stir after the boiling has begun unless it is necessary to keep the
mixture from sticking to the pan. Boil until a very hard ball will form
in water or until it registers 240 degrees on the thermometer. Moisten a
large, flat platter or a marble slab, pour the mixture on it, and allow
it to remain until it is entirely cool, disturbing it in no way during
this cooling. When cool, work up with a putty knife or a similar utensil
in the same manner as for fondant until it becomes hard and creamy.
Place all in a heap in the center of the slab or platter and cover
closely with a damp cloth, a clean towel being desirable for this
purpose. Allow it to stand for about 2 hours, and then work it with the
hands, being careful to remove any lumps that it might contain.
The cream is now ready to be worked up in any desirable way. Divide it
into small batches, and then flavor and color it or work melted
chocolate into it. Press it into a layer about 1 inch thick in a shallow
box lined with waxed paper or a pan that has been buttered, cut it into
squares, and allow it to stand for a few hours. Then remove and serve.
109. CENTER CREAM. - An excellent cream candy for the centers of
chocolates is given in the accompanying recipe. As molds are necessary
in its preparation, it is more difficult to make than fondant, but
success can be had with this as well as with other candies.
The cream used for these centers may be colored and flavored in any
desirable way. It is somewhat firm while being handled, but will be
found to soften after it has been made up and coated. It can be handled
better if it is made 3 or 4 days before it is desired for use. As will
be noted, the recipe is given in a fairly large quantity, for it is
preferable to make a good-sized amount of the cream at a time; but it
need not all be used up at once.
8 c. sugar
2 c. glucose or corn sirup
3 c. water
Mix the sugar, glucose or corn sirup, and water and proceed in the same
way as for fondant. Boil until the thermometer registers 234 or 236
degrees or a ball that is not quite so firm as for fondant will form in
cold water. Pour on a moistened platter or slab to cool. Then cream in
the same manner as for fondant, but allow more time for this part of the
work, as the glucose does not cream rapidly. Just before it hardens,
pour it into a crock or a bowl, place a damp cloth over the top of the
bowl, and put away for a couple of days.
110. The molds for shaping center creams are formed in a thick layer of
corn starch by means of a device that may be bought from a candy-making
supply house or made at home. This device consists of a long strip with
projections that may be pushed into the corn starch to make neatly
shaped holes, or molds. These projections are spaced about 1 inch apart,
so that the walls between the corn-starch molds will not fall down when
the center-cream mixture is poured into them. A long stick, such as a
ruler or a yardstick, and either corks of different sizes or plaster of
Paris may be employed to make such a device. If corks are to be used,
simply glue them to the stick, spacing them about 1 inch apart. If
plaster of Paris is to be used, fill small receptacles about the size
and shape of chocolate creams with a thin mixture of plaster of Paris
and water and allow it to set. When hard, remove the plaster-of-Paris
shapes and glue them to the stick, spacing them the same distance as
mentioned for the corks. The home-made device will answer the same
purpose as one that is bought, and is much less expensive.
111. When it is desired to make up the creams, sift corn starch into a
pan to form a thick layer, making it perfectly level on top with the
straight edge of a knife. Then make depressions, or molds, in the corn
starch by pressing into it the device just described. Make as many rows
of molds as the space will permit, but do not make them so close
together as to weaken the walls between the molds. Melt some of the
center cream in a double boiler, color and flavor as desired, and pour
into the molds made in the corn starch. Allow the centers to remain
until they become hard in the molds. Then pick them out, blow off the
corn starch, and set aside until ready to coat. Continue making centers
in this way until all the cream is used up, resifting the corn starch
and making new molds each time. Then coat with chocolate in the
112. ORIENTALS. - Delicious chocolate creams known as orientals can be
made by the amateur if a little care is exercised. It should be
remembered, however, that these cannot be made successfully on a damp
day and that it is somewhat difficult to make them in warm weather. A
clear, cold day is required for satisfactory results. Unlike fondant,
these creams must be made up at once, so it will be necessary to allow
sufficient time not only for the cooking and creaming processes, but
also for the making and coating as well. After being made up, however,
they should be allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days, as they, like many
other cream candies, improve upon standing.
Since these centers are very sweet, a slightly bitter chocolate is the
best kind with which to coat them. Confectioner's bitter-sweet chocolate
will be found to be the most satisfactory, but if this cannot be
procured, bitter chocolate may be mixed with sweet coating chocolate.
5 c. granulated sugar
2 c. water
1 tsp. glycerine
6 drops acetic acid
2 egg whites
Put the sugar, water, and glycerine over the fire and stir until the
sugar is dissolved. Wash down the sides of the kettle with a cloth, and
just as the mixture begins to boil, add the acetic acid. Place a cover
over the pan and allow the mixture to boil until a temperature of 238
degrees is reached on the thermometer or a firm ball that can be easily
held in the fingers will form. Pour out on a slab or a platter to cool,
and when perfectly cool begin to work it as for fondant, but first beat
the egg whites until they are stiff. As soon as the candy is collected
into a mass, pour the egg whites over it, as shown in Fig. 16. Continue
to work the candy until all of the egg white is worked in. Add the
vanilla during this process. If the mixture seems stiff and the eggs do
not work in, continue with a little patience, for they will eventually
combine with the candy. Because of the eggs, oriental cream is whiter
than bonbon cream, and so it is a little difficult to tell just when it
is beginning to get creamy. However, it softens a little as it begins to
set, just as fondant does. At this point work slowly, and as it hardens
get it into a mass in the center of the slab. When completely worked, it
will not be so hard as fondant. Make it up at once into small, round
centers, and as they are made place them on pieces of oiled paper to
become dry. Chopped nuts may be added to the filling if desired before
it is made up. As soon as it is possible to handle the centers, coat
them with chocolate in the usual way. Be careful to cover the entire
surface with chocolate, for otherwise the quality of the center will
deteriorate. A good plan is to wrap candies of this kind in waxed paper,
especially if they are to be packed in boxes, for then they will not be
so likely to crush.
[Illustration: FIG. 16]
113. UNCOOKED FONDANT. - A fairly satisfactory substitute for fondant
can be made by moistening confectioner's sugar with egg white or sweet
cream. A very fine sugar must be secured for this purpose or the candy
will be granular, and even then the result will not be so satisfactory
as in the case of cooked fondant properly made. Uncooked fondant, too,
is more limited in its uses than cooked fondant, for it cannot be melted
and used for bonbons.
Egg white or sweet cream
Roll and sift the sugar if it is lumpy, making it as fine as possible.
Beat the egg white just enough to break it up or pour into a bowl the
desired amount of sweet cream, remembering that very little liquid will
moisten considerable sugar. Add the sugar a little at a time, beating
all the while, until a sufficient amount has been used to make the
mixture dry enough to handle with the fingers. Then flavor and color in
any desired way and make up as if it were fondant.
114. STUFFED DATES. - Dates from which the seeds have been removed and
which have been filled with nuts or fondant or a combination of both are
a confection that meets with much favor. The uncooked fondant is
entirely satisfactory for this purpose, but if some of the other is on
hand it will make an especially fine confection. Regardless of what is
used for a filling, though, the preparation of such dates is the same.
First wash the dates in warm water and rinse them in cold water. Then,
if there is time, spread them out in a single layer on a cloth and let
them remain until they are entirely dry. Cut a slit in the side of each
one with a knife and remove the seed. If nuts, such as English walnuts,
are to be used for the filling, place half a nut meat in the cavity left
by the seed and press the date together over it. In case fondant and
nuts are to be used, chop the nuts and mix them with the fondant.
Coconut may be used in place of the nuts if desired or the fondant may
be used alone. Shape the fondant into tiny balls, press one tightly into
the cavity left by the seed, and close the date partly over the filling.
When all the dates have been stuffed, roll them in sugar, preferably
granulated, and serve.
115. SALTED NUTS. - Nuts to which salt has been added are an excellent
contrast to the sweet confections that have been described. At social
gatherings, luncheons, dinners, etc., they are often served in
connection with some variety of bonbon and many times they replace the
sweet confection entirely. Peanuts and almonds are the nuts generally
used for salting. If peanuts are to be salted, the unroasted ones should
be purchased and then treated in exactly the same way as almonds. Before
nuts are salted, they must first be browned, and this may be
accomplished in three different ways: on the top of the stove, in the
oven, and in deep fat. Preparing them in deep fat is the most
satisfactory method, for by it all the nuts reach the same degree of
116. First blanch the nuts by pouring boiling water over them and
allowing them to remain in the water until the skins can be removed;
then slip off the skins without breaking the nuts apart if possible.
Spread the nuts out on a towel to dry.
If the deep-fat method of browning them is to be followed, have in a
small saucepan or kettle a sufficient quantity of cooking fat or oil.
[Illustration: FIG. 17]
Allow it to become as hot as for frying doughnuts or croquettes, place
the nuts in a sieve, and fry them in the fat until they become a
delicate brown. Pour them out into a pan, sprinkle them with salt, cool,
To brown nuts on top of the stove, heat a heavy frying pan over a slow
fire and into it put a small amount of fat. Add the nuts and stir
constantly until they are browned as evenly as possible. This part of
the work requires considerable time, for the more slowly it is done the
less likely are the nuts to have burned spots. Salt the nuts before
removing them from the pan, turn them out into a dish, cool, and serve.
It is more difficult to brown nuts equally by the oven method, but
sometimes it is desired to prepare them in this way. Put the nuts with a
little fat into a pan and set the pan in a hot oven. Stir frequently
until they are well browned, salt, cool, and serve.
117. ORIENTAL DELIGHT. - An excellent confection that can be prepared
without cooking is known as oriental delight. It is composed of fruit,
nuts, and coconut, which are held together with egg white and powdered
sugar. When thoroughly set and cut into squares, oriental delight
appears as in Fig. 17.
1/2 lb. dates
1/2 lb. raisins
1/2 lb. pressed figs
1/2 c. shredded coconut
1/2 c. English walnuts
1 egg white
Wash all the fruits, put them together, and steam for about 15 minutes.
Then put these with the coconut and nuts through a food chopper or chop
them all in a bowl with a chopping knife. When the whole is reduced to a
pulpy mass, beat the egg white slightly, add sufficient sugar to make a
very soft paste, and mix with the fruit mixture. If it is very sticky,
continue to add powdered sugar and mix well until it is stiff enough to
pack in a layer in a pan. Press down tight and when it is set mark in
squares, remove from the pan, and serve as a confection.
118. MARSHMALLOWS. - To be able to make marshmallows successfully is the
desire of many persons. At first thought, this seems somewhat of a task,
but in reality it is a simple matter if the directions are carefully
followed. Upon being cut into squares, the marshmallows may be served
plain or they may be coated with chocolate or, after standing several
days, dipped into a warm caramel mixture.
8 tsp. gelatine
1-1/4 c. water
2 c. sugar
Few grains salt
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 Tb. corn starch
Soak the gelatine in one-half of the water for 5 minutes. Cook the sugar
and the remaining water until it will spin a thread when dropped from a
spoon. Remove from the fire and add the gelatine. When partly cold, add
the salt and the flavoring. Beat with an egg whip, cooling the mixture
as rapidly as possible, until it is light and fluffy. When the mixture
is thick, add the corn starch slowly, working it in thoroughly. Then
pour out on a flat surface that is well dusted with confectioner's
sugar. Let stand in a cool place until thoroughly chilled. Cut in
squares by pressing the blade of a knife down through the mass, but do
not slide it along when cutting. Remove the pieces, dust on all sides
with powdered sugar, and serve.
119. NOUGAT. - The confection known as nougat consists usually of a paste
filled with chopped nuts. Both corn sirup and honey are used in the
preparation of this candy. Generally it is merely flavored with vanilla,
but if chocolate flavoring is preferred it may be added.
3 c. sugar
1-1/2 c. corn sirup
1/4 c. strained honey
1 c. water
2 egg whites
1 tsp. vanilla
2 c. nut meats
Put the sugar, corn sirup, honey, and water together and cook until a
temperature of 260 degrees is reached or a brittle ball will form in
water. Beat the egg whites stiff and pour the mass slowly into them,
beating constantly until the mixture grows stiff and waxy. Then add the
vanilla and nut meats. Mix well and pour into a small box or pan lined
with waxed paper. If chocolate is to be used for flavoring, add the
desired amount just before pouring the mixture into the pan. When it has
cooled sufficiently, cut in squares or slices.
120. CANDIED PEEL. - Another favorite confection and one that is much
used in connection with candies for social functions is candied orange,
lemon, and grapefruit peel. After being removed from the fruit, the peel
should be well scraped and then cut into thin strips. In this form, it
is ready to coat with sirup.
1/2 doz. lemons, oranges, or grapefruit
1/2 c. water
1 c. sugar
Remove the skin in quarters from the fruit, scrape off as much of the
white as possible, and cut each piece of skin into narrow strips. Put
these to cook in cold water, boil them until they may be easily pierced
with a fork, and then drain off the water. Add the water to the sugar
and cook until a thread will form when the sirup is dropped from a
spoon. Add the cooked peel to the sirup and cook for 5 to 10 minutes.
Drain and dredge in granulated sugar. Spread in a single layer to dry.
121. POP-CORN BALLS. - Pop corn in any form is always an attractive
confection, especially to young persons. It is often stuck together with
a sirup mixture and made into balls. In this form, it is an excellent
confection for the holiday season.
To make pop-corn balls, first shell the corn and pop it. Then make a
sirup with half as much water as sugar and cook it until it will spin a
thread. Have the pop corn in a large bowl and pour the sirup over it,
working quickly so that all the sirup can be used up while it is warm.
To form the balls, take up a large double handful and press firmly
together. If the sirup sticks to the hands, dip them into cold water so
as to moisten them somewhat before the next handful is taken up. Work in
this manner until all the corn is made into balls.
122. CRACKER JACK. - Another pop-corn confection that is liked by
practically every one is cracker jack. In this variety, pop corn and
peanuts are combined and a sirup made of molasses and sugar is used to
hold them together.
4 qt. popped corn
1 c. shelled, roasted peanuts
1 c. molasses
1/2 c. sugar
Put the popped corn and the peanuts together in a receptacle large
enough to hold them easily. Cook the molasses and the sugar until the
sirup spins a thread. Then pour this over the popped corn and peanuts
and mix well until it becomes cold and hard.
123. The best time to serve candy is when it will interfere least with
the digestion, and this is immediately after meals. A dish of candy
placed on the table with the dessert adds interest to any meal. It
should be passed immediately after the dessert is eaten.
Various kinds of bonbon dishes in which to serve candies are to be had,
some of them being very attractive. Those having a cover are intended
for candy that is to be left standing for a time, while open dishes
should be used for serving. Fig. 18 shows candy tastefully arranged on a
silver dish having a handle. Dishes made of glass or china answer the
purpose equally as well as silver ones, and if a bonbon dish is not in
supply a small plate will do very well. A paper or a linen doily on the
dish or plate adds to the attractiveness, as does also the manner in
which the candy is arranged.
[Illustration: FIG. 18: candies arranged on silver dish.]
* * * * *
(1) What are confections?
(2) Discuss the use of confections in the diet of children and adults.
(3) (_a_) What food substance is found in the largest proportion in
candy? (_b_) Are candies high or low in food value?
(4) Discuss briefly the kinds and qualities of sugar and their uses.
(5) What is the value of glucose in candy making?
(6) What kinds of flavorings are the most desirable?
(7) What care should be exercised in the use of colorings in candy?
(8) (_a_) What acids are used in candy making? (_b_) Why are these acids
(9) Of what value are milk, cream, and butter in the making of candy?
(10) What may be said of the selection of a pan for cooking candy?
(11) (_a_) What methods are used for testing candies? (_b_) Which of
these methods is the most accurate?
(12) (_a_) How should the mixture be poured out to cool when a creamy
candy is being made? (_b_) To what point should the sirup be cooled
before the stirring is begun?
(13) (_a_) How should chocolate be melted? (_b_) How should coating with
chocolate be done?
(14) How should waxed paper be cut for wrapping candies?
(15) Discuss the ingredients generally used for taffy.
(16) On what do good results in caramel making depend?
(17) What should be guarded against in the making of all cream candies?
(18) (_a_) What is fondant? (_b_) How may fondant be stored for future
(19) How should dates be prepared for stuffing?
(20) What is the best time for the serving of candy?
* * * * *
* * * * *
BEVERAGES IN THE DIET
NATURE AND CLASSES OF BEVERAGES
1. Throughout the lifetime of every person there is constant need for
solid food to preserve health and prolong life; and, just as such food
is necessary to satisfy the requirements of the body, so, too, is there
need for water. As is well known, the composition of the body is such
that it contains more liquid than solid material, the tissues and the
bones weighing much less than the liquid. A tremendous amount of this
liquid is continually being lost through the kidneys, through each pore
in the skin, and even through every breath that is exhaled, and if
continued good health is to be maintained this loss must be constantly
made up. This loss is greater in very hot weather or in the performance
of strenuous exercise than under ordinary conditions, which accounts for
the fact that more than the usual amount of liquid must be supplied
during such times. So necessary is liquid refreshment that the body
cannot exist without it for any great length of time. In fact, if the
supply were cut off so that no more could be obtained, the body would
begin to use its own fluids and death would soon occur. A person can
live for many days without solid food, but it is not possible to live
for more than a very few days without drink.
2. Nature's way of serving notice that the body is in need of liquid
refreshment is through the sensation of thirst. Satisfying thirst not
only brings relief, but produces a decidedly pleasant sensation;
however, the real pleasure of drinking is not experienced until one has
become actually thirsty.
The various liquids by which thirst may be slaked, or quenched, are
known as _beverages_. The first one of these given to man was water,
and it is still the chief beverage, for it is used both alone and as a
foundation for numerous other beverages that are calculated to be more
tasty, but whose use is liable in some cases to lead to excessive
drinking or to the partaking of substances that are injurious to health.
3. The beverages that are in common use may be placed in three general
classes: _alcoholic_, _stimulating_, and _non-stimulating_. The
alcoholic beverages include such drinks as beer, wine, whisky, etc.,
some of which are used more in one country than in another. In fact,
almost every class of people known has an alcoholic beverage that has
come to be regarded as typical of that class. Alcoholic fermentation is
supposed to have been discovered by accident, and when its effect became
known it was recognized as a popular means of supplying a beverage and
some stimulation besides. Under stimulating beverages come tea, coffee,
and cocoa. These are in common use all over the world, certain ones, of
course, finding greater favor in some countries than in others. With the
exception of cocoa, they provide very little food value. In contrast
with these drinks are the non-stimulating beverages, which include fruit
punches, soft drinks, and all the milk-and-egg concoctions. These are
usually very refreshing, and the majority of them contain sufficient
nourishment to recommend their frequent use.
WATER IN BEVERAGES
4. Many persons restrict the term beverages, contending that it refers
to refreshing or flavored drinks. It should be remembered, however, that
this term has a broader meaning and refers to any drink taken for the
purpose of quenching thirst. Water is the simplest beverage and is in
reality the foundation of nearly all drinks, for it is the water in them
that slakes thirst. Flavors, such as fruit juice, tea, coffee, etc., are
combined with water to make the beverages more tempting, and
occasionally such foods as eggs, cream, and starchy materials are added
to give food value; but the first and foremost purpose of all beverages
is to introduce water into the system and thus satisfy thirst.
5. KINDS OF WATER. - Inasmuch as water is so important an element in the
composition of beverages, every one should endeavor to become familiar
with the nature of each of its varieties.
SOFT WATER is water that contains very little mineral matter. A common
example of soft water is rainwater.
HARD WATER is water that contains a large quantity of lime in solution.
Boiling such water precipitates, or separates, some of the lime and
consequently softens the water. An example of the precipitation of lime
in water is the deposit that can be found in any teakettle that has been
used for some time.
MINERAL WATER is water containing a large quantity of such minerals as
will go in solution in water, namely, sulphur, iron, lime, etc.
DISTILLED WATER is water from which all minerals have been removed. To
accomplish this, the water is converted into steam and then condensed.
This is the purest form of water.
CARBONATED WATER is water that has had carbon-dioxide, or carbonic-acid,
gas forced into it. The soda water used at soda fountains is an example
of this variety. Carbonated water is bottled and sold for