preserving kettle with the chopped peppers and chopped onions. Heat
gradually to the boiling point, add the vinegar, sugar, salt, and
spices, and cook slowly until the mixture is quite thick. This will
require from 2 to 3 hours. Then put the hot sauce into sterilized
bottles or jars, seal, allow them to cool, and store.
104. GREEN-TOMATO PICKLE. - A pleasing relish may be made from green
tomatoes after the frost has come in the fall and tomatoes on the vines
will not mature.
3 qt. green tomatoes, sliced
2 qt. onions, sliced
1 qt. vinegar
1 pt. water
1 Tb. salt
1-1/2 lb. brown sugar
2 Tb. cinnamon
2 tsp. cloves
2 tsp. allspice
3 Tb. celery salt
1 Tb. mustard seed
Select firm green tomatoes, wash them, and slice them. Peel the onions,
and slice them into slices of the same thickness as the tomatoes, about
1/4 inch being perhaps the most desirable. Mix the tomatoes and onions,
sprinkle them generously with salt, and allow them to stand for 24
hours. At the end of this time, pour off any excess liquid; then pour a
small quantity of fresh water over them, and drain this off, also. To
the vinegar and water, add the salt, sugar, and spices. Heat this
mixture to the boiling point, pour it over the mixture of tomatoes and
onions, and put into jars. Seal the jars while hot, allow them to cool,
and then store.
105. RIPE-TOMATO PICKLE. - Ripe tomatoes form the basis of another relish
known as ripe-tomato pickle. Like other relishes in which tomatoes are
used, this relish is very satisfactory for meals in which pickles or
relishes may be served.
2 qt. ripe tomatoes
2 bunches celery
3 red sweet peppers
3 medium-sized onions
1 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. salt
1 c. sugar
1 Tb. mustard seed
1 Tb. ground cloves
1 Tb. ground cinnamon
Blanch the tomatoes until the skins loosen, and then peel them. Remove
the stem ends, and cut the tomatoes into quite large pieces. Chop the
celery, peppers, and onions coarsely. Cook together until they are
almost tender. Pour off the water. Mix all the vegetables together, and
pack them into a sterilized stone jar. To the vinegar, add the salt,
sugar and spices. Boil and pour this mixture over the vegetables in the
stone jar, cover, and allow this to stand at least 2 weeks before using.
106. TOMATO CATSUP. - As a condiment to be served with meats, oysters,
fish, baked beans, and other foods high in protein, catsup finds
considerable use. This relish, which is also called _catchup_ and
_ketchup_, may be made from both vegetables and fruits, but that made
from tomatoes seems to be the most desirable to the majority.
1/2 bu. ripe tomatoes
1/2 c. salt
1 lb. brown sugar
2 qt. vinegar
1 Tb. ground cinnamon
1 tsp. Cayenne pepper
2 Tb. celery salt
2 tsp. ground cloves
Remove the skins from the tomatoes by blanching and cut out the stem
ends. Then slice the tomatoes, put them into a preserving kettle over
the fire, cook them until they are soft, and force them through a sieve
to remove the seeds. Return the pulp to the preserving kettle, add the
salt, sugar, vinegar, and spices, and cook the mixture until it is
reduced at least half in quantity. Pour into sterilized bottles, seal,
cool, and store.
107. GRAPE CATSUP. - Perhaps the best-known catsup made from fruit is
grape catsup. Its uses are practically the same as those of tomato
catsup, and it is made in much the same way.
4 qt. Concord grapes
3 c. vinegar
1 lb. brown sugar
2 Tb. cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice
Put the grapes to cook with the vinegar. When they have cooked soft
enough, press through a sieve to remove the seeds and skins. Add the
sugar and spices, and cook until the mixture is rather thick. Stir
constantly to prevent scorching. Pour into sterilized bottles, seal,
cool, and store.
108. PICKLED WATERMELON RIND. - An unusual, though highly satisfactory,
relish may be made from the rind of melons. The accompanying recipe is
for pickled watermelon rind, but if desired muskmelon rind may be
substituted. In either case, only the white part of the rind should
PICKLED WATERMELON RIND
4 qt. watermelon rind cut into strips or cubes
1 oz. stick cinnamon
1 Tb. cloves
1 c. water
3 lb. sugar
1 qt. vinegar
Prepare the rind by cutting off the green skin and all the pink flesh on
the inside. Cut this rind into strips 1 inch wide and 1 inch thick, and
then into cubes, if desired. Cook in water until the rind may be easily
pierced with a fork. Add the spices, water, and sugar to the vinegar,
and boil until it becomes sirupy. Add to this sirup the cooked
watermelon rind and bring to the boiling point. Then pack into
sterilized jars, seal, cool, and store.
109. CRAB-APPLE RELISH. - Among the fruits, crab apples lend themselves
best to the making of relish. By the addition of oranges, raisins, and
spices, as in this recipe, crab-apple relish is made very desirable and
agreeable to the taste.
4 qt. crab apples
3 c. vinegar
4 lb. brown sugar
2 lb. Sultana raisins
1 Tb. powdered cinnamon
1 tsp. cloves
1 tsp. allspice
Wash the crab apples, remove the cores, and cut the apples into small
pieces. Put them into a preserving kettle, add the vinegar, the oranges,
peeled and sliced, the sugar, the raisins, and the spices. Cook all
slowly until the apples are soft. Pour into sterilized jars or glasses,
seal, cool, and store.
* * * * *
JELLY MAKING, PRESERVING, AND PICKLING
(1) (_a_) Give three reasons why the making and use of jelly has value.
(_b_) When are pickles permissible in the diet?
(2) What is necessary for the making of good jelly?
(3) Mention some important points to consider in selecting fruit for
(4) (_a_) What is pectin? (_b_) Why are ripe fruits not so satisfactory
for jelly making as partly green ones?
(5) Give the test for pectin.
(6) How may jelly be made from fruit juices that do not contain pectin?
(7) Give the best method of extracting fruit juice for jelly.
(8) What material is best for jelly bags? Why?
(9) What is the general proportion of sugar and juice for making: (_a_)
jelly from very sour fruits? (_b_) jelly from slightly sour fruits?
(10) Give the method for making jelly by the mean-boiling method.
(11) What is meant by: (_a_) short boiling? (_b_) long boiling?
(12) Give two tests for determining when jelly has cooked sufficiently.
(13) (_a_) How should glasses be prepared before filling them with
jelly? (_b_) How are glasses closed for storing?
(14) (_a_) What are preserves? (_b_) What kind of fruits should be
selected for preserves?
(15) Describe the best method of making preserves.
(16) How do conserves differ from preserves?
(17) How do marmalades differ from conserves?
(18) Describe jam.
(19) How does fruit butter differ from jams?
(20) What are: (_a_) pickles? (_b_) relishes?
* * * * *
* * * * *
NATURE AND COMPOSITION
NATURE OF CONFECTIONS
1. CONFECTIONS are such sweetmeats as candy and similar articles, which
have for their foundation sugar, sirup, honey, and the like. As is well
known, the most important variety of confection is candy, and this is
the one that is usually meant when the term confections is mentioned.
Confections, however, are not so limited as might be imagined upon first
thought, for many delicious dishes whose main ingredient is nuts,
fruits, coconut, or pop corn are also placed in this class. To be sure,
most of these contain sweetening material of some sort in greater or
smaller quantities. Therefore, in its broadest sense, confections may be
regarded as preparations having for their chief ingredient sugar or
substances containing it, such as molasses, honey, etc., usually mixed
with other food materials, such as nuts, fruits, chocolate, starches,
and fats, to give them body and consistency, and flavored and colored in
any desired way.
2. The making of confections, and of candy in particular, is both a
useful and a delightful pastime that can be indulged in even by those
who are only slightly skilled. In fact, with a certain amount of
knowledge of the methods used and a little practice, surprising results
can be obtained by the amateur candy maker. Then, too, it is a
comparatively simple matter to copy the confectioner's work. A
considerable variety of candies can often be made from a simple
foundation material if a little originality or ingenuity is applied.
Since it is an easy matter to prepare foods of this kind and since they
can be made at home more cheaply and of more tasty and wholesome
materials, it is a decided advantage to make them rather than buy them,
particularly if they are used extensively in the home. However, not so
much fear need be felt now as formerly with regard to commercially made
candies, for much has been done in recent years to compel the use of
wholesome materials in candies, especially the cheaper ones that
children are apt to buy. The pure-food laws require that no such
adulterants as are not food materials and no harmful flavorings,
colorings, nor alcoholic beverages be used in making confections. As can
well be understood, this is a valuable protection. Consequently, at the
present time, the harm, if any, resulting from eating candy comes from
either the excessive or the wrong use of it.
3. The taste for confections of all kinds is one that is acquired, and
it is often developed to harmful extremes. Therefore, these foods, like
most others, should be indulged in only in moderation. They will then
prove not only valuable, but entirely unharmful. The greatest precaution
that should be observed in their use is in giving them to children. Very
young children should not have candy at all, it being much too
concentrated for digestive organs that are used to handling only diluted
food materials. As they grow older and their diet begins to include more
foods, a small quantity of wholesome sweets will not be harmful if it is
given at meal time. Adults with normal digestion may eat a reasonable
amount of candy and other confections without injury.
4. To assist in the making of confections in the home, the principles of
candy making, as well as those which must be understood for the making
of such other foods as are commonly called confections, are given in
this Section. In addition, there are included explicit directions for
the making of simple candies and confections and of some of the
varieties that are more difficult to make. The various operations are
not hard to perform, and good results may be expected if each step is
carried out as directed. The operations requiring skill and dexterity,
such as the coating of bonbons and chocolates, must be repeated several
times if results that approach those of the professional confectioner
are to be attained. Still, surprisingly good results may be obtained the
first time the work is done if directions are followed explicitly.
COMPOSITION OF CONFECTIONS
5. CARBOHYDRATE IN CONFECTIONS. - So far as their composition is
concerned, confections are largely carbohydrate in the form of sugar.
This food material may be one of several different varieties. As is well
understood, the high percentage of carbohydrate, which in some cases may
be very close to 100 per cent., greatly increases the food value of this
variety of foods. Where the percentage is very high, the candies are
necessarily hard, for all or nearly all the moisture is driven off in
the making. In this case, as in other foods, the more water there is
present, the more reduced is the total food value.
6. FAT IN CONFECTIONS. - To a certain extent, fat is found in these
high-carbohydrate foods. It is supplied largely by the use of milk,
condensed milk, cream, butter or butter substitutes, nuts, and
chocolate. While these materials are usually added to produce a certain
flavor or consistency, they form at the same time an ingredient that
greatly increases the food value of the finished product.
7. PROTEIN IN CONFECTIONS. - Protein is not found extensively in
confections unless nuts, chocolate, milk, or other foods containing it
are used in their preparation. But, even then, sweets are usually eaten
in such small quantities that the protein in them does not figure to any
great extent, so that, at best, confections are not considered as a
source of protein at any time. However, chocolate-coated nuts, as will
readily be seen, are a rather high-protein food.
8. MINERAL SALTS IN CONFECTIONS. - Refined sugar does not contain mineral
salts, so that unless other ingredients containing this food substance
are added, no mineral salts will be present in confections. It is true
that some of the ingredients used, such as milk, fruits, nuts, molasses,
honey, maple sirup, etc., contain certain minerals; but just as
confections are not taken as a source of protein, so they are not
characterized by the minerals in them.
* * * * *
INGREDIENTS USED IN CONFECTIONS
9. SUGAR. - The most important ingredient used in the making of
confections is sugar. It is therefore well that the nature of this
ingredient be thoroughly understood. Its chief commercial varieties are
_cane sugar_ and _beet sugar_, both of which produce the same results in
cookery operations. When sugar is mentioned as an ingredient, plain
granulated sugar is meant unless it is otherwise stated. Whether this is
cane or beet sugar makes no difference. The fineness and the color of
sugar are due to its refinement and the manufacturing processes through
which it is put, and these are indicated by various terms and trade
names, such as _granulated, pulverized_, and _soft_ sugars.
The grading of granulated sugar is based on the size of its crystals,
this sugar coming in three qualities. The coarsest is known as _coarse
granulated_; the next finer, as _standard granulated_; and the finest,
as _fine granulated_. There is also a fourth grade known as _fancy
fine_, or _extra-fine, granulated_, and often called _fruit_, or
10. So far as candy is concerned, the coarseness of the sugar does not
make a great deal of difference, although the finer sugars are perhaps a
little better because they dissolve more quickly in the liquid and are a
trifle less likely to crystallize after cooking. When sugar is to be
used without cooking, however, its fineness makes a decided difference.
Sugars finer than granulated are known as _pulverized sugars_ and are
made by grinding granulated sugar in a mill that crushes the crystals.
These pulverized sugars are known on the market as _coarse powdered,
standard powdered_, and _XXXX powdered_, the last being the one that
should always be purchased for the making of confectionery where the use
of uncooked sugar is required. One of the chief characteristics of
sugars of this kind is that they lump to a great extent, the finer the
sugar the larger and harder being the lumps. Before sugar that has
become lumpy can be used, it must be reduced to its original condition
by crushing the lumps with a rolling pin and then sifting the sugar
through a fine wire sieve. As explained in _Cakes, Cookies, and
Puddings_, Part 1, sugars of this kind are not suitable for cooking
purposes, such as the preparation of cooked icings, etc. These are made
from granulated or other coarse sugar, while the uncooked ones are made
from XXXX, or _confectioners', sugar_, as it is sometimes called. Then,
too, fine sugars cost more than do the granulated sugars, so it is well
to remember that nothing is gained by their use.
11. The third variety of sugars, which are known as _soft sugars_, are
purchased by the retail dealer by number. There are fifteen grades of
this sugar, ranging from 1 to 15, and the number indicates the color of
the sugar. No. 1 is practically white, while No. 15 is very dark, and
the intervening numbers vary in color between these two shades. The
lightness of the color indicates the amount of refinement the sugars
have had. The dark-brown sugars are stronger in flavor and indicate less
refinement than the light ones. When brown sugar is required for any
purpose, it is usually advisable to use one of the lighter shades,
because they are more agreeable in taste than the very dark ones.
12. MOLASSES. - The liquid that remains after most of the sugar has been
refined out of the cane juice is known as molasses. The juice from beets
does not produce molasses; therefore, all of the molasses found on the
market is the product of cane juice. A molasses known as _sorghum
molasses_ is made by boiling the sap of sorghum, which is a stout cereal
grass, but this variety is seldom found on the general market, it being
used locally where it is manufactured. The dark color and the
characteristic flavor of molasses are due to the foreign materials that
remain in the juice after the removal of the sugar. Molasses is not so
sweet as sugar, but it is much used as an ingredient in the making of
many delicious confections. As in the case of soft sugars, the lighter
the molasses is in color, the more agreeable is the flavor of the
confections made from it.
13. GLUCOSE. - Another substance much used in the making of confections
is glucose. It is usually manufactured from the starch of corn and is
put on the market under various trade names, but generally it is called
_corn sirup_. Many persons have long considered glucose a harmful food,
but this belief has been proved untrue. Glucose has come to be
absolutely necessary in some candy making in order to produce certain
results. The glucose that the confectioners use is a heavier, stickier
substance than the sirups that can be purchased for table use or for
cooking, but these do very well for most candy-making purposes. However,
none of the glucose preparations are so sweet as sugar, maple sirup,
14. Glucose will not crystallize nor make a creamy substance; neither
will it permit any substance that contains more than a very little of it
to become creamy. A creamy candy containing a small amount of it will
remain soft longer than that made without it; also, it will cream
without danger of the formation of large crystals. Because of these
characteristics, which are responsible for its use in candy making, a
mixture containing glucose will not "go to sugar." Taffy-like
confections and clear candies contain a large proportion of glucose,
while any that are intended to be creamy, such as bonbons and the
centers for chocolates, have only a small amount, if any, glucose
15. MAPLE SIRUP AND MAPLE SUGAR. - Maple sirup and maple sugar, because
of their pleasing flavor, are used extensively for candy making. Maple
sirup is, of course, the basis for maple sugar, for by boiling the sirup
to evaporate the water and then stirring it, maple sugar results. When
the sirup is used for candy making, it must be boiled, but it seldom
requires any liquid other than that which it already contains. On the
other hand, maple sugar requires liquid in some form, for it must first
be dissolved in a liquid and then boiled with it.
16. HONEY. - Honey that has been pressed from the comb and is in the form
of a heavy sirup is used in the making of various confections. It
provides a delightful flavor much different from that of sugar, and when
it is cooked it acts in much the same way as glucose.
17. KINDS OF FLAVORINGS. - Flavorings are very important in the making of
confections, for it is on them that much of the appetizing effect of
these foods depends. In fact, unless good flavorings are secured and
then used discreetly, tasty results cannot be expected.
The flavorings used in candy making are in reality divided into two
classes - _natural_ and _artificial_.
18. NATURAL FLAVORINGS. - Under the head of natural flavorings come those
which are made from the fruit or the plant that produces the desired
flavor. They are known as _oils_ and _extracts_.
19. The oils are obtained by pressing out the natural flavoring
substance from the material containing it. They are usually very strong,
so that only a little is needed to flavor a comparatively large quantity
of food. Peppermint, wintergreen, and cinnamon are the oils that are
used the most.
20. EXTRACTS are prepared by using alcohol to extract the flavoring
substances from certain materials. The alcohol acts as a preservative,
so that the finished extract nearly always contains a high percentage of
this material. Vanilla and such flavorings as lemon and orange are
examples of extracts that are usually made in this way. A few companies
manufacture a product in which glycerine instead of alcohol is used as
the preservative. Flavorings so prepared are in the form of a thick,
sirupy substance rather than a liquid and are usually sold in a tube.
21. ARTIFICIAL FLAVORINGS. - Flavorings classified as artificial
flavorings are of two kinds: those having for their basis substances
extracted from coal tar and those prepared by various chemical
combinations. They are also known as _synthetic flavors_. With regard to
both healthfulness and taste, they are not so desirable as the natural
22. ADULTERATION OF FLAVORINGS. - As it is a common practice to
adulterate flavorings, every manufacturer of these materials is obliged
to state on the label of each bottle or tube of flavoring just what its
contents consist of. Therefore, when the purchase is made, the label
should be carefully examined. Without doubt, vanilla is adulterated more
often than any other flavoring, a pure extract of vanilla being seldom
found. The beans from which the flavor is extracted are very expensive,
so the Tonka bean and other cheaper flavoring substances are often
resorted to in the making of this flavoring. However, when large amounts
of such things are used, the price of the extract should be less than
that charged for the pure extract of the vanilla bean. Many chefs and
professional cooks overcome this difficulty by purchasing the vanilla
beans and using them for flavoring purposes by soaking or cooking small
pieces of them in the material that is to be flavored or grinding the
bean in a mortar and using it in the ground form.
23. COLORINGS are used in the making of confections, candy in
particular, for two purposes: to make them attractive and to indicate
certain flavors. For instance, candies flavored with wintergreen are
usually colored pink, while those containing peppermint are colored pale
green or are left white. Strawberry and rose flavors are also colored
pink; orange and lemon, their respective shades of yellow; violet,
lavender; and pistachio and almond, green.
24. The substances used for coloring confections are of two general
classes: _vegetable_ and _mineral_, or _chemical_. The vegetable
colorings, like the natural flavorings, are considered to be the most
healthful ones. Some of the chemical colorings are derivatives of coal
tar, just as are the coal-tar flavorings. Cochineal, a red color
extracted from the bodies of cochineal insects, is a coloring matter
much used in the preparation of confections. These coloring materials
may be purchased in several forms. The ones most commonly used come in
the form of liquid or paste, but frequently colorings are to be had in
powder or tablet form.
25. Discretion must always be observed in the use of colorings. Because
of their concentration, they must be greatly diluted and used in only
very small amounts. As is well known, pale colors in candies are always
more attractive than deep ones. Then, too, when candies contain much
color, most persons are likely to consider them harmful to eat. To get
the best results, only a little coloring should be added at a time, and
each amount added should be mixed in thoroughly. Then the danger of
getting too much coloring will be avoided. It should be remembered,
however, that if colored candies are kept for any length of time or are
exposed to the light, they will fade to a certain extent; consequently,
these may be colored a little more deeply than those which are to be
used at once.
26. To prevent the creaming or the crystallizing of such candy as taffy,
an acid of some kind is generally used with the cane sugar in the making
of this variety of confection. The acid, upon being boiled with the
sugar, changes a part of the cane sugar to invert sugar, and as this
does not crystallize, the candy will not become sugary. A similar effect