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Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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kettle with the water, and heat to the boiling point. Cook slowly until
the seeds can be separated from the pulp, and then remove the seeds by
pressing the pulp through a sieve. Return to the preserving kettle with
the grape skins. Add the sugar, and cook the mixture slowly until it is
thick, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. Care must be taken not
to cook it too long, as the marmalade becomes quite stiff. Pour into
hot, sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

74. ORANGE-AND-PINEAPPLE MARMALADE. - No better combination can be
secured than oranges and pineapple. To make marmalade, both fruits are
cut into small pieces and then cooked in a thick sirup.

ORANGE-AND-PINEAPPLE MARMALADE

8 oranges
2 c. hot water
2 pineapples
4 lb. sugar

Wash the oranges, cut skins and all into small pieces, remove the seeds,
and boil slowly in the water until the skins are soft. Prepare the
pineapples by peeling them, removing the eyes, and then shredding or
cutting into very small pieces. Add the pineapple to the orange, stir in
sugar, and continue to boil until the juice is at the jelly stage. Pour
into hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.


JAMS

75. JAM is similar to preserves, except that the fruit used is made into
a pulp before it is cooked with the sugar or after a part of the cooking
is done. As a rule, only whole small fruits are used for jams, but the
larger fruits can be utilized for this purpose by being cut fine and
made into a pulp. When small fruits are used, part or all of the seeds
are sometimes removed, but generally the seeds are allowed to remain if
they are not too large. Jam is made thick by long boiling, and when done
is usually quite smooth. A precaution, however, that should always be
taken is not to cook it too long, for jam is very unappetizing if it is
too thick.

Fruit may be purchased purposely for jam, but for the most part, this
form of preserve is made of imperfect or very ripe fruits that are not
suitable for canning, preserves, and other processes that require almost
perfect fruit. If this point is kept in mind, it will be possible,
during the canning season, to make into a delicious jam fruit that would
otherwise be wasted.

76. STRAWBERRY JAM. - As strawberries have very small seeds, this fruit
makes an excellent jam.

STRAWBERRY JAM

4 qt. strawberries
2 lb. sugar

Wash and hull the strawberries. Then mash them in a preserving kettle
and add the sugar to them. Place over the fire, and boil slowly until
the mixture becomes thick, stirring frequently to prevent the jam from
sticking to the kettle and scorching. When the jam is cooked to the
proper consistency, the juice should test as for jelly. Pour the mixture
into hot sterilized glasses, cool, and then seal and label.

77. RASPBERRY JAM. - Both red and black raspberries are much used for
jam. Some persons like to remove the seeds from raspberry jam, but as
very little pulp remains after the seeds are taken out, this plan is not
recommended.

RASPBERRY JAM

4 qt. raspberries
2 lb. sugar

Look over the raspberries carefully and then wash. Put them into a
preserving kettle with the sugar. Heat to the boiling point, and cook
slowly for a few minutes. Then mash the berries to a pulp, and continue
to cook until the mixture thickens and the juice tests as for jelly.
Pour into hot sterilized jars, cool, seal, and label.

78. GREEN-GAGE JAM. - Green gages make a smooth, tart jam that appeals to
most persons. The seeds of the plums are, of course, removed, but the
skins are allowed to remain in the jam.

GREEN-GAGE JAM

4 qt. green-gage plums
4 lb. sugar
1-1/2 c. hot water

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds, but not the
skins. Dissolve the sugar in the water over the fire, and when it comes
to the boiling point, add the plums. Cook slowly until the plums are
mushy and the entire mixture is thick. Pour into sterilized glasses,
cool, seal, and label. If sweet plums are used, decrease the quantity
of sugar.

79. GOOSEBERRY JAM. - When gooseberries are well ripened, they make very
good jam. As this fruit is rather tart, considerable sugar must be used
if a sweet jam is desired.

GOOSEBERRY JAM

4 qt. gooseberries
3 lb. sugar

Remove the stems and blossom ends from the gooseberries and wash
thoroughly. Add the sugar to the berries in a preserving kettle. Bring
to a rapid boil, cook for a few minutes, and then mash the berries to a
pulp. Cook until the mixture thickens and tests as for jelly. Pour into
hot sterilized glasses, cool, seal, and label.

80. BLACKBERRY JAM. - Probably no jam is so well liked as that made from
blackberries. Some varieties of these are large in size and contain
considerable pulp in proportion to seeds. These are especially
suitable for jam.

BLACKBERRY JAM

4 qt. blackberries
1/2 c. hot water
2 lb. sugar

Wash the berries thoroughly, and put them over the fire with the water.
Bring to the boiling point, and boil slowly for a few minutes. Then mash
the berries, add the sugar, and cook the mixture until, when tested, it
is of a jelly-like consistency. Pour into hot, sterilized glasses, cool,
and label.


BUTTERS

81. FRUIT BUTTERS are a form of preserves similar to jams, and are used
in the place of preserves, jams, conserves, or marmalades. The fruit
used for this purpose, which may be either large or small, is usually
very ripe and somewhat soft. Therefore, as in the case of jams,
imperfect fruits that are not suitable for other purposes can be used
very well for butters.

Butters made from fruits differ from jams in that both the skins and
seeds are always removed. The completed mixture is smooth and thick,
having been made thick by long boiling and evaporation, rather than by
the addition of large quantities of sugar. In fact, less sugar is used
for butters proportionately than for any other preserved fruit. Spices
are generally used in butters, so that the mixture is very
highly flavored.

To prevent butters from scorching, they should be stirred constantly for
a long period of time. This stirring becomes very tiresome, but it
should not be stopped or the mixture is certain to scorch. If they are
properly cooked, butters keep well with very little care in storage.
Crocks are generally used for the storage of butters, but glasses or
jars may be substituted.

82. APPLE BUTTER. - Apples are very often made into butter, but for this
purpose sour apples that will cook soft should be selected. If the
procedure explained in the accompanying recipe is followed, very good
results may be expected.

APPLE BUTTER

4 qt. apples
8 qt. cider
1 lb. sugar
3 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Peel the apples and quarter them. Boil the cider until it is reduced
half. Add the apples to the cider, and cook slowly for about 3 hours, or
until they are mushy, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon to prevent
the apples from sticking to the bottom of the kettle. At the end of this
time, the mixture should be thick and smooth and dark in color. If it
gets too thick, more cider can be added. About 1 hour before the cooking
is completed, add the sugar and the spices. Even greater care must be
exercised from this time on to prevent scorching. If, after cooking 3
hours, the mixture is not sufficiently thick, continue to cook until
more of the moisture is evaporated. Have hot sterilized glasses or
crocks ready, fill them with the butter, cool, and seal.

83. PEACH BUTTER. - Peaches are especially satisfactory when made into
butter. This fruit does not require such long cooking as apples, as will
be seen in the accompanying recipe.

PEACH BUTTER

4 qt. peaches
1 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar
1 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves

Wash the peaches, rub them to remove the fuzz, cut them in half, and
take out the seeds. Measure the peaches and put them with the water
into the preserving kettle, bring them to a boil, and cook until they
are thoroughly softened. Then press them through a sieve or a colander,
return the pulp to the preserving kettle, and add the sugar and the
spices. Cook slowly for 1 or 2 hours, or until it has become a rich
dark, clear color. Pour the butter into hot sterilized glasses or
crocks, cool, and seal.

84. PEAR BUTTER. - An appetizing fruit butter can be made from pears in
the same way that peach butter is made.

PEAR BUTTER

4 qt. pears, quartered
2 c. hot water
1 lb. sugar
2 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Wash, cut, and core the pears, but do not peel them. Cut them into
quarters, and put the quarters into a preserving kettle with the water.
Bring to the boiling point, and boil until soft or mushy. Remove from
the kettle and force through a sieve or a colander. To the pulp, add the
sugar and spices, return to the kettle, and cook slowly for about 2
hours, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. If 2 hours is not
sufficient to cook the mixture dry, cook a little longer. Pour into hot
sterilized glasses or jars, cool, and seal.

85. PLUM BUTTER. - Another very good way in which to preserve plums for
future use is to make butter of them. The accompanying recipe explains
the correct procedure for butter of this kind.

PLUM BUTTER

4 qt. plums
1 c. hot water
3 lb. sugar
2 tsp. cinnamon
1/2 tsp. cloves

Wash the plums, cut them in half, and remove the seeds. Put the plums
with the water into a preserving kettle, and boil until they are soft.
Press them through a sieve or a colander, return to the preserving
kettle, and add the sugar and spices. Boil until the mixture is thick
and jelly-like, stirring constantly to prevent scorching. Pour into hot
sterilized crocks or glasses, cool, and seal. If very sour plums are
used, increase the amount of sugar.

* * * * *


PICKLING

PRINCIPLES OF PICKLING

86. PICKLING consists in preserving fruits and vegetables in vinegar or
brine. Each of these liquids acts as a preservative, so that the
receptacles, or containers, for the food do not have to be sealed
air-tight, nor does the preserved food require much care in order to
have it keep perfectly.

The effect of the pickling liquids on both fruits and vegetables is very
similar. The salt in the brine or the vinegar hardens the cellulose of
the foods to such an extent that they are impervious to the action of
bacteria. While this permits the foods to keep well, it also makes them
difficult to digest, a fact that must be remembered when pickled foods
are included in the diet.

87. The procedure in pickling is simple. After the fruit or vegetable is
cleaned and prepared in the way desired, it is merely a matter of
placing the food in sterilized jars or crocks, pouring the hot
preserving liquid over it, allowing it to cool, and then storing it. In
some cases the food is cooked, and in others it is not. As a rule,
spices of some kind or other are added, both to aid in preserving and to
impart flavor.

88. Practically all large fruits and many vegetables are pickled, as is
shown in the recipes that follow. Foods preserved by pickling are known
as either _pickles_ or _relishes_. While both products are similar in
many respects, relishes are distinguished from pickles in that, as a
rule, they are made up from more than one kind of fruit or vegetable and
usually the pieces are cut or chopped and not put up whole. Often the
foods in relishes are chopped or cut so fine as to make it almost
impossible to tell what the fruit or vegetable was originally.

The food value of both these products is not extremely high, unless a
great quantity of sugar is used in the pickling. This is sometimes the
case with pickled peaches or pears, but seldom if ever with pickled
vegetables.

* * * * *


RECIPES FOR PICKLING

PICKLES

89. SMALL CUCUMBER PICKLES. - Perhaps the most common pickles are small
cucumbers pickled according to the accompanying recipe. Such pickles
meet with favor and serve very well as appetizers. The cucumbers
selected should be small, so that they will be solid all the
way through.

SMALL CUCUMBER PICKLES

1 gal. water
4 c. coarse salt
200 small cucumbers
1/2 gal. vinegar
1-1/2 tsp. celery seed
1 lb. light-brown sugar
1/2 tsp. mustard seed
1 tsp. salt
1 oz. stick cinnamon
1 tsp. whole cloves

Make a brine of the water and the coarse salt, pour it over the
cucumbers, and allow them to stand for 24 hours. At the end of this
time, pour off the brine, wash the pickles in cold water, and place them
into crocks. Heat the vinegar, add the celery seed, sugar, mustard seed,
salt, cinnamon, and cloves, and bring the mixture to the boiling point.
Pour this over the pickles in the crocks, cover closely while hot, and
place in storage. If the pickles are desired sweet, add more brown sugar
to the mixture.

90. SLICED-CUCUMBER PICKLES. - Large cucumbers cut into slices may be
pickled in practically the same way as small cucumbers. At times, when
small cucumbers are hard to get, large cucumbers will take their place
very well. In fact, some housewives prefer sliced cucumber pickles to
the small ones.

SLICED-CUCUMBER PICKLES

1 gal. sliced cucumbers
1 c. coarse salt
1-1/2 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water
1 tsp. pepper
3 tsp. mustard
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
4 onions, chopped
1 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt

Select rather large cucumbers. Wash and peel them and cut into 1/4-inch
slices. Sprinkle well with salt, and mix the salt among the layers of
cucumbers. Allow this to stand for 24 hours; then drain and wash in
clear cold water. To the vinegar and water add the spices, onion,
sugar, and salt. Heat this to the boiling point, pour over the sliced
cucumbers, and pack them into jars or crocks. Seal while hot and store.

91. CUCUMBERS IN BRINE. - Cucumbers may also be preserved in brine,
stored, and pickled in vinegar later in any quantity, as desired.

Pour 1 gallon of boiling water over 4 cupfuls of coarse salt. This
should make brine that is heavy enough to support an egg. Wash cucumbers
of any desired size, put them into a sterilized crock, in layers, and
pour the brine, which has been allowed to cool, over the cucumbers until
they are entirely covered. Cover the top of the crock well and store.
Cucumbers preserved in this way may be taken from the brine at any time
and pickled. To do this, soak them in fresh water to remove the salty
taste. The fresh water may have to be poured off and replaced several
times. After they have been freshened sufficiently, pickle them in
vinegar and season them in any desirable way.

92. PICKLED BEANS. - String beans that are pickled make a good relish to
serve with meals. Unlike cucumbers that are pickled, the beans are
cooked before the preserving liquid is added. The accompanying recipe is
for either wax or green beans.

PICKLED BEANS

4 qt. beans
1-1/2 qt. vinegar
1 c. brown sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. allspice
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Select large, firm, tender wax or green beans. Cover them with water to
which has been added 1 level teaspoonful of salt to each quart and put
them over the fire to cook. Boil the beans until they can be pierced
with a fork, remove from the fire, drain, and pack into jars or crocks.
To the vinegar add the sugar, salt, and spices. Bring this mixture to
the boiling point, and pour it over the beans in the jars or crocks,
filling them completely or covering the beans well. Close tight
and store.

93. PICKLED BEETS. - Pickled beets meet with much favor as a relish. Like
pickled beans, they must be cooked before they can be pickled; also,
unless they are very small, they should be sliced before pickling as the
recipe points out.

PICKLED BEETS

4 qt. red beets
2 qt. vinegar
2 c. brown sugar
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice

Cut the tops from the red beets, leaving 1 inch of the stems and the
roots attached. Scrub well with a vegetable brush, and put to cook in
boiling water. Cook until the beets are tender enough to be pierced with
a fork. Pour off the hot water and run cold water over them. Remove the
roots and stems, and cut into slices of any desired thickness or into
dice, if preferred. Pack into jars or crocks. Then bring the vinegar to
a boil, and to it add the sugar, salt, and spices. Pour this hot mixture
over the beets. Seal the beets while hot, cool, and store.

94. PICKLED CAULIFLOWER. - Cauliflower is another vegetable that lends
itself well to pickling. This food must be cooked, too, before pickling;
and to have it just right for packing into the containers, it requires
particular attention in cooking.

PICKLED CAULIFLOWER

4 qt. cauliflower broken into pieces
2 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water

Select firm heads of cauliflower and break them into sections or
flowerets. Immerse these in cold water to which has been added 1
teaspoonful of salt to the quart. Allow the cauliflower to stand for 1
hour in the salt water. Remove from the water, and put over the fire to
cook in salt water of the same proportion as that used for soaking. Cook
until the cauliflower is quite tender, but not so tender as it would be
cooked to serve at the table. If this is done, the cauliflower will
darken and break into pieces. It should be firm enough not to crush or
break easily when it is packed into the jars. When properly cooked, pack
closely into jars, add the sugar, salt, and pepper to the vinegar and
water, heat to the boiling point, and pour this liquid over the
cauliflower, completely covering it. Seal while hot, allow to cool,
and store.

95. PICKLED ONIONS. - Pickled onions are well liked by many. For pickling
purposes, medium small onions of uniform size are most suitable. Owing
to their nature, onions cannot be pickled so quickly as some of the
vegetables mentioned, but, otherwise, the work is done in practically
the same way.

PICKLED ONIONS

4 qt. onions
2 qt. spiced vinegar

Select onions that are as nearly the same size as possible. Peel them
and let them stand in fresh water for 24 hours. Pour off this water, and
over the onions pour a brine made by adding 2 cupfuls of salt to each
gallon of water. Allow them to stand in this brine for 3 days, changing
the brine once during this time. Remove the onions from the brine, and
freshen in cold water for 2 hours. Drain the onions and cook them in the
spiced vinegar for 1/2 hour. Any of the spiced vinegars given for the
other vegetables may be used. After cooking, pack the onions with the
liquid into jars, seal, cool, and store.

96. PICKLED PEACHES. - Among the fruits that may be pickled, peaches seem
to meet with great favor. They, as well as pickled pears and pickled
crab apples, make a relish that adds variety to the foods that are
served in the home from day to day. The pickling process does not differ
materially from that applied to vegetables, as the accompanying
recipe shows.

PICKLED PEACHES

2 lb. brown sugar
1 qt. vinegar
1 oz. stick cinnamon
4 qt. peaches
2 Tb. cloves

Boil the sugar, vinegar, and cinnamon together until they begin to look
sirupy. Wash the peaches and rub off the fuzz. Stick one or two cloves
into each peach, and drop the peaches into the sirup. Cook them until
they may be easily pierced with a fork. Put them into jars, pour the
sirup over them, filling each jar, and seal while hot. Allow the jars to
cool and store. The peaches may be peeled if desired. It may also be
more convenient to cook only part of the peaches in the sirup at one
time, cooking the remainder after these have been taken out and put
into jars.

97. PICKLED PEARS. - Pears also lend themselves readily to pickling.
Specific directions are not given here, because they are pickled in
exactly the same way as peaches. The pears may be peeled or not,
as desired.

98. PICKLED CRAB APPLES. - Crab apples that are to be pickled should
preferably be of a large variety. The directions given for pickling
peaches apply also to this fruit. The crab apples should be examined
carefully to make certain that they contain no worms. Also, the stems
should be left on, and they should be washed thoroughly with the blossom
ends cut out.


RELISHES

99. MUSTARD PICKLES. - Among the relishes, mustard pickles are very
popular. This relish is made up of a large number of vegetables, namely,
cucumbers, string beans, green peppers, red sweet peppers, onions, green
tomatoes, cauliflower, and green Lima beans.

MUSTARD PICKLES

1 pt. small cucumbers
1 qt. string beans
4 green peppers
4 red sweet peppers
1 pt. small onions
1 pt. green tomatoes
1 pt. cauliflower
1 c. green Lima beans
3/4 c. flour
2 c. sugar
4 Tb. powdered mustard
2 tsp. tumeric
1 Tb. celery seed
1 Tb. salt
1/2 tsp. pepper
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water

Wash all the vegetables and prepare them by cutting them into the
desired sizes. The onions and cucumbers should be of a size that will
not require cutting. Put all the vegetables together, cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to each 2 quarts of water,
and allow them to stand in this for 24 hours. At the end of this time,
drain off the brine and freshen the vegetables in clear water for about
2 hours. Mix the dry ingredients together, heat the vinegar and water,
and pour it over all. Bring this mixture to the boiling point, and pour
it over the vegetables. Fill the jars with the hot mixture, seal, cool,
and store.

100. SPANISH RELISH. - Another satisfactory relish made up of a large
number of vegetables and spices is Spanish relish. In its preparation,
however, the vegetables are not chopped very fine.

SPANISH RELISH

12 green sweet peppers
12 red sweet peppers
12 medium-sized onions
12 green tomatoes
2 medium-sized heads of cabbage
1 tsp. salt
1 lb. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. black pepper
1/4 tsp. Cayenne pepper
1 Tb. mustard seed
1 tsp. celery seed
1-1/2 qt. vinegar

Wash the vegetables and chop them into coarse pieces. Cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to a gallon of water and
allow them to stand in this brine for 6 to 8 hours. At the end of this
time, drain off the salt water and wash with clear water. Add the salt,
sugar, and spices to the vinegar, and bring this mixture to the boiling
point. Then pour it over the mixture of vegetables, pack all into
sterilized crocks or jars, seal, cool, and store.

101. CHOW CHOW. - Still another relish in which a variety of vegetables
is used is chow chow. This relish is well and favorably known to
housewives for the zest it imparts to meals.

CHOW CHOW

2 qt. small green tomatoes
6 green peppers
6 red peppers
1 small head of cabbage
2 bunches celery
1 pt. small onions
1 qt. small cucumbers
3 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
2 c. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. black pepper
2 Tb. mustard seed
2 Tb. tumeric
2 Tb. allspice
1 Tb. cloves
1 Tb. cinnamon

Wash the vegetables and cut them into very small pieces. Cover them with
salt water made by adding 1 cupful of salt to a gallon of water, and let
them stand in this for 6 to 8 hours. Drain at the end of this time, and
wash with cold water. Heat the vinegar, and to it add the salt, sugar,
and spices. Add this to the vegetables and cook until they are soft.
Pack into sterilized jars, seal while hot, cool, and store.

102. BEET RELISH. - A relish in which cooked beets are the principal
ingredient may be made up from the accompanying recipe. As pickled beets
in any form are usually well liked, this relish may be put up for the
variety it offers.

BEET RELISH

1 qt. cooked beets, chopped
1 c. horseradish root, grated
1 c. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
1/2 c. sugar
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves

Cook the beets in the usual way. When they are tender, remove the skins
and chop quite fine. Add the grated horseradish to the beets. To the
vinegar, add the salt, sugar, and spices and heat to the boiling point.
Pour this mixture over the vegetable mixture, pack all into hot
sterilized jars, seal, cool, and store.

103. CHILLI SAUCE. - Chilli sauce is a well-known relish in which ripe
tomatoes, red or green peppers, and onions are combined with spices and
vinegar. Although not so many vegetables are used in this relish as in
those which precede, it merits a place among the canned foods prepared
for future use.

CHILLI SAUCE

2 qt. medium-sized ripe tomatoes
2 red or green peppers, finely chopped
2 onions, finely chopped
2 c. vinegar
1/2 c. sugar
1 Tb. salt
1 tsp. ground cloves
2 tsp. ground cinnamon
2 tsp. celery salt

Blanch the tomatoes in boiling water until the skins loosen. Then remove
the skins and stem ends, chop the tomatoes, and put them into a


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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 13 of 27)