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Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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gathered together and held in the fingers. If it is held for any length
of time, the warmth of the fingers softens it greatly and causes it to
lose its form. This test is used for candies, such as soft-center
cream. It will be found that when candy boiled to this degree is
finished, it can scarcely be handled.

The _firm ball_ is the stage just following the soft ball. It will keep
its shape when held in the fingers for some time. This is the test for
fudge, bonbon creams, and similar candies that are creamed and are
expected to be hard and dry enough to handle when they are finished.

To form a _hard ball_, candy must be cooked longer than for the firm
ball. At this stage, the ball that is formed may be rolled in the finger
tips. It is not so hard, however, that an impression cannot be made in
it with the fingers. It is the test for caramels, soft butter scotch,
sea foam, and many other candies.

A _brittle ball_ is the result of any temperature beyond 256 degrees up
to the point where the sugar would begin to burn. It is hard enough to
make a sound when struck against the side of the cup or to crack when an
attempt is made to break it. This is the test that is made for taffy and
other hard candies.


POURING AND COOLING THE MIXTURE

61. After the testing of the mixture proves that it is boiled
sufficiently, there are several procedures that may be followed. The one
to adopt depends on the kind of candy that is being made, but every
candy that is cooked should be cooled by one of the following methods.

62. The first treatment consists in pouring the mixture at once from the
pan to be finished without cooling, as, for instance, caramels and
butter scotch, which are poured at once into a buttered pan to be cooled
and cut; or, the hot sirup may be poured upon beaten egg whites, as in
the case of sea foam or penuchie. In the making of either of these
kinds, the sirup may be allowed to drip as completely as possible from
the pan without injury to the finished product.

63. The second method by which the mixture is cooled calls for cooling
the sirup in the pan in which it was cooked, as, for instance, in the
case of fudge. When this is done, the pan should be carried from the
stove to the place where the mixture is to be cooled with as little
agitation as possible. Also, during the cooling, it should not be
disturbed in any way. Stirring it even a little is apt to start
crystallization and the candy will then be grainy instead of creamy.

64. In the third form of treatment, the sirup is poured out and then
cooled before it is stirred to make it creamy, as in opera creams or
bonbon creams. To accomplish this, the pan should be tipped quickly and
all its contents turned out at once. It should not be allowed to drip
even a few drops, for this dripping starts the crystallization. Candies
that contain milk or butter, or sticky materials, such as taffies,
should always be poured on a buttered surface. Those which are cooked
with water but are to be creamed should be poured on a surface moistened
with cold water.

65. When candy mixtures are cooled before being completed, the cooling
should be carried to the point where no heat is felt when the candy is
touched. To test it, the backs of the fingers should be laid lightly on
the surface of the candy, as they will not be so likely to stick as the
moist tips on the palm side. It should be remembered that the surface
must not be disturbed in the testing, as this is also apt to bring about
crystallization.

Every precaution should be taken to prevent even the smallest amount of
crystallization. Any crystals that may have formed can be easily
detected when the stirring is begun by the scraping that can be felt by
the spoon or paddle used. If a little crystallization has taken place
before the candy has cooled completely, it being easily seen in the
clear sirup, the mixture should be cooled still further, for nothing is
gained by stirring it at once.

A point that should always be kept in mind in the cooling of candy is
that it should be cooled as quickly as possible. However, a refrigerator
should not be used for cooling, for the warm mixture raises the
temperature of the refrigerator and wastes the ice and at the same time
the moist atmosphere does not bring about the best results. As has
already been learned, a platter or a slab is very satisfactory. If
either of these is used, it should be as cold as possible when the sirup
is poured on it. Cold weather, of course, simplifies this matter
greatly, but if no better way is afforded, the utensil used should be
cooled with cold water.


FINISHING CANDIES

66. The treatment through which candy mixtures are put after being
cooled varies with the kind of candy being made. Some mixtures, as
fudge, are beaten until creamy in the pan in which they are cooked.
Others are worked on a platter or a slab with the proper kind of
utensil. These are usually treated in a rather elaborate way, being
often coated with bonbon cream or with chocolate. Still others, such as
taffy, are pulled until light in color and then cut into small pieces
with a pair of scissors. Again, certain candies, after being poured into
a pan, are allowed to become hard and then cut into squares or broken
into pieces. Usually candies made in the home are served without being
wrapped, but when certain varieties are to be packed, it is advisable to
wrap them. Directions for finishing confections in these different ways
are here given.

67. MARKING AND CUTTING CANDIES. - Much of the success of certain candies
depends on their treatment after being cooled. Those which must be
beaten in the pan until they are creamy should be beaten just as long as
possible. Then, if the surface is not smooth when they are poured out,
pat it out with the palm of the hand after the candy has hardened a
little. As soon as it has hardened sufficiently to remain as it is
marked and not run together, mark it in pieces of the desired size,
using for this purpose a thin, sharp knife. Be careful to have the lines
straight and the pieces even in size. Generally, candy that is treated
in this manner is cut into squares, although it may be cut into other
shapes if desired.

68. COATING CANDIES WITH BONBON CREAM. - When especially nice candy is
desired for a special occasion, it is often made into small pieces and
then coated with bonbon cream. A large number of the centers to be
coated should be made up before the coating is begun. In fact, if it is
possible, all the centers should be made first and then the coating can
proceed without interruption. The cream to be used for coating may be
flavored or colored in any desirable way. Any flavoring or coloring that
is to be used, however, should be added while the cream is melting.

69. To coat with bonbon cream, put the cream in a double boiler without
any water and allow it to melt with as little stirring as possible. It
is best to use a small double boiler for this purpose and not to melt
too much of the cream at one time, as it is apt to become grainy if it
is used too long for dipping. When it has melted to the extent that the
coating will not be too thick after it has cooled, the dipping of the
candies may begin. As soon as it is found that no more centers can be
dipped in the cream, melt some fresh cream for the remaining centers,
but do not add it to that which has been used before. Instead, use the
first up as closely as possible and then drop the remainder by spoonfuls
on waxed paper. With all of it used, wash and dry the inner pan of the
double boiler and start again with a fresh lot of the cream.

70. To coat the centers, drop one at a time into the melted cream and
turn over with a coating fork or an ordinary table fork. When the
surface is entirely covered, lift out of the cream with the fork and
allow any superfluous coating to drip off. Then drop the coated bonbons
on waxed paper, to cool. While this work may prove a little difficult at
first, it can be done with dexterity after a little practice. If an
effort is made to have the centers uniform in size and shape, the
finished candies will have the same appearance. While the cream is soft,
tiny pieces of candied fruit or nuts may be pressed into the coating to
decorate the bonbons.

71. COATING WITH CHOCOLATE. - Candies coated with chocolate are always
desirable; so it is well for any one who aspires toward confection
making to become proficient in this phase of the work. The centers
should, of course, be prepared first and put in a convenient place on
the table where the coating is to be done. They may be made in any
desired size and shape.

If it is possible to secure a regular coating chocolate, this should be
obtained, for it produces better results than does a chocolate that can
be prepared. However, unless one lives in a place where confectioner's
supplies are on sale, it is almost impossible to purchase a chocolate of
this kind. In such an event, a substitute that will prove very
satisfactory for candy to be eaten in the home and not to be sold may be
made as follows:

COATING CHOCOLATE

4 oz. milk chocolate
2 oz. bitter chocolate
1/2 oz. paraffin

To prepare the chocolate, put all the ingredients in a double boiler and
allow them to melt, being careful that not a single drop of water nor
other foreign substance falls into the mixture. Do not cover the boiler,
for then the steam will condense on the inside of the cover and fall
into the chocolate. As this will spoil the chocolate so that it cannot
be used for coating, the pan in which the chocolate is melted should
always be allowed to remain open. The paraffin used helps to harden the
chocolate after it is put on the centers; this is a particular
advantage at any time, but especially when chocolates are made in
warm weather.

72. When the chocolate HAS COMPLETELY MELTED, dip some of it into a
small bowl or other dish or utensil having a round bottom and keep the
rest over the heat so that it will not harden. With a spoon, beat that
which is put into the bowl until it is cool enough to permit the fingers
being put into it. Then work it with the fingers until all the heat is
out of it and it begins to thicken. It may be tested at this point by
putting one of the centers into it. If it is found to be too thin, it
will run off the candy and make large, flat edges on the bottom. In such
an event, work it and cool it a little more. When it is of the proper
thickness, put the centers in, one at a time, and, as shown in Fig. 2,
cover them completely with the chocolate and place them on waxed paper
or white oilcloth to harden. As they harden, it will be found that they
will gradually grow dull. No attempt whatever should be made to pick up
these candies until they are entirely cold. This process is sometimes
considered objectionable because of the use of the bare hands, but
chocolate coating cannot be so successfully done in any other way as
with the fingers. Therefore, any aversion to this method should be
overcome if good results are desired.

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

73. When the chocolate begins to harden in the bowl and consequently is
difficult to work with, add more of the hot chocolate from the double
boiler to it. It will be necessary, however, to beat the chocolate and
work it with the fingers each time some is added, for otherwise the
coating will not be desirable. So as to overcome the necessity of doing
this often, a fairly large amount may be cooled and worked at one time.
Care should be taken to cover each center completely or its quality will
deteriorate upon standing. With conditions right, the centers of
chocolates and bonbons should soften and improve for a short time after
being made, but chocolate-coated candies will keep longer than bonbons,
as the coating does not deteriorate.

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

74. WRAPPING CANDIES. - Such candies as caramels, certain kinds of
taffies, and even chocolates are often wrapped in waxed paper,
especially if they are to be packed in boxes. When this is to be done,
cut the paper into pieces of the proper size and then wrap each piece
separately. The best way to prepare the paper is to fold several sheets
until they are the desired size and then, as in Fig. 3, cut them with a
sharp knife. If a pair of scissors is used for this purpose, they are
apt to slip and cut the paper crooked. The method of wrapping depends on
the candy itself. Caramels are wrapped in square pieces whose ends are
folded in neatly, as in Fig. 4, while taffy in the form of kisses is
rolled in the paper and the ends are twisted to fasten the wrapping.

* * * * *

VARIETIES OF CONFECTIONS AND THEIR PREPARATION

TAFFIES AND SIMILAR CANDIES

NATURE OF TAFFIES

75. TAFFY is probably one of the simplest candies that can be made.
Indeed, if candy of this kind is boiled long enough, it is almost
impossible to have unsatisfactory results. Taffies are usually made from
white sugar, but a variety of flavors may be obtained by the use of
different ingredients and flavors. For instance, molasses is used for
some taffies, maple sirup for others, and brown sugar for others, and
all of these offer an opportunity for variety. Then, again, taffy made
from white sugar may be varied by means of many delightful colors and
flavors. Melted chocolate or cocoa also makes a delightful
chocolate-flavored taffy. Recipes for all of these varieties are here
given, together with a number of recipes for closely related
confections, such as butter scotch, glace nuts and fruits, peanut
brittle, and nut bars.

76. METHODS OF TREATING TAFFY. - Taffy may be poured out in a pan,
allowed to become entirely cold, and then broken into irregular pieces
for serving, or it may be pulled and then cut in small pieces with a
pair of scissors. If it is to be pulled, it should be poured from the
pan in which it is cooked into flat pans or plates and set aside to
cool. As soon as it is cool enough to handle, it may be taken from the
pans and pulled. It will be found that the edges will cool and harden
first. These should be pulled toward the center and folded so that they
will warm against the center and form a new edge. If this is done two or
three times during the cooling, the candy will cool evenly and be ready
to take up into the hands. The pulling may then begin at once. If it has
been cooked enough, it will not stick to the hands during the pulling.
It is usually wise, however, to take the precaution of dusting the hands
with corn starch before starting to pull the candy. Grease should never
be used for this purpose. When taffy is made in quantities, the work of
pulling it is greatly lessened by stretching it over a large hook
fastened securely to a wall.


RECIPES FOR TAFFY

77. VANILLA TAFFY. - The taffy explained in the accompanying recipe is
flavored with vanilla and when pulled is white in color. However, it may
be made in different colors and flavors by merely substituting the
desired flavor for the vanilla and using the coloring preferred. This
recipe may also be used for chocolate taffy by adding melted chocolate
just before the taffy has finished boiling.

VANILLA TAFFY

4 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1 Tb. vinegar
1 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla

To the sugar, add the cream of tartar, vinegar, and boiling water. Place
over the fire and boil until it will form a brittle ball when tested in
cold water or will register at least 260 degrees on a thermometer. Just
before the boiling is completed, add the butter. Remove from the fire,
add the vanilla, pour in a shallow layer in a buttered pan or plate.
Cool and pull. When the taffy has been pulled until it is perfectly
white and is hard enough to retain its shape, twist it into a long, thin
rope and cut with a pair of scissors into inch lengths.

78. BUTTER TAFFY. - Another variety of taffy flavored with vanilla is the
one given in the accompanying recipe. It is called butter taffy because
butter is used in a rather large amount for flavoring. It will be noted,
also, that brown sugar and corn sirup are two of the ingredients. These,
with the butter, give the taffy a very delightful flavor.

BUTTER TAFFY

2 c. light-brown sugar
1 c. white sugar
1/2 c. corn sirup
1 Tb. vinegar
3/4 c. boiling water
1/4 butter
1 tsp. vanilla

Mix all the ingredients except the butter and vanilla. Place over the
fire and boil until a brittle ball will form in cold water or a
temperature of 260 degrees is reached. Just before the boiling has been
completed, add the butter. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and
pour in a thin layer into greased pans or plates. Cool, pull, and cut.

79. MOLASSES TAFFY. - Of all the taffies, that made with molasses is
nearly always the favorite. A light cane molasses that is not very
strong in flavor is the preferred kind for this candy. When cut into
round flat pieces and wrapped in waxed paper, molasses taffy appeals to
both old and young.

MOLASSES TAFFY

2 c. light cane molasses
1 c. sugar
2 Tb. vinegar
1/2 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter

Mix all the ingredients except the butter. Cook until a brittle ball
will form or a temperature of 264 degrees is reached on the thermometer.
Add the butter just before the boiling is completed. Remove from the
fire, pour into greased pans or plates, and allow it to become cool
enough to handle. Then pull and cut.

80. CHEWING TAFFY. - A taffy that is hard enough not to be sticky and
still soft enough to chew easily is often desired. Chewing taffy, which
is explained in the accompanying recipe, is a candy of this kind. After
being pulled, it may be cut as other taffy is cut or it may be piled in
a mass and chopped into pieces.

CHEWING TAFFY

1/2 Tb. unflavored gelatine
2 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup
1-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
Vanilla and lemon

Put the gelatine to soak in a few tablespoonfuls of cold water. Cook the
sugar, sirup, and milk until the mixture will form a hard ball that may
be dented with the fingers or it reaches a temperature of 252 degrees.
Stir the mixture gently to prevent burning. Remove from the fire and add
the butter. Take the gelatine from the water, squeeze it as dry as
possible, and add it to the hot mixture, stirring until it is entirely
dissolved. Pour on a greased surface, cool, and pull until it is a
light-cream color. While pulling, flavor with vanilla and a few drops of
lemon. Stretch into a long thin rope and cut into inch lengths or pile
in a mass and chop into pieces.

81. BUTTER SCOTCH. - Closely related to taffies so far as ingredients are
concerned is candy known as butter scotch. This variety, however, is
not pulled as are the taffies, but is allowed to become cool and then
marked in squares which are broken apart when the candy is
entirely cold.

BUTTER SCOTCH

2 c. white sugar
2 c. brown sugar
1/4 c. corn sirup
1 Tb. vinegar
1/4 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 c. butter
1 tsp. lemon extract

Mix all the ingredients except the butter and the lemon extract. Boil
until a hard ball will form or 256 degrees register on the thermometer.
Just before the boiling is completed, add the butter, and when the
mixture has been removed from the fire, add the lemon extract. Pour into
a greased pan, and before it has entirely cooled, cut into squares with
a knife. When cold and desired for serving, remove from the pan and
break the squares apart. If desired, candy of this kind may be allowed
to become entirely cold without cutting and then broken into irregular
pieces just before being served.

82. MARSHMALLOWS COATED WITH BUTTER SCOTCH. - A delightful confection may
be made by covering marshmallows with hot butter scotch. To accomplish
this, drop the marshmallows with a coating fork or an ordinary table
fork into hot butter scotch that has just finished cooking. Remove them
quickly, but see that the marshmallows are entirely covered. Drop on a
buttered pan or plate and set aside to cool.

83. GLACE NUTS AND FRUITS. - Nuts and fruits covered with a clear, hard
candy are known as glace nuts and fruits. These are a very delightful
confection, and can easily be made if the accompanying directions are
carefully followed. Nuts of any variety may be used for this purpose,
and such nuts as almonds need not be blanched. Candied cherries, candied
pineapple, pressed figs, dates, and raisins are the fruits that are
usually glaced. Confections of this kind should be eaten while fresh or
kept in a closed receptacle in a dry place.

GLACE NUTS AND FRUITS

Fruits and nuts
2 c. granulated sugar
1/8 tsp. cream of tartar
3/4 c. water
1 tsp. vanilla

Prepare the nuts by shelling them and, if necessary, roasting them, and
the fruits by cutting them into small strips or cubes. Mix the sugar and
cream of tartar and add the water. Cook until it will form a very
brittle ball in water, will spin hair-like threads when drops of it fall
from the spoon, or registers 290 degrees on the thermometer. Remove from
the fire and put in a convenient place for the dipping of the fruit and
nuts. Drop these into the hot sirup, one at a time, with a coating fork
or an ordinary table fork. When entirely covered with the sirup, remove
and drop on greased plates or pans.

84. PEANUT BRITTLE. - Peanuts are often used in confection making and are
very much liked by the majority of persons. They come in two general
varieties, which may be roasted before use or used unroasted, and it is
well for the housewife to understand the difference between them. One
variety is the large, oblong peanut generally sold at peanut stands and
used for the salted peanuts sold in confectionery stores. The other is
the variety known as Spanish peanuts, which are small and round. For
some candies, it is necessary that the peanuts be roasted and the skins
removed, while for others unroasted peanuts with the skins on are
desirable. To remove the skins from unroasted peanuts, they must be
blanched by immersing them in boiling water until the skins will slip
off easily, but in the case of roasted peanuts, the skins may be removed
without blanching.

85. Peanut brittle is one of the candies in which peanuts are used. As
its name implies, it is very thin and brittle and it usually contains a
great many peanuts. Two recipes for candy of this kind are here given,
one requiring peanuts that are roasted and blanched and the other,
peanuts that are unroasted and not blanched.

PEANUT BRITTLE NO. 1

2 c. sugar
1/2 lb. shelled, roasted peanuts

Put the sugar in a saucepan without any water. Place it over a slow fire
and allow it to melt gradually until a clear, reddish-brown liquid is
formed, taking care not to allow it to burn. Have a pan greased and
covered with a thick layer of a large variety of roasted peanuts. Pour
the melted sugar over them and allow it to become hard. Then break into
pieces and serve.

PEANUT BRITTLE NO. 2

3 c. sugar
1 c. corn sirup
1 c. water
1/4 c. butter
1 lb. raw Spanish peanuts
1 tsp. vanilla
1 Tb. soda

Mix the sugar, sirup, and water and place it over the fire. Boil until
a hard ball will form or a temperature of 250 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Add the butter and the peanuts without removing their brown
skins. Allow to cook, stirring all the time, until the mixture begins to
turn a light brown and the skins of the peanuts pop open, showing that
the peanuts are roasted. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla and the
soda and stir rapidly. Then pour the mixture, which will become thick
upon the addition of the soda, on a flat, greased surface. A slab is
better for this purpose than anything else, but if this cannot be
obtained a metal or other hard table top may be used. When the candy
begins to get stiff, loosen it from the surface on which it was poured,
cut it into two pieces, and turn each over; or, if it can be handled
without cutting, turn the entire piece over. Then stretch the candy
until it is just as thin as possible, beginning around the edge. As it
becomes colder, stretch even thinner. When entirely cool, break into
pieces and serve.

86. NUT BARS. - Another excellent nut candy can be made by pouring a
sirup made of sugar, corn sirup, and water over a thick layer of nuts.
Such fruits as dates and figs or coconut, or a combination of these, may
be used with the nuts, if desired.

NUT BARS

2 c. sugar
3/4 c. corn sirup
1/4 c. water
1-1/2 c. shelled nuts

Put the sugar, sirup, and water over the fire and stir until it boils.
Cover and cook until a hard ball will form or a temperature of 254 or
256 degrees is reached. Spread the nuts on a buttered slab or pan, and


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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 16 of 27)