzz from the skin with a cloth,
and then wash, peel, quarter, and core. If desired, they may be sliced,
but they are very nice when preserved in quarters. Select firm apples,
wash, peel, quarter, and core them, and cut them the same size as the
quinces. Add the water to the sugar, place the mixture over the fire in
a preserving kettle, and let it come to a boil. Add the quinces, cook
until tender, and remove from the sirup. Then cook the apples in the
sirup in the same way, and when tender remove from the sirup. Place the
fruits in alternate layers in hot jars. Unless the sirup is very thick,
boil it until it becomes heavy; then fill each jarful of fruit with this
sirup. Seal with paraffin, cover with metal or paper covers, and label.

59. PEACH PRESERVE. - Although somewhat bland in flavor, peaches make an
excellent preserve. Some persons prefer them cut into very small slices,
while others like them preserved in large slices.

PEACH PRESERVE

4 qt. peaches
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Select firm peaches. Wash, pare, and cut into slices of any desirable
size. Add the water to the sugar in a preserving kettle, place over the
fire, and allow the mixture to come to a rapid boil. Drop the sliced
peaches into the sirup and cook until tender. Have hot sterilized jars
ready, fill with the hot preserves, and seal with paraffin. Cover in the
desired way and label.


CONSERVES

60. CONSERVES do not differ materially from preserves in their
preparation, but they usually consist of a mixture of two or more
fruits, whereas preserves are made from a single fruit. All rules that
govern the making of preserves apply equally well to the making of
conserves.

There are certain fruits that combine very well as far as flavor, color,
etc. are concerned, and these are generally used together in the
preparation of this food. However, almost any combination of fruits may
be made into conserves. This is therefore a very good way in which to
utilize small quantities of left-over fruits. Then, too, a cheap
material may be combined with a more expensive one to make a larger
quantity of a moderately priced product, as, for instance, rhubarb and
pineapple. Again, the pulp from which juice has been extracted for jelly
may be used to make conserve. In fact, a little ingenuity on the part of
the housewife and familiarity with general preserving methods will
enable her to make many kinds of excellent conserves, even though she
may not have a definite rule or recipe to cover the use of the
particular material that happens to be on hand.

61. STRAWBERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE. - The combination of strawberries
and pineapple is an excellent one. The accompanying recipe shows how to
combine these fruits to make a most appetizing conserve.

STRAWBERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE

2 qt. strawberries
1 large pineapple
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Prepare the strawberries as for canning. Peel and slice the pineapple,
remove the eyes, and cut into small pieces. Add the water to the sugar
in a preserving kettle, and allow it to come to a boil. Drop the pieces
of pineapple into the sirup and cook them until they are tender. To this
add the strawberries and cook for 5 or 10 minutes longer. The conserve
should then be sufficiently cooked to put into the jars. If the juice
seems too thin, fill the jars, which should be hot sterilized ones,
about three-fourths full of the fruit, and then return the sirup to the
heat and boil it until it is the right consistency. Remove the boiling
sirup from the stove, and pour it over the fruit in the jars until they
are full. Allow the conserve to cool, and then seal, first with paraffin
and then with metal or paper covers. Label each glass and set away for
future use.

62. STRAWBERRY-AND-RHUBARB CONSERVE. - Rhubarb combines very well with
either strawberries or pineapple. The accompanying recipe is for
strawberries and rhubarb, but if pineapple is desired, it may be
substituted for the strawberries in the same quantity.

STRAWBERRY-AND-RHUBARB CONSERVE

2 qt. strawberries
1-1/2 qt. rhubarb
1-1/2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Prepare the strawberries as for canning. Cut the rhubarb, which should
be very tender, into cubes without removing the skin. Add the water to
the sugar, and bring to a rapid boil in a preserving kettle. Put the
rhubarb and strawberries into this sirup, and cook for at least 15
minutes. Pour into hot sterilized glasses, and when cool seal in the
usual way. Label and store.

63. PINEAPPLE-AND-APRICOT CONSERVE. - No more delicious conserve can be
made than pineapple-and-apricot conserve. The tartness of the apricots
gives a flavor that is pleasing to most persons.

PINEAPPLE-AND-APRICOT CONSERVE

2 qt. apricots
1 large pineapple
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Wash the apricots, plunge them into boiling water to remove the skins,
and then cut into quarters. Peel and slice the pineapple, remove the
eyes, and cut into cubes. Add the water to the sugar in a preserving
kettle, and bring to the boiling point. Add the pineapple to the sirup,
and cook until tender. Then drop in the apricots and boil several
minutes longer. Have hot sterilized glasses ready, fill them with the
conserve, and when cool seal in the usual way. Before putting the
glasses away, label each one neatly.

64. CRAB-APPLE-AND-ORANGE CONSERVE. - It is a good idea to make
crab-apple-and-orange conserve at the same time that crab-apple jelly is
made, for the pulp that remains after extracting the juice may be
utilized for the conserve. However, if it is desired to make it at some
other time, fresh pulp can be prepared for the purpose.

CRAB-APPLE-AND-ORANGE CONSERVE

1 qt. crab-apple pulp
3 lb. sugar
8 oranges

To the crab-apple pulp, add the sugar, and place over the fire to boil.
Peel the oranges, scoop out the white portion from the peelings, cut the
peelings into thin strips, and add to the crab-apple pulp. Remove the
pulp of the orange from the skins and from between the sections, cut it
into small pieces, and add to the boiling mixture a few minutes before
it is removed from the stove. When it has cooked thick, pour into hot
sterilized glasses. Cool and then seal and label.

65. PLUM CONSERVE. - A rather unusual conserve is made by combining
raisins and English walnut meats with plums. The accompanying recipe
gives directions for the preparation of this conserve.

PLUM CONSERVE

4 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
2 lb. sugar
1 lb. raisins
2 c. English walnut meats

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds. Add the water to
the sugar, place over the fire in a preserving kettle, and stir until
the mixture comes to a rapid boil. Wash the raisins, which should be
seeded, add them with the plums to the sirup, and cook until the mixture
is the consistency of jelly. Just before removing from the stove, add
the nut meats. Pour the mixture into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal,
and label. If very sour plums are used, increase the amount of sugar.

66. CHERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE. - Cherries combine very well with
pineapple in a conserve. Sweet cherries should, if possible, be used for
this purpose.

CHERRY-AND-PINEAPPLE CONSERVE

2 qt. sweet cherries
1 pineapple
2 lb. sugar
1 c. hot water

Wash, stem, and seed the cherries. Slice and peel the pineapple and
remove the eyes. Put the sugar and water over the fire in a preserving
kettle, and stir until the sirup comes to the boiling point. To this
sirup add the pineapple and the cherries and cook until the juice is
very thick. Pour into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

67. RED-RASPBERRY-AND-CURRANT CONSERVE. - A conserve having a very
attractive color and a most appetizing flavor is made by combining red
raspberries with red currants.

RED-RASPBERRY-AND-CURRANT CONSERVE

3 qt. red raspberries
1 qt. red currants
1 c. hot water
2-1/2 lb. sugar

Look the raspberries over carefully, and remove any that show signs of
spoiling. Wash the currants and stem them. Add the water to the sugar
and put the mixture over the fire to boil. Add the currants to this, and
stir until the mixture comes to the boiling point. Boil for several
minutes, or until the mixture begins to thicken, and then add the red
raspberries. Continue to boil for 2 or 3 minutes longer. Pour into hot
sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

68. CARROT CONSERVE. - Conserve made from carrots will be found to be
surprisingly delicious, and it has the added advantage of being
inexpensive.

CARROT CONSERVE

1-1/2 qt. cooked cut carrots
Rind of 2 lemons
5 c. sugar
2 c. hot water
Juice of 3 lemons

Boil the carrots until tender and chop or put through a grinder with the
lemon rind. Then mix with the sugar, water, and lemon juice, and boil
for about 1/2 hour or until thick. Put into hot sterilized glasses,
cool, seal, and label.


MARMALADES

69. MARMALADES are a form of preserves that differ from the other
varieties more in the nature of the fruit used than in any other
respect. For marmalades, large fruits are generally used, and, as a
rule, the fruits are left in sections or in comparatively large pieces.
The preparation of this food, however, differs in no way from preserves
proper and conserves, the processes of cooking, sealing, storing, etc.
being practically the same.

70. ORANGE MARMALADE. - Oranges combined with half as many lemons make a
marmalade that most persons like. In fact, orange marmalade is probably
made more often than any other kind.

ORANGE MARMALADE

12 oranges
6 lemons
1-1/2 qt. hot water
5 lb. sugar

Peel the oranges and the lemons in the same way an apple would be
peeled, inserting the knife deep enough to cut through the skin covering
the sections. Remove the contents of the sections and squeeze out any
juice that may remain in the thin skin. Remove the white material from
the inside of the peeling, and cut the yellow portion that remains into
thin strips. Add the water to the skins and simmer slowly for 1 hour. At
the end of this time, add the sugar and the orange and the lemon pulp,
and boil until the mixture is thick. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses,
cool, and then seal and label.

71. ORANGE-AND-RHUBARB MARMALADE. - If a somewhat different flavor is
desired in a marmalade, rhubarb instead of lemons may be used with
oranges, as shown in the accompanying recipe.

ORANGE-AND-RHUBARB MARMALADE

8 oranges
1 qt. hot water
4 lb. sugar
3 qt. rhubarb cut into pieces

Prepare the oranges as for orange marmalade. Slowly cook the yellow part
of the skin in 1 quart of water for 1/2 hour. To this add the sugar and
the rhubarb, and cook slowly until it is quite thick. Stir in the orange
pulp and cook until the mixture is again thick. Pour into hot sterilized
glasses, cool, seal, and label.

72. QUINCE MARMALADE. - Quinces cut into quarters, cooked, and then
forced through a sieve make an exceptionally good marmalade, so far as
both flavor and color are concerned. No other fruit need be used with
the quinces, as they have enough flavor in themselves.

QUINCE MARMALADE

4 qt. quartered quinces
1 qt. hot water
4 lb. sugar

Wipe the fuzz from the quinces, wash, quarter, and remove the cores, but
do not peel. Put over the fire in a preserving kettle with the water.
Cook until the quinces are soft, remove from the fire, and mash through
a sieve. Add the sugar to the quince pulp, replace on the fire, and
cook until the mixture is thick, stirring constantly to prevent burning.
Pour into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

73. GRAPE MARMALADE. - The pulp and skins of grapes are especially
satisfactory for marmalade. In fact, most persons who are fond of grapes
find marmalade of this kind very appetizing.

GRAPE MARMALADE

4 qt. stemmed grapes
2 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar

Separate the pulp of the grapes from the skins, put it into a preserving


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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 12 of 27)