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Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 17 of 27)
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to them add fruit or coconut if it is desired to use either of these.
Pour the hot sirup over this until it is about 1 inch in thickness. When
sufficiently cool, cut in pieces of any desirable size, using a quick,
sliding motion of the knife and pressing down at the same time. Break
into pieces when entirely cold and serve.


CARAMELS

87. NATURE OF CARAMELS. - Caramels are included among the popular
candies, and they may be made in many varieties. To plain vanilla
caramels, which are the simplest kind to make, may be added any
desirable color or flavor at the time they are removed from the fire. To
keep caramels from crystallizing after they are boiled, glucose in some
form must be used, and the most convenient kind to secure is corn sirup.
Then, too, caramels will cut more easily and will have less of a sticky
consistency if a small piece of paraffin is boiled with the mixture. The
addition of this material or any wax that is not a food is contrary to
the pure-food laws, and such candy cannot be sold. However, paraffin is
not harmful, but is merely a substance that is not digested, so that the
small amount taken by eating candy in which it is used cannot possibly
cause any injury.

88. In the making of caramels, it should be remembered that good results
depend on boiling the mixture to just the right point. If they are not
boiled enough, they will be too soft to retain their shape when cut, and
if they are cooked too long, they will be brittle. Neither of these
conditions is the proper consistency for caramels. To be right, they
must be boiled until a temperature of 246 to 248 degrees is reached.
However, chocolate caramels need not be boiled so long, as the chocolate
helps to harden them.

89. PLAIN CARAMELS. - The accompanying recipe for plain caramels may be
made just as it is given, or to it may be added any flavoring or
coloring desired. A pink color and strawberry flavor are very often
found in caramels and are considered to be a delicious combination. As
will be noted, white sugar is called for, but if more of a caramel
flavor is preferred, brown sugar may be used instead of white. Maple
sugar may also be used in candy of this kind. Nuts, fruits, or coconut,
or any mixture of these materials, improves plain caramels wonderfully.
If they are used, they should be stirred into the mixture at the time it
is removed from the fire.

PLAIN CARAMELS

3 c. milk
3 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup

The milk used for making caramels should be as rich as possible; in
fact, if cream can be used, the candy will be very much better. Add half
of the milk to the sugar and sirup and put over the fire to cook. Allow
this mixture to boil until a soft ball will form when dropped in water,
stirring when necessary to prevent burning. Then gradually add the
remaining milk without stopping the boiling if possible. Cook again
until a temperature of 248 degrees will register on the thermometer or a
fairly hard ball will form when tried in water. In the water test, the
ball, when thoroughly cold, should have exactly the same consistency as
the finished caramels. Toward the end of the boiling, it is necessary to
stir the mixture almost constantly to prevent it from burning. When
done, pour it out on a buttered slab or some other flat surface and
allow it to become cool. Then cut the candy into squares from 3/4 to 1
inch in size, cutting with a sliding pressure, that is, bearing down and
away from you at the same time.

If the caramels are to be packed or kept for any length of time, it is
well to wrap them in waxed paper. Before attempting to use caramels,
however, they should be allowed to stand overnight in a cool, dry place,
but not in a refrigerator.

90. CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. - When chocolate caramels are made, the chocolate
should be added just before the cooking is finished. The amount of
chocolate to be used may be varied to suit the taste, but 2 squares are
usually considered sufficient for the quantities given in the
accompanying recipe.

CHOCOLATE CARAMELS

1 c. molasses or 1 c. maple sirup
1/2 c. corn sirup
2 c. sugar
1 pt. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 sq. chocolate
Pinch of salt
1 tsp. vanilla

Cook the molasses or maple sirup, the corn sirup, and the sugar with 1
cupful of the milk until the mixture will form a soft ball in cold
water. Then add the remainder of the milk and cook until the mixture is
thick. Add the butter, chocolate, and salt, and cook until a hard ball
will form in cold water or a temperature of 248 degrees is reached,
stirring constantly to prevent burning. Add the vanilla, pour on a
buttered surface, cool, cut, and serve.

* * * * *

CREAM CANDIES

NATURES OF CREAM CANDIES

91. There are numerous varieties of cream candies, some of which must be
made with great care while others may be made quickly and easily. For
instance, fudge, penuchie, divinity, and sea foam are examples of cream
candies that do not require long preparation, but these must generally
be used up quickly, as they do not stay soft upon exposure to the air
unless it is very moist. On the other hand, such cream candies as opera
cream, fondant, center cream, and orientals require both care and time
in their preparation. If these are properly looked after, they may be
kept for some time. In fact, it is necessary that some of them stand for
several days before they can be made into the numerous varieties to
which they lend themselves.

The main point to consider in the preparation of all cream candies is
that crystallization of the sugar, which is commonly called _graining_,
must be prevented if a creamy mixture is to be the result. Candies of
this kind are not palatable unless they are soft and creamy. However, no
difficulty will be experienced in preparing delicious cream candies if
the principles of candy making previously given are applied.


FUDGES AND RELATED CANDIES

92. FUDGE NO. 1. - Probably no other candy is so well known and so often
made as fudge. Even persons little experienced in candy making have
success with candy of this kind. Another advantage of fudge is that it
can be made up quickly, very little time being required in its
preparation. Several varieties of fudge may be made, the one given in
the accompanying recipe being a chocolate fudge containing a small
quantity of corn starch.

FUDGE No. 1

3 c. sugar
1-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 Tb. corn starch
3 Tb. water
1 tsp. vanilla

Mix the sugar, milk, butter, and salt and boil until a very soft ball
will form in water. Then add the chocolate and the corn starch, which
has been moistened with the cold water. Boil to a temperature of 236
degrees or until a ball that will hold together well and may be handled
is formed in cold water. Remove from the fire and allow the mixture to
cool until there is practically no heat in it. Add the vanilla, beat
until thick, pour into a buttered pan, cut into squares, and serve.

93. FUDGE NO. 2. - A fudge containing corn sirup is liked by many
persons. It has a slightly different flavor from the other variety of
fudge, but is just as creamy if the directions are carefully followed.

FUDGE No. 2

3/4 c. milk
2 c. sugar
1/4 c. corn sirup
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla

Cook the milk, sugar, corn sirup, butter, and salt until the mixture
will form a very soft ball when tried in water. Add the chocolate and
cook again until a soft ball that can be handled will form or the
thermometer registers 236 degrees. Remove from the fire, cool without
stirring until entirely cold, and then add the vanilla. Beat until
creamy, pour into buttered pans, cut into squares, and serve.

94. TWO LAYER FUDGE. - A very attractive as well as delicious fudge can
be had by making it in two layers, one white and one dark. The dark
layer contains chocolate while the white one is the same mixture, with
the exception of the chocolate. The layers may be arranged with either
the white or the dark layer on top, as preferred.

TWO-LAYER FUDGE

4 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. milk
6 Tb. corn sirup
2 Tb. butter
Pinch of salt
2 sq. chocolate
1 tsp. vanilla

Mix the sugar, milk, corn sirup, butter, and salt, and cook until a very
soft ball will form. Transfer half of the mixture to another pan and add
to it the chocolate, which has been melted. Boil each mixture until it
tests 238 degrees with the thermometer or a soft ball that can be
handled well will form in cold water. Upon removing it from the fire,
add the vanilla, putting half into each mixture. Set aside to cool and
when all the heat is gone, beat one of the mixtures until it becomes
creamy and pour it into a buttered pan. Then beat the other one and
pour it over the first. Cut into squares and serve.

95. BROWN-SUGAR FUDGE. - Fudge in which brown sugar is used for the
largest part of the sweetening is explained in the accompanying recipe.
Peanuts are added, but if desired nuts of any other kind may be used.

BROWN-SUGAR FUDGE

2 c. brown sugar
1 c. white sugar
1 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1 tsp. vanilla
3/4 c. chopped peanuts

Mix the sugar, milk, and butter and boil until a soft ball will form in
cold water or a temperature of 238 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and cool until the
heat is out of the mixture. Beat, and when the candy begins to grow
creamy, add the chopped nuts. When sufficiently thick, pour into a
buttered pan, cut, and serve.

96. MAPLE PENUCHIE. - Almost any kind of maple candy finds favor with the
majority of persons, but maple penuchie is especially well liked. Nuts
and coconut are used in it, and these improve the flavor very much.

MAPLE PENUCHIE

3 c. maple sirup
1/4 tsp. soda
1 c. milk
Few grains of salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 c. chopped nuts
1/2 c. shredded coconut

Into the maple sirup, stir the soda, and add the milk and salt. Place
over the fire and boil until a soft ball that can be easily handled will
form in cold water or a temperature of 238 degrees is reached on the
thermometer. Remove from the fire, add the vanilla, and allow the
mixture to become entirely cold. Beat, and when it begins to get thick,
add the nuts and coconut. Continue beating until the candy grows stiff
but can be poured out. Pour in a buttered pan, cut, and serve.

97. DIVINITY. - An excellent confection known as divinity can be made
with very little difficulty if the accompanying recipe is carefully
followed. Nuts and raisins are used in this confection, but if desired
they may be omitted. As divinity is dropped from a spoon on oiled paper,
care should be taken not to boil the mixture too long, or it will be
necessary to work very rapidly in order to drop all of it before it
becomes too dry.

DIVINITY

1/3 c. corn sirup
1/2 c. water
2 c. sugar
1 egg white
1 tsp. vanilla
1/4 c. nuts
1/4 c. raisins

Boil the sirup, water, and sugar together until a fairly hard ball will
form in cold water or the mixture registers 240 degrees on the
thermometer, which is a trifle harder than the fudge mixture. Beat the
egg white until it is stiff but not dry. Over this pour the hot mixture
a drop at a time until it can be added faster without cooking the egg
white. Beat rapidly until all the sirup is added, stir in the vanilla,
and when fairly stiff add the nuts and raisins. Continue beating until
the mixture will stand alone, and then drop by spoonfuls on oiled paper
or a buttered surface. When dry enough to handle, divinity may
be served.

98. SEA FOAM. - Another candy in which a cooked sirup is poured over
beaten egg white is known as sea foam. Candies of this kind should be
served at once, for they are apt to become dry and hard if they are
allowed to stand.

SEA FOAM

2 c. light-brown sugar
1/2 c. water
Pinch of salt
1 egg white
1 tsp. vanilla

Boil the sugar, water, and salt until a fairly hard ball will form or
the thermometer registers 240 degrees. Beat the egg white stiff, but not
dry. Pour the hot sirup over the egg white, a drop at a time at first,
and then as fast as possible without cooking the egg white. Add the
vanilla and continue beating the mixture until it will stand alone. Drop
by spoonfuls on a buttered surface or oiled paper. When sufficiently
dry, remove from the surface and serve.


FONDANT AND RELATED CREAMS

99. NATURE OF FONDANT. - Fondant is the foundation cream out of which
bonbons and various other fancy candies are made. It is also used for
stuffing dates, taking the place of the pit. While it is not so
desirable for the centers of chocolate creams as for most of the other
candies for which it is used, it can, of course, be coated with
chocolate if desired. Some persons have an idea that fondant and related
candies are difficult to make, but if directions are followed
carefully this will not be the case.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

100. In the first place, it should be remembered that the weather is an
important factor in the success of candy of this kind. A clear, cold day
should be selected, for it is difficult to make fondant successfully on
a warm or a damp day. Then, too, it is an excellent plan to make more
than can be used at one time, for no greater labor will be involved in
the making of a large amount than a small amount and better results may
be expected. If the fondant material is cared for properly, small
quantities of it may be made up as desired. Therefore, if convenient
equipment is on hand for making candies of this type, no less than 2-1/2
pounds should be made at one time. Five pounds is a preferable amount,
but, if desired, 10 pounds may be made up at one time, although this
amount is about as much as one person can handle and even this is
somewhat difficult for some to work up.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

A little ingenuity on the part of the person making up the fondant will
result in many delightful bonbons. Candied fruits, nuts, coconut, and
numerous varieties of flavoring and coloring may be utilized very
successfully with fondant. It should be remembered, however, that
bonbons do not keep fresh for more than a few days or a week at the most
if they are exposed to the air. If it is desired to keep them for any
length of time, they should be packed in a tin box, but when stored in
this way, different colors should not be placed next to each other or
they will mix.

101. FONDANT. - As will be noted, the accompanying recipe for fondant
calls for 5 pounds of sugar. It is not necessary that all of the fondant
be worked up at once. Indeed, it is suggested that this amount be
prepared and then stored so that the fondant may be used as needed. If a
smaller amount should be desired, half of each ingredient may be used.

FONDANT

5 lb. sugar
1 qt. water
6 drops acetic acid or 1/4 tsp. cream tartar

Mix the sugar, water, and acetic acid or cream of tartar. Place over the
fire and, as in Fig. 5, stir until the sugar is dissolved. Just before
the mixture begins to boil, wash down the sides of the kettle with a wet
cloth, as shown in Fig. 6. Then place a lid over the kettle and cook
until almost ready to test. Remove the cover and, as in Fig. 7, insert a
thermometer, which should register 238 degrees. If the fondant is to be
stored for some time, it may be boiled to 240 degrees, but for general
use a mixture that reaches a temperature of 238 degrees will be the most
satisfactory. If the water test is applied, as in Fig. 8, the mixture
should form a firm ball that can be easily held in the fingers. Just
before the boiling is completed, cool a large platter or a slab and
moisten it by wetting it with a damp cloth.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

No time should intervene between the end of the boiling and the removal
of the sirup from the stove, for every second that the sirup is allowed
to stand over the hot burner before it is poured out will raise the
temperature. Pour quickly on the platter, as in Fig. 9, and do not allow
it to drip. If some sirup is left in the pan, utilize it for something
else, rather than allow it to drop on the surface of the candy in the
platter or slab. It is at this point that crystallization begins, and
the fondant, instead of being creamy, will become grainy. Cool as
quickly as possible, so as to lessen the chances for crystallization to
begin, and do not disturb the sirup in any way during the cooling. The
best way in which to accomplish this is to put the platter in a cool
place and make it perfectly level before the sirup is poured into it.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

When the mixture has cooled to the extent that it no longer retains any
heat, it is ready to be stirred. As already explained, a putty knife or
a wallpaper scraper is the most satisfactory utensil to use for this
purpose, especially if a large batch is being made. However, a small
batch may be stirred very successfully with a case knife. With whatever
utensil is selected, scrape the fondant up into a heap, and then, as in
Fig. 10, start the working. See that all parts are worked alike.
Continue the operation, occasionally scraping off the knife or the
paddle used. The first indication of the creaming stage will be a cloudy
look in the mixture and a slight thinning of it, so that the work will
be easier for a few minutes. It will then gradually begin to harden, and
when the end of the work is reached the hardening will progress rapidly.
At this stage, try to get the mass together, see that no loose fragments
cling to the platter, and pile all into a heap. By the time the working
is completed, the candy will be rather hard and will look as if it can
never be worked into a soft, creamy candy. It will become soft, however,
by the proper treatment.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

Wring a clean towel or napkin out of cold water, and, as in Fig. 11,
place it tightly over the mass of fondant and tuck it in securely around
the edges. Allow the candy to stand for an hour in this way. At the end
of this time it will be sufficiently moist to work in any desired way.
With a knife or a scraper, break it off into pieces of a size that can
be handled well at one time and work each one of these soft by squeezing
it in the manner shown in Fig. 12. When all of the pieces have been
worked soft, pack them into a bowl and continue working until all the
fondant has been worked together and is soft. Over the top of the bowl,
as shown in Fig. 13, place a damp cloth and cover this with a plate or
an earthen cover. Set away in some place where it will remain cool, but
will not become too moist, until it is desired for further use.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

The four recipes that follow show how fondant can be made up into
attractive as well as delicious confections. They will doubtless give
the housewife other ideas as to ways of preparing candies from this
foundation material.

102. BONBONS. - In a broad sense, bonbons mean candy or confections in
general, but it is also the name of candies made out of colored and
flavored fondant. Sometimes they are made small and dainty and are
decorated with a nut meat or a piece of maraschino or candied cherry or
candied pineapple. Again, centers may be made that contain coconut,
nuts, figs, dates, raisins, etc., and these then dipped in some of the
fondant that has been colored, flavored, and melted.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

103. When bonbons are to be made, remove fondant in pieces from the
utensil in which it has been stored. Work it with the hands as it was
worked when put away and add the desired coloring and flavoring at this
time. If simple bonbons are to be made, form the colored and flavored
fondant into tiny balls, place them on oiled paper, and press a nut or a
piece of maraschino or candied cherry or candied pineapple on top.

104. To make more elaborate bonbons, form, as in Fig. 14, small round
centers out of the fondant to which have been added such materials as
dates, figs, raisins, nuts, or coconut, or any combination of these.
Only enough fondant should be used to make the other materials stick
together. Then, in a double boiler, color, flavor, and melt some of the
fondant and, with a coating or other fork, drop the centers into this
melted cream. When thoroughly coated, remove, and place on waxed paper.
While warm, a piece of nut or candied fruit may be placed on the top of
each one. If it is desired not to use fondant in the centers, the nuts
or candied fruits themselves may be dipped into the melted bonbon cream
and then placed on waxed paper to harden.

[Illustration: FIG. 14] [Illustration: FIG. 15]

105. RECEPTION WAFERS. - Thin wafers made of fondant are a confection
much used at parties, receptions, and similar social gatherings. One
variety of these is colored pink and flavored with wintergreen, while
another is flavored with peppermint and not colored in any way. Other
colors and flavors may also be made if desired, but the usual kinds are
the pink and white ones.

Divide the mass of fondant to be used into two parts and color one of
these a pale pink. Flavor the pink mass with wintergreen and the white
one with peppermint. Put one of these in a double boiler and allow it to
melt until it is soft enough to pour. Then, as in Fig. 15, with a
dessert spoon or a tablespoon, drop the melted fondant on a smooth
surface in sufficient amounts to make wafers about the size of a
quarter. Drop quickly and as accurately as possible so that the wafers
will be the same size and shape. Allow them to stand until cold and set.

Sometimes it will be found that two wafers can be dropped from the same
spoonful before the material becomes too cold to pour, but usually it is
necessary to dip a fresh spoonful for each wafer. As the fondant hardens
on the back of the spoon it should be scraped off and put back into the
double boiler. A comparatively small amount of fondant should be melted
at one time in order to provide against its becoming sugary, but if it
shows any signs of this condition the double boiler should be emptied
and thoroughly cleaned before more of the fondant is melted in it.

106. RAINBOW DELIGHT. - An especially attractive candy that has fondant
for its foundation is rainbow delight. As may be inferred from its name,
candy of this kind is in several colors.

To make rainbow delight, divide fondant into three parts. Flavor one
with vanilla and to it add chopped nuts. Flavor the second with
strawberry, color it pink, and, if desired, add shredded coconut. To the
third, add melted bitter chocolate until it is as dark as preferred.
Line a small bread pan or a box as smoothly as possible with waxed
paper, place the white fondant in the bottom, and press it down into a
layer. Over this put the chocolate fondant, press this into a layer, and
on top of it place the pink candy. After making the mass smooth and
even, allow it to remain where it will be cold until it is set. Then
remove it from the pan or box by turning it out on a surface that has
been slightly dusted with confectioner's sugar. Have coating chocolate
melted and cover the surface of three sides of the candy with a thick
layer of the chocolate. If, when the chocolate becomes dry and hard, it
seems a little thin, give it a second coating.

When it is entirely cold, turn the candy over and coat the remaining
side. To serve, cut into slices and cut each slice into pieces.

107. TUTTI-FRUTTI ROLLS. - Another very good candy that can be made from
fondant is tutti-frutti roll. Secure nuts, cherries, candied pineapple,
and citron, chop them fine, and to them add shredded coconut. Work these
in any quantity desired into the fondant until all are worked through
evenly and then flavor with vanilla. Shape the mass into a roll and let
it stand until it is well set. Then coat it with coating chocolate. When
it has become cold, turn it over and coat the bottom. To serve
tutti-frutti roll, cut it into slices.

108. OPERA CREAM. - No more delicious cream candy can be made than that
known as opera cream. This may be colored and flavored in many different
ways or made up in various forms. When chocolate is added to it, a
better fudge than the ordinary kinds is the result. Sufficient time
should be allowed for the making of opera cream, for it is necessary
that this candy stand for several hours before it is worked up.

OPERA CREAM

4 c. sugar
1/8 tsp. cream of tartar
2 Tb. corn sirup
1 pt. thin cream
Vanilla

Mix the sugar and the cream of tartar, add the sirup and cream, and cook
over a hot fire. Watch closely to see whether the cream looks as if it
might curd, and if it does, beat rapidly with a rotary beater. Do not


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Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 17 of 27)