orange if desired. Pineapple and apricot juices are exceptionally good.
ORANGE EGG NOG
1/4 c. cream
1/4 c. milk
1 Tb. sugar
Mix the cream, milk, egg, and sugar, beat well with an egg beater, and
continue beating while adding the juice of the oranges. Serve in a glass
over crushed ice.
104. FOAMY EGG NOG. - An egg nog can be made foamy and light by
separating the eggs and beating the yolks and whites separately. Either
cream or milk may be used for this drink, and it may be flavored with
vanilla or fruit juice, as preferred. A small piece of red jelly beaten
into the egg white makes this drink very attractive; or, jelly may be
used as a flavoring and beaten with the ingredients.
FOAMY EGG NOG
1 Tb. sugar
1/2 c. cream or milk
2 Tb. fruit juice or 1/2 tsp. vanilla
Separate the yolks and whites of the eggs. Mix the yolks with the sugar,
cream or milk, and the fruit juice or vanilla and beat thoroughly. Beat
the whites stiff and fold into the first mixture, retaining a
tablespoonful of the beaten white. Pour into a tall glass, put the
remaining white on top, and serve.
* * * * *
(1) What is a beverage?
(2) What does boiling do to: (_a_) hard water? (_b_) impure water?
(3) What is the value of beverages in the diet?
(4) Mention and define the three classes of beverages.
(5) (_a_) What are caffeine, theine, and theobromine? (_b_) Where is
each found? (_c_) What effect do they have on the human body?
(6) (_a_) Where is tannic acid found? (_b_) What effect does it have on
the human body?
(7) Tell briefly about the preparation of coffee for the market.
(8) How should coffee be bought?
(9) What are the general proportions of coffee and liquid used in the
making of coffee?
(10) What use can be made of left-over coffee?
(11) Tell briefly about the preparation of black and green tea for the
(12) What points should be observed in the selection of tea?
(13) What general proportions of tea and water are used for the making
(14) Tell briefly about the preparation of cocoa and chocolate for the
(15) What advantage have cocoa and chocolate over tea and coffee as.
articles of food?
(16) What use can be made of left-over cocoa and chocolate?
(17) (_a_) How are cereal coffees made? (_b_) Of what value are they?
(18) Of what value are fruit beverages?
(19) What uses can be made of left-over fruit juices?
(20) What good use can be made of nourishing beverages?
* * * * *
THE PLANNING OF MEALS
* * * * *
NECESSITY FOR CAREFUL MEAL PLANNING
1. As every housewife realizes, the feeding of the members of her family
places upon her serious and important responsibilities. While she
deserves and receives credit for their good health, the blame for much
of their ill health falls upon her, too. The reason for this is that
illness is due in a greater measure to wrong food than to any other
single factor; and even if improper diet is not directly responsible for
ill health, it certainly lowers the bodily resistance and thus makes a
person susceptible to disease.
The health of her family is naturally the housewife's first and greatest
consideration, and as this depends so much on correct diet, it should be
the aim of every housewife to plan her meals in the careful, intelligent
way required to supply her household with the food each member needs.
2. As has already been learned, a knowledge of the selection, care, and
preparation of food is absolutely necessary in providing proper diet.
But correct feeding requires more than this. In addition, the housewife
must have a working knowledge of what foods contain and their effect in
the body. She must also learn what her family needs and then make every
effort to supply this need in the most economical way. The result will
be a sufficient amount of food of the right kind at a minimum
expenditure of funds.
She should keep in mind, however, that the cost of diet has no direct
relation to its food value, but that economy and proper feeding are
closely connected. For instance, an inexpensive diet may be just as
satisfactory from a food-value standpoint as an expensive one. But in
order to make the inexpensive one adequate and the expensive one
balanced, the housewife must apply her knowledge of the general
composition of food; that is, she must know whether a food predominates
in carbohydrate, fat, or protein, and whether or not it furnishes
minerals. Equipped with such knowledge, she will be able to purchase the
largest amount of nutritive material for the smallest outlay of money.
The cheapest food is not always the one that sells for the lowest price
per pound, quart, or bushel, but the one that furnishes the most
nutritive material at the lowest cost; also, food that is the wrong kind
to serve is not an economical one to purchase.
3. Many housewives regard it as unnecessary to plan beforehand and
persist in preparing meals without giving any previous thought to them.
But to begin thinking about an hour before meal time what to have for a
meal is neither wise nor economical, for then it is too late to
determine what ought to be served from a diet standpoint and there can
be prepared only those foods which the time will allow. As can well be
understood, this is both a disastrous plan for correct diet and a very
extravagant way in which to feed a family. Quickly broiled steaks and
chops, commercially canned vegetables and fruits, and prepared desserts
should be the occasional treat rather than the daily food. Instead of
using these constantly, time should be allowed for the preparation of
the less expensive meats and vegetables and the home-made desserts.
To prepare such foods successfully requires that meals should be planned
at least 24 hours before they are to be served, and in reality the main
dishes should be decided on 48 hours ahead of time. Then, sometime
between breakfast and luncheon and before the day's marketing is done,
detailed plans should be made for luncheon and dinner of that day and
for breakfast of the next. Nor should the left-overs be disregarded if
economy would be the watchword in the management of the household.
Rather, they should be included in the plans for each day and used up as
fast as possible.
* * * * *
PURCHASE OF FOODS
4. The truly economical housewife will find it necessary each day to
determine three things: (1) what is left from yesterday's meals and what
use can be made of it; (2) what is in supply that can be used for that
day; and (3) what must be added to these things to provide satisfactory
meals for the family. Having determined these points, she should make a
list of the articles that she must purchase when she does her marketing.
A pad fastened to the kitchen wall and a pencil on a string attached to
the pad are convenient for this purpose. At the same time, they serve as
a reminder that when all of any article, such as coffee, sugar, baking
powder, etc., has been used, a note should be made of this fact. To her
list of supplies that have become exhausted since her preceding
marketing day should be added the fresh fruits, vegetables, and other
perishable foods needed for the next day or preferably for the next two
days if they can be kept.
5. It is only with proper preparation that the housewife may expect her
marketing trips to be successful. If she starts to market with merely
two or three items in mind and then tries to think of what she needs as
she orders, not only does she waste the grocer's time, but her marketing
trip will be a failure. After she arrives home, she will find that there
are other things she should have purchased, and the grocer will be
forced to make an extra delivery to bring them to her. This is more than
she has a right to expect, for the grocer should not be obliged to pay
for her lack of planning.
6. To purchase economically, it is advisable, when possible, to buy at a
cash grocery and to pay cash for what is bought. When this is done, one
is not helping to pay the grocer for accounts he is unable to collect.
It is a fortunate grocer who is able to collect 80 per cent. of his
bills from his patrons when he conducts his business on the credit plan.
However, if it is desired to deal with a credit grocer, all bills
should be paid at least once a month. No customer has a right to expect
the grocer to wait longer than 30 days for his money.
In many of the cities and large towns, some credit grocers have adopted
what is called the "cash-and-carry plan." All customers, whether they
buy for cash or on credit, must pay the same price for groceries, but
those who wish their goods delivered must pay additional for delivery
and those who buy on credit must pay a certain percentage additional on
each purchase for bookkeeping. It will readily be seen that such a plan
gives the cash customers, especially if they carry their purchases, a
decided advantage over credit customers. Also, the grocer is better able
to sell his wares at a lower price than the credit grocer who makes free
deliveries and no charge for bookkeeping.
KEEPING HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNTS
7. NECESSITY FOR KEEPING ACCOUNTS. - Practically every family is limited
to a definite sum of money that may be spent for food. The first
consideration, then, while it may not be the most important one, is that
of making each dollar buy all that it possibly can in order that the
income may meet all the demands upon it. Various conditions arise that
affect the proportion of the income to be used for this purpose. For
instance, two women whose husbands have equal incomes would, under the
same conditions, have an equal amount of money to spend for food, but as
a rule there is something to cause this amount to become unequal. One
woman may have two children in her family while the other has none, a
condition that means, of course, that the woman with the children will
have less money to spend for food and with that money she must feed more
persons. Her family must be, if possible, as well nourished as the other
one. In order to accomplish this task, it will be necessary to supply
all the required food material in a form that will cost less than the
food purchased by the woman who has a smaller family to feed and clothe.
An excellent way in which to keep expenses down and consequently to live
within one's income is to keep a simple record of household expenses.
Such a record will enable every housewife to determine just what each
item of household necessities costs and whether or not the proportion of
cost to income is correct. To keep a record of expenditures will not
prove much of a task if it is done systematically, for a few minutes a
day will be sufficient time in which to keep accounts up to date.
However, if account keeping is attempted, it should not be neglected
even for a day, for it will soon assume the proportions of a large task
and will have a tendency to discourage the housewife with this part
of her work.
8. EQUIPMENT FOR HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNT KEEPING. - For convenience in keeping
household accounts, a small desk like the one shown in Fig. 1 should, if
possible, be secured and placed in an unoccupied or convenient corner of
the kitchen. Here can be kept cook books, recipes, suitable books or
cards for account keeping, the marketing pad, a file for bills from the
grocer and the butcher, labels for cans and jars, etc. Here may also be
placed an extension telephone, which, by being so convenient, will save
the housewife many steps. A white desk with a chair to match is the most
attractive kind to select for kitchen use, but a dark one may be used if
preferred. The desk illustrated was a simple wooden one that was
enameled white after it was bought, but it is possible to buy white
desks for this purpose. A small, plain table will, of course, answer
very well if no desk is available and it is desired not to buy one.
[Illustration: FIG. 1]
9. METHODS OF HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNT KEEPING. - If the housewife runs a
credit account with the grocer, she will learn that different grocers
have different ways of recording her purchases.
In some cases, she is provided with a "store book," which she takes to
the grocer each time she makes a purchase and in which he records the
date and the items bought by her. Then at the end of a stated time,
usually the end of the month, when a settlement is to be made, the
amounts for the month are totaled and a new account is started. With
such a plan, the housewife does not have to keep any record for herself.
To be certain that the grocer's account is accurate, she simply has to
check the entries each time they are made in the book by the grocer.
In other cases, the grocer merely makes out a slip, or bill, for each
purchase and at the end of the month presents his statement for the
amount due. In such an event, provided the housewife does not wish to
make entries into a suitable book, she may file the slips as she
receives them in order that she may check the grocer's monthly bill as
to accuracy. A bill file like that shown in Fig. 2 is very convenient
for the filing of bills. However, if she does not wish to save each slip
she receives, she may adopt one of two methods of account keeping,
depending on how much time she has to devote to this matter.
[Illustration: FIG. 2]
10. If she desires to be very systematic and has sufficient time, it
will prove a good plan to record each purchase in a suitable book in the
manner shown in Fig. 3. Books for this purpose can be purchased in any
store where stationery is sold and are not expensive. In this method of
recording, as a page becomes filled with items, the total is carried
forward to each new page until the bill is paid at the end of the month.
Then, for the next month, a new account may be started. This same method
may also be followed in keeping accounts for meats, milk, and such
household expenses as rent, light, heat, and laundry. All these
accounts, together with an account for clothing and one for
miscellaneous expense, make up a complete expense account.
With ___John Smith, 420 Fourth Avenue__________
10/15 | 1 pk. Apples......................| $ .45
| 1 doz. Eggs.......................| .55
| 1 lb. Butter......................| .53
| 2 lb. Sweet Potatoes..............| .15
| 2 cans Duff's Molasses............| .54
| 1 pt. Vinegar.....................| .10
10/17 | 1 cake Yeast......................| .04
| 6 lb. Crisco......................| 1.98
| 1 box Coconut.....................| .35
| 1 can Pineapple...................| .25
| 1 lb. coffee......................| .40
| 2 qt. Carrots.....................| .10
10/19 | 1 box Matches.....................| .10
| 2 bars Laundry Soap...............| .12
| 1 head Lettuce....................| .08
| 1 can Corn........................| .20
| 1 bu. Potatoes....................| 2.00
| 1 qt. Maple Sirup.................| .65
| | - - - -
| Forwarded.......| $8.59
11. A somewhat simpler plan and one that requires less time is shown in
Fig. 4. When the slips are received, they should be checked to see
whether they are correct and then added to get the total. Only this
total, together with the date, is placed in the book kept for the
purpose, the slips then being discarded. Such a plan will prove very
satisfactory for the various household expenses if care is used in
checking the items of the slips and in adding them.
Regarding the settlement of her accounts, the housewife who buys on
credit will find it a good plan to pay her bills by check. Then
receipts will not have to be saved, for the returned check is usually
all that is required to prove that a bill has been paid.
12. The housewife who buys for cash does not necessarily have to keep a
detailed record of her purchases, for by simply filing her purchase
slips in the manner shown in Fig. 2 she can determine at any time what
her money has been used for. Still, in every well-regulated household,
it is advisable to keep a daily record of income and expenditure; that
is, to put down every day how much is spent for food, laundry, cleaning,
and, in fact, all expenditures, as well as how much cash is received.
Indeed, if such an account is kept, the tendency of money to "slip away"
will be checked and a saving of money is bound to result.
With______John Smith, 420 Fourth Avenue_____
10/2 | Groceries...........................| $ 2.10
10/3 | Groceries...........................| 2.76
10/6 | Groceries...........................| .42
10/8 | Groceries...........................| 4.12
10/10 | Groceries...........................| 1.09
10/13 | Groceries...........................| .32
10/15 | Groceries...........................| 2.30
10/17 | Groceries...........................| 2.13
10/20 | Groceries...........................| 1.93
10/22 | Groceries...........................| 3.97
10/24 | Groceries...........................| 1.69
10/27 | Groceries...........................| 4.10
10/29 | Groceries...........................| 1.12
10/31 | Groceries...........................| 3.35
| | - - - -
| Forwarded..............| $31.40
13. A simple plan for keeping such a record is illustrated in Fig. 5.
For this record it is possible to buy sheets of paper or cards already
ruled at any stationery store, but it is a simple matter to rule sheets
of blank paper that will answer the purpose very well. As will be
observed, there is a space provided for every day of the month and
columns into which may be placed the expenditures for groceries,
including fruits and vegetables, as well as for meats and fish, milk,
laundry and cleaning, and miscellaneous items, such as ice and other
necessities that are not ordinarily classed as groceries. Of course, the
number of columns to be used can be regulated by the person keeping the
account, the illustration simply showing the general procedure. However,
one column should be devoted to the daily expenditure, the figures here
being the amounts of the total money spent for the different items each
day. In the last column should be recorded the various amounts of money
received by the housewife during the month for the settlement of her
bills. At the end of the month, all of the columns should be totaled.
The total of the daily outlay should equal that of the preceding
columns. The difference between this total and that of the money
received will show the housewife just how she stands with regard to
income and expenditure for foods and kitchen supplies. In this case,
there is an excess of expenditure amounting to $10.68, and this sum
should be forwarded to the June account. On the other hand, should the
housewife find that her expenses exceed her allowance, she will know
that it will be necessary for her to curtail her expenditures in
Expenditures and Receipts for the Month of ___May___, 19___
| | Meats | |Laundry | Miscel-| |
Date| Groc- | and | Milk | and | laneous| Daily | Money
| eries | Fish | |Cleaning| Expend-| Outlay | Rec'vd
| | | | | itures | |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1 | $ 2.10| $ .60| $ .28| $ 1.50 | | $ 4.48 | $ 5.70
2 | | .40| .28| | | .58 |
3 | 2.76| 1.90| .28| | $ .35 | 5.29 | 15.00
4 | | | .28| | | .28 |
5 | | | .28| | | .28 |
6 | .42| | .28| | .35 | 1.05 |
7 | | .36| .28| | .10 | .74 |
8 | 4.12| | .28| 2.00 | .40 | 6.80 |
9 | | | .28| | | .28 |
10 | 1.09| 1.83| .28| | .38 | 3.60 | 15.00
11 | | | .28| | | .28 |
12 | | | .28| | .35 | .63 |
13 | .32| .76| .28| | | 1.36 |
14 | | | .28| | .19 | .47 |
15 | 2.30| | .28| 1.50 | .12 | 4.20 |
16 | | .53| .28| | | .81 |
17 | 2.13| 1.63| .28| | .60 | 4.64 | 15.00
18 | | | .28| | | .28 |
19 | | | .28| | .22 | .50 |
20 | 1.93| | .28| | .40 | 2.61 |
21 | | .90| .28| | | 1.18 |
22 | 3.97| | .28| 2.00 | .40 | 6.65 |
23 | 2.10| | .28| | | .28 |
24 | 2.10| 2.24| .28| | .80 | 5.01 | 15.00
25 | | | .28| | .10 | .38 |
26 | | | .28| 1.50 | | 1.78 |
27 | 4.10| | .28| | .35 | 4.73 |
28 | | .38| .28| | | .66 |
29 | 1.12| .46| .28| 1.50 | .40 | 3.76 |
30 | | | .28| | | .28 |
31 | 3.35| 1.87| .28| | .55 | 6.05 | 15.00
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Total $31.40| $13.88| $ 8.68| $10.00 | $ 6.66 | $70.02 | $80.70
Such a method of record keeping could also be followed with good
results for showing the distribution of the entire income of a family.
It would simply mean the planning of suitable columns for the different
items of expenditure.
14. Too much cannot be said of the merit of following some such simple
account-keeping method as the ones here outlined, for, as has been
explained, it will enable the housewife to know with a fair degree of
accuracy what she has spent her money for. In addition to the
satisfaction this will give, it will supply a basis from which she can
apportion, or budget, her yearly income if she so desires. By giving
careful consideration to the various items of expense, she may find it
possible to reduce some of them in order to increase her savings account
or to have money for other items that require a larger expenditure.
* * * * *
COST OF FOODS
FACTORS INFLUENCING COST
15. Certain factors that enter into the production of food add so much
to the cost that they must be taken into consideration when food is
purchased. The housewife who disregards these factors fails in the
purchase of food, for she does not know so well what foods to buy nor
how to buy them in a way to keep down the cost as the woman who is
familiar with these matters. It is possible that the cost of a food may
be out of all proportion to its value because of the profits that must
necessarily be paid to each person through whose hands the food passes.
In the first place, the overhead expenses of the food dealer must be
paid by the housewife, who is regarded as the _consumer_. These expenses
include his rent, light, and heat, his hired help, such as clerks,
bookkeepers, delivery men, and the cost of delivery. In addition, the
cost of transportation figures in prominently if the foods have to be
shipped any distance, the manufacturer's profit must often be counted
in, and the cost of advertising must not be overlooked. With all such
matters, the housewife must acquaint herself if she would buy in the
most economical way.
[Illustration: FIG. 6]
16. CHART OF FOOD PROBLEM. - To assist the housewife in her mastery of
the purchasing side of the food problem, a chart, Fig. 6, is presented.
This chart shows the various routes through which foods travel before
they reach the housewife, or consumer. The lines used to connect all
dealers from the producer to the consumer represent transportation or
delivery, and the increase in cost due to overhead expense and profit is