Copyright
Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences.

Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

. (page 3 of 27)
Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 3 of 27)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


APPLES

50. APPLES, of which there are at least a thousand varieties, are
probably the best known of the non-tropical fruits. Some apples mature
early in the summer, while others do not ripen until late in the fall.
The late apples can be kept during the entire winter if they are
properly stored, but the summer varieties must generally be used
immediately, as they do not have good keeping qualities. In each
locality in which apples are grown, a few varieties seem to be
especially popular and are used to the exclusion of others. Some apples
are good for one purpose and some for another. For instance, many that
are excellent if eaten raw are not good for cooking purposes, and others
that cook well are not suitable for eating. It is therefore a good idea
for the housewife to become familiar with the varieties of apples raised
in her community and to learn the use to which each kind can be put to
advantage.

Apples of all kinds may be prepared in a large variety of ways. They are
much used for sauce, pie, and numerous desserts, as well as for jelly
and, with various fruit mixtures, for jams and preserves. The juice of
apples, which upon being extracted is known as _cider_, is used in a
number of ways, but its most important use is in the manufacture
of vinegar.

51. APPLE SAUCE. - When apple sauce is to be made, apples that are
somewhat sour and that will cook soft easily should be selected. This is
a dessert that can be made all during the winter when it is often
difficult to obtain other fruits fresh. It is usually served when roast
pork is the main dish of a meal, but is just as appetizing when served
with other foods.

APPLE SAUCE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

10 medium-sized apples
1/2 c. water
1 c. sugar

Wash the apples, cut them in quarters, remove the cores, and, if
desired, peel them. Put them into a saucepan, add the water, and allow
them to cook until they are very soft. If the apples are inclined to be
dry, a little more water may be necessary. When done, force them through
a colander or a sieve, add the sugar to the pulp, and return to the
stove. Cook until the sugar is completely dissolved and, if necessary,
until the apple sauce is slightly thickened, stirring frequently to
prevent scorching. Remove from the heat, and season with lemon peel cut
fine, cinnamon, or nutmeg.

If there are apples in supply that do not cook well for apple sauce,
they may be peeled, quartered, and cored, and cooked with the sugar and
water. Then, instead of being forced through a sieve, they should be
allowed to remain in pieces in the sirup.

52. PORCUPINE APPLES. - A pleasing change in the way of an apple dessert
may be had by making porcupine apples.

PORCUPINE APPLES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 large apples
1 c. sugar
1 c. water
2 doz. almonds
Currant jelly

Wash, core, and pare the apples. Make a sirup by bringing the sugar and
water to the boiling point. Put the apples into the sirup, cook on one
side for several minutes, and then turn and cook on the other side. Do
not allow the apples to cook completely in the sirup, but when they are
still hard remove them and continue to boil the sirup down. Set the
apples in a shallow pan, stick the almonds, which should be blanched,
into them so that they will project like porcupine quills, sprinkle them
with sugar, and bake in the oven until they are soft and the almonds
slightly brown. Remove from the oven, fill the center of each with
currant jelly, pour the juice over them, and serve.

53. BAKED APPLES. - Nothing is more palatable than baked apples if a
juicy, sour variety can be secured.

BAKED APPLES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized sour apples
1/2 c. brown sugar
1/2 tsp. cinnamon
1 Tb. butter
1/2 c. water

Wash and core the apples, place them in a baking dish, and fill the
centers with the brown sugar mixed with the cinnamon. Put a small piece
of butter on top of each apple, pour the water in the bottom of the pan,
set in the oven, and bake until the apples are soft. Baste frequently
with the juice that collects in the bottom of the pan. Serve hot or
cold, as desired.

Apples baked in this way may be improved in flavor by serving grape
juice over them. Heat the grape juice, and then, if the apples are to be
served hot, pour about 2 tablespoonfuls over each apple just before
serving. In case the apples are to be served cold, pour the hot grape
juice over them and then allow them to cool.

54. MAPLE APPLES. - Apples cooked in maple sirup have a very pleasing
flavor. The sirup that remains in the pan is poured over the apples when
they are served.

MAPLE APPLES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized apples
1 c. maple sirup

Wash, peel, and core the apples. Bring the maple sirup to the boiling
point in a saucepan. Drop the apples into the hot sirup, cook first on
one side, and then turn and cook on the other. As soon as they become
soft, remove from the sirup, pour the sirup over them, and serve.

55. STEAMED APPLES. - If it is desired to retain the color in apples that
have red skins, they should be steamed instead of baked, for the color
is lost in baking. Prepare apples that are to be steamed by washing them
and removing the cores. Place the apples in a pan with a perforated
bottom, put this over a pan of boiling water, cover closely, and steam
until they are soft. Serve in any desired way. They will be found to be
delicious in flavor and attractive in appearance.


APRICOTS

56. APRICOTS, in appearance, are a cross between peaches and plums. They
are grown extensively in the western part of the United States, but they
can be grown in any climate where peaches and plums are raised. As they
contain considerable acid, they require a large quantity of sugar when
they are cooked with their skins and seeds. They are used most
frequently for canning, but they make excellent marmalades and jams.
They are also dried in large quantities and, in this form, make
delicious desserts.

57. APRICOT SOUFFLE. - No more attractive as well as delicious dessert
can be prepared than apricot souffle, which is illustrated in Fig. 3.
The apricots are just tart enough to give it a very pleasing flavor.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

APRICOT SOUFFLE
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 Tb. butter
4 Tb. flour
1/3 c. sugar
Pinch of salt
1 c. scalded milk
3 eggs
1/2 tsp. vanilla
1 can apricots

Melt the butter, add the flour, sugar, and salt, and stir in the hot
milk. Bring this mixture to the boiling point. Separate the yolks and
whites of the eggs. Beat the yolks until they are thick and
lemon-colored, and then pour the hot mixture over them, stirring
constantly to prevent the eggs from curding. Beat the whites until they
are stiff, fold them into the mixture, and add the vanilla. Place the
apricots without juice in a layer on the bottom of the buttered baking
dish, pour the mixture over them, and bake for 45 to 60 minutes in a hot
oven, when it should be baked through and slightly brown on top and
should appear as in Fig. 3. Remove from the oven and serve with the
sirup from the apricots. Whipped cream may also be added if desired.


CHERRIES

58. CHERRIES come in numerous varieties, some of which are sweet and
others sour. The method of using them in cookery depends largely on the
kind of cherry that is to be used. Any of the varieties may be canned
with varying quantities of sugar and then used for sauce. They also make
excellent preserves, especially the sour varieties. However, they do not
contain pectin in sufficient quantity for jelly, so that when cherry
jelly is desired, other fruit or material containing pectin must be used
with the cherries. When purchased in the market, cherries usually have
their stems on. They should be washed before the stems are removed. The
seeds may be taken out by hand or by means of cherry seeders made
especially for this purpose.

59. CHERRY FRITTERS. - Something different in the way of dessert can be
had by making cherry fritters according to the accompanying recipe.

CHERRY FRITTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. butter
1/2 c. cherries cut into halves

Mix and sift the dry ingredients, add the milk and egg, and beat all
together well. Add the melted butter and fold in the cherries. Drop by
spoonfuls into hot fat and fry until brown. Remove from the fat,
sprinkle with powdered sugar, and serve.


GRAPES

60. GRAPES are a fruit extensively cultivated both for eating and for
the making of wines and raisins. Although found in many varieties, they
naturally divide themselves into two general classes: those which retain
their skins, such as the Malaga, Tokay, Muscat, Cornichon, Emperor,
etc., and those which slip out of their skins easily, such as the
Concord, Niagara, Delaware, Catawba, etc.

Grapes are much used as a fresh fruit. When they are to be used in this
way, the bunches should be put into a colander and washed thoroughly by
running cold water over them. Then all the imperfect ones should be
removed and the grapes kept cool until they are to be served. Clean
grape leaves make an attractive garnish for the individual plates or the
serving dish on which the grapes are placed. Grapes are also used
extensively for making jelly and grape juice, a beverage that is
well liked.

61. It will be found that through proper care grapes can be kept a long
time in the fall after they are removed from the vines, provided perfect
bunches are obtained and they are picked before they have become too
ripe. To preserve such grapes, dip the ends of the stems into melted
sealing wax in order to prevent the evaporation of moisture through the
stems. Then, in a cool, dry place, lay the bunches out on racks in a
single layer, taking care not to crush nor bruise them.

62. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITH WATER. - Grape juice may be made either
with or without water. That in which water is used in the making usually
requires no diluting when it is served as a beverage. Concord grapes are
perhaps used more commonly for the making of grape juice than any other
variety, but other kinds, particularly Catawbas and Niagaras, may be
used as well.

UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITH WATER

12 qt. grapes
2 qt. water
4 lb. sugar

Wash the grapes and remove them from the stems. Put them with the water
into a preserving kettle, and heat gradually until the skins of the
grapes burst. Dip off as much juice as possible, and put it into a jelly
bag. Continue to heat and dip off the juice in this way until the pulp
is comparatively dry. Then add a little more water to the pulp and put
it in the bag to drip. When all the juice has dripped through the bag,
pour it back into the preserving kettle, add the sugar, and bring to the
boiling point. Stir frequently, so that the sugar will be well
dissolved. Pour into jars or bottles, seal, and sterilize by cooking for
about 5 minutes in hot water that nearly covers the bottles. Any large
receptacle that will hold sufficient water may be used as a sterilizer.

63. UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITHOUT WATER. - When grape juice is made
without water, it is both thick and rich. Consequently, it should
usually be diluted with water when it is served as a beverage.

UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE WITHOUT WATER

12 qt. grapes
3 lb. sugar

Wash the grapes, remove them from the stems, and put them into a
preserving kettle. Heat very slowly and mash with a spoon, so that
enough juice will be pressed out and thus prevent the grapes from
scorching. Remove the juice as it forms and put it into a jelly bag.
When all of it has been taken from the grapes and strained through the
jelly bag, strain the pulp and put all the juice into a preserving
kettle, add the sugar, and bring to the boiling point. Pour into bottles
or jars, seal, and sterilize in a water bath for about 5 minutes.


PEACHES

64. PEACHES may be divided into two general classes: those having a
yellow skin and those having a white skin. In each of these classes are
found both _clingstone_ and _freestone_ peaches; that is, peaches whose
pulp adheres tightly to the seed, or stone, and those in which the pulp
can be separated easily from the stone. When peaches are purchased for
canning or for any use in which it is necessary to remove the seeds,
freestones should be selected. Clingstones may be used when the stones
are allowed to remain in the fruit, as in pickled peaches, and for jams,
preserves, or butters, in which small pieces may be used or the entire
peach mashed. Whether to select yellow or white peaches, however, is
merely a matter of taste, as some persons prefer one kind and some
the other.

65. Peaches are not satisfactory for jelly making, because they do not
contain pectin. However, the juice of peaches makes a very good sirup if
it is sweetened and cooked until it is thick. Such sirup is really just
as delicious as maple sirup with griddle cakes. Peaches are used to a
large extent for canning and are also made into preserves, jams, and
butters. In addition, they are much used without cooking, for they are
favored by most persons. When they are to be served whole, they should
be washed and then wiped with a damp cloth to remove the fuzz. The skins
may be removed by blanching the peaches in boiling water or peeling them
with a sharp knife. If they are then sliced or cut in any desirable way
and served with cream and sugar, they make a delicious dessert.

66. STEWED PEACHES. - Fresh stewed peaches make a very desirable dessert
to serve with simple cake or cookies. Children may very readily eat such
dessert without danger of digestive disturbances. Adding a tablespoonful
of butter to the hot stewed peaches and then serving them over freshly
made toast makes a delightful breakfast dish. The cooked peaches may
also be run through a sieve, reheated with a little flour or corn starch
to thicken them slightly, and then served hot on buttered toast.

STEWED PEACHES
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1-1/2 qt. peaches
1 lb. sugar
1 c. water

Peel the peaches, cut into halves, and remove the seeds. Put the sugar
and water over the fire to cook in a saucepan and bring to a rapid boil.
Add the peaches and cook until they may be easily pierced with a fork.

67. BAKED PEACHES. - When peaches are to be baked, select large firm
ones. Wash them thoroughly and cut them into halves, removing the
stones. Place the peaches in a shallow pan, fill the cavities with
sugar, and dot the top of each half with butter. Set in the oven and
bake until the peaches become soft. Serve hot or cold, either with or
without cream, as desired.


PEARS

68. PEARS, like apples, come in summer and winter varieties. The summer
varieties must be utilized during the summer and early fall or must be
canned at this time to preserve them for future use. Winter pears,
however, may be stored, for they keep like apples. A number of the small
varieties of pears are much used for pickling. Pears are most valuable
when they are canned and used for sauce. They cannot be used for jelly,
because they do not contain sufficient acid nor pectin. The juice from
canned pears, because of its mild flavor, is often found to be valuable
in the feeding of invalids or persons who have gastric troubles. It is
usually advisable to pick pears before they are entirely ripe, for then
they may be kept for a considerable length of time and will
ripen slowly.

69. BAKED PEARS. - Although pears are rather mild in flavor, they are
delicious when baked if lemon is added. Wash thoroughly pears that are
to be baked, cut them into halves, and remove the cores. Place them in a
shallow pan, fill the holes in the center with sugar, dot with butter,
and place a thin slice of lemon over each piece. Pour a few spoonfuls of
water into the pan, set in the oven, and bake until the pears can be
easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the oven and serve hot or cold.


PLUMS

70. PLUMS are among the very strong acid fruits. Some varieties of them
seem to be more tart after they are cooked than before, but, as already
explained, this condition is due to the fact that the acid contained in
the skin and around the seeds is liberated during the cooking. This
fruit, of which there are numerous varieties, is generally used for
canning, preserving, etc. It does not make jelly successfully in all
cases unless some material containing pectin is added. Very firm plums
may have the skins removed by blanching if it seems advisable to
take them off.

71. STEWED PLUMS. - Because of the many varieties of plums with their
varying degrees of acidity, it is difficult to make a recipe with a
quantity of sugar that will suit all kinds. The recipe given here is
suitable for medium sour plums, such as egg plums and the common red and
yellow varieties. Damsons and green gages will probably require more
sugar, while prune plums may require less.

STEWED PLUMS
(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1-1/2 qt. plums
1 lb. sugar
3/4 c. water

Wash the plums and prick each one two or three times with a fork. Bring
the sugar and water to the boiling point and, when rapidly boiling, add
the plums. Cook until they are tender, remove from the fire, cool,
and serve.


QUINCES

72. QUINCES are one of the non-perishable fruits. They mature late in
the fall and may be kept during the winter in much the same way as
apples. While quinces are not used so extensively as most other fruits,
there are many uses to which they may be put and much can be done with a
small quantity. For instance, various kinds of preserves and marmalades
may be made entirely of quinces or of a combination of quinces and some
other fruit. They also make excellent jelly. As their flavor is very
strong, a small quantity of quince pulp used with apples or some other
fruit will give the typical flavor of quinces. When combined with sweet
apples, they make a very delicious sauce.

The skin of quinces is covered with a thick fuzz, which can be removed
by wiping the fruit with a damp cloth. A point that should be remembered
about quinces is that they are extremely hard and require long cooking
to make them tender and palatable.

73. STEWED QUINCES AND APPLES. - The combination of quinces and apples is
very delicious. Sweet apples, which are difficult to use as a cooked
fruit because of a lack of flavor, may be combined very satisfactorily
with quinces, for the quinces impart a certain amount of their strong
flavor to the bland apples and thus the flavor of both is improved.

STEWED QUINCES AND APPLES
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 qt. sweet apples
1 pt. quinces
1 lb. sugar
1 c. water

Wash, peel, core, and quarter the fruit. Add the sugar to the water and
place over the fire until it conies to a rapid boil. Then add the
quinces and cook until they are partly softened. Add the sweet apples
and continue the cooking until both are tender. Remove from the fire,
cool, and serve.


RHUBARB

74. RHUBARB is in reality not a fruit, but it is always considered as
such because it is cooked with sugar and served as a fruit. It has the
advantage of coming early in the spring before there are many fruits in
the market. As it contains a large quantity of oxalic acid, it is very
sour and must be cooked with considerable sugar to become palatable, the
addition of which makes the food value of cooked rhubarb very high.
Rhubarb is much used for pies and is frequently canned for sauce. It is
also used as a cheap filler with a more expensive fruit in the making of
marmalades, conserves, and jams.

The stems of some varieties of rhubarb are characterized by a great deal
of red color, while others are entirely green. The red rhubarb makes a
more attractive dish when it is cooked and served than the green, but it
has no better flavor. The outside of the stem has a skin that may be
removed by catching hold of it at one end with a knife and stripping it
off the remainder of the stem. It is not necessary to remove the skin
from young and tender rhubarb, but it is often an advantage to remove it
from rhubarb that is old. It should be remembered that the stems of
rhubarb contain considerable water and so require very little liquid in
their cooking.

75. STEWED RHUBARB. - Two methods of stewing rhubarb are in practice, the
one to select depending on the way it is preferred. In one method, which
keeps the pieces whole, the sugar and water are brought to the boiling
point before the rhubarb is added, while in the other, the rhubarb is
cooked with water until it is soft and the sugar then added.

STEWED RHUBARB
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. sugar
1/2 c. water
1 qt. cut rhubarb

Mix the sugar and water in a saucepan and bring to the boiling point.
Wash the stems of the rhubarb and cut into inch lengths. Add the rhubarb
to the sirup and cook until it is tender enough to be pierced with a
fork. If desired, a flavoring of lemon peel may be added. Turn into a
dish, allow to cool, and serve.

If the other method is preferred, cook the rhubarb with the water until
it is soft and then add the sugar.

* * * * *

CITRUS FRUITS

CHARACTERISTICS

76. Fruits that contain citric acid are grouped together and are known
as CITRUS FRUITS. All of these are similar in structure, although they
differ in size, as will be observed from Fig. 4. Here the citrus fruits
most commonly used are illustrated, the large one in the center being a
grapefruit; the two to the left, oranges; the two to the right, lemons;
and the two in the front, tangerines.

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

All varieties of these fruits are tropical or semitropical and are
shipped to the North in boxes that contain various numbers, the number
that can be packed in a box depending on the size of the fruit. The
south, southeastern, and western parts of the United States supply
practically all of these fruits that are found in the northern markets.
They stand storage well and keep for long periods of time if they are
packed before they are too ripe. These characteristics, together with
the fact that they are at their prime at different times in different
localities, make it possible to market such fruits during the entire
year, although they are much better at certain seasons than at others.

77. The majority of citrus fruits contain a fair amount of sugar and a
great deal of water; consequently, they are very juicy and refreshing. A
few of them, however, such as lemons and limes, contain very little
sugar and considerable acid and are therefore extremely sour. In the use
of such varieties, sugar must be added to make them palatable.

The greatest use made of citrus fruits is that of serving them raw.
However, they are also used in the making of marmalades, conserves, and
such confections as candied fruits. Then, too, the juice of a number of
them, such as lemons, oranges, and limes, makes very refreshing
beverages, so these varieties are much used for this purpose.


GRAPEFRUIT

78. Grapefruit, also known as _shaddock_, is a large, pale-yellow fruit
belonging to the citrus group. One variety, known as the _pomelo_, is
the kind that is commonly found in the market. It is slightly flattened
on both the blossom and stem ends.

Grapefruit has a typical flavor and a slightly bitter taste and contains
neither a great deal of sugar nor a large amount of acid. Because of its
refreshing, somewhat acid pulp and juice, it is highly prized as a fruit
to be eaten at breakfast or as an appetizer for a fruit cocktail. It is
also much used in the making of fruit salads.

79. SELECTION OF GRAPEFRUIT. - Grapefruit should be selected with care in
order that fruit of good quality may be obtained. Some persons think
that to be good grapefruit should be large, but it should be remembered
that size is not the factor by which to judge the quality. The fruit
should be heavy for its size and the skin should be fine-grained and
even. Coarse-grained skin, as a rule, is thick and indicates that the
pulp is rather pithy and without juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

80. PREPARATION OF GRAPEFRUIT. - Different ways of serving grapefruit are
in practice, and it is well that these be understood. This is generally
considered a rather difficult fruit to eat, but if care is exercised in
its preparation for the table it can be eaten with comfort. For
preparing grapefruit, a narrow, sharp-bladed paring knife may be used.
As is well known, a grapefruit is always cut apart half way between the
stem and the blossom ends and a half served to each person.

[Illustration: FIG. 6]

81. One method of preparing grapefruit consists in cutting the skin in



Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 3 of 27)