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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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such a way that the seeds can be taken out and the pulp then easily
removed with a spoon. To prepare it in this way, cut the grapefruit into
halves, and then, with a sharp knife, cut around the pithy core in the
center, cutting off the smallest possible end of each of the sections.
With this done, remove the seeds, which will be found firmly lodged near
the core and which can be readily pushed out with the point of the
knife. Then cut down each side of the skin between the sections so as
to separate the pulp from the skin. Around the edge next to the outside
skin, cut the pulp in each section with a single jab of the knife,
taking care not to cut the skin between the sections. The entire pulp of
each section, which will be found to be loose on both sides and ends if
the cutting is correctly done, can then be readily removed with a spoon.

[Illustration: FIG. 7]

82. In another method of preparing this fruit for the table, all the
skin inside of the fruit is removed and nothing but the pulp is left.
This method, which is illustrated in Figs. 5 to 10, inclusive, requires
a little more time and care than the previous one, but the result
justifies the effort. After cutting the grapefruit into halves, remove
the seeds with a sharp knife, as shown in Fig. 5. Then, with the same
knife, cut the grapefruit from the skin all the way around the edge, as
in Fig. 6; also, cut down each side of the skin between the sections, so
as to separate the pulp from the skin, as in Fig. 7. With the pulp
loosened, insert a pair of scissors along the outside edge, as in Fig.
8, and make a slanting cut toward the core.

[Illustration: FIG. 8]

Then, as in Fig. 9, cut the core loose from the outside skin. Repeat
this operation for each section. If the cutting has been properly done,
the core and skin enclosing the sections may be lifted out of the
grapefruit, and, as shown in Fig. 10, will then be in the form of a
many-pointed star. As only the pulp remains in the outside skin, the
grapefruit can be eaten without difficulty.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]

83. SERVING GRAPEFRUIT. - When grapefruit has been properly ripened, it
is rather sweet, so that many persons prefer it without sugar; but when
sugar is desired, the fruit is very much more delicious if it is
prepared some time before it is to be served, the sugar added to it, and
the fruit placed in a cool place. If this is done in the evening and the
grapefruit is served for breakfast, a large amount of very delicious
juice will have collected through the night. At any rate, grapefruit is
best if it is sweetened long enough before it is served to give the
sugar a chance to penetrate.

[Illustration: FIG. 10]


LEMONS

84. LEMONS are a citrus fruit raised in tropical regions. They are
shipped to other climates in cases that hold from 180 to 540, depending
on the size of the lemons, 300 to the case being a medium and commonly
used size. Their quality is judged like that of grapefruit; that is, by
their weight, the texture of their skin, and their general color
and shape.

Lemons contain very little sugar, but they are characterized by a large
amount of acid. Because of this fact, their juice is used to season
foods in much the same way as vinegar is used. In fact, their chief
uses are in making desserts and in seasoning such foods as custards,
pudding sauces, etc. However, their juice is also much used in the
making of beverages, such as lemonade and fruit punch.


ORANGES

85. ORANGES belong to the group of citrus fruits, but they differ from
both lemons and grapefruit in that they contain more sugar and less
acid. Two kinds of oranges supply the demands for this fruit, Florida
and California oranges. _Florida oranges_ have a skin more the color of
lemons and grapefruit and contain seeds, but they are considered to be
the finest both as to flavor and quality. _California oranges_, which
have a bright-yellow or orange skin, are seedless and are known as
_navel oranges_. As soon as the Florida season ends, the California
season begins; consequently, the market season for this fruit is a
lengthy one. The russet of oranges is caused by the bite of an insect on
the skin. To be shipped, oranges are packed in cases that will contain
from 48 to 400 to the case.

Probably no citrus fruit is used so extensively as oranges. Because of
their refreshing subacid flavor, they are much eaten in their fresh
state, both alone and in combination with other foods in numerous salads
and desserts.

[Illustration: FIG. 11]

86. PREPARATION OF ORANGES. - Several attractive ways of preparing
oranges for the table when they are to be eaten raw are shown in
Fig. 11.

To prepare them in the way shown at the left, cut the orange into two
parts, cutting half way between the stem and blossom ends, and loosen
the pulp in each half in the manner explained in Art. 81 for the
preparation of grapefruit. Then the pulp may be eaten from the orange
with a spoon.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]

If an orange is to be eaten in sections, the skin may be cut from the
stem to the blossom end about six times and then loosened from the one
end and turned in toward the orange in the manner shown in the central
figure of the group. It will then be easy to remove the skin.

[Illustration: FIG. 13]

Sometimes it is desired to serve sliced oranges, as shown at the right.
To prepare oranges in this way, remove the skin from the orange, cut it
in halves lengthwise, and then slice it in thin slices crosswise.
Arrange the slices on a plate and serve as desired.

87. When oranges are to be used for salads, or for any purpose in which
merely the pulp is desired, as, for instance, orange custard, all the
skin between the sections must be removed, as it makes any warm mixture
bitter. To secure the pulp without any of the skin, first peel the
orange, as shown in Fig. 12, in the same way an apple is peeled,
beginning at one end and peeling around and around deeply enough to
remove with the skin all the white pithy material under it. If the knife
is a sharp one and the peeling is carefully done, there will be little
waste of the pulp. When the orange is entirely peeled, cut each section
from the skin by passing the knife as closely as possible between the
pulp and the skin, as shown in Fig. 13. The sections thus obtained may
be used whole or cut into pieces of any desired size.


MISCELLANEOUS CITRUS FRUITS

88. In addition to grapefruit, lemons, and oranges, the three principal
varieties of citrus fruits, this group also includes kumquats, limes,
mandarins, and tangerines. These fruits are not of so much importance in
the diet as the other varieties, but when they are used as foods they
have a food value about equal to that of apples the same in size. They
are not in such common use as the citrus fruits already discussed, but
it is well for every housewife to know what they are and to what use
they can be put.

89. KUMQUATS are an acid fruit resembling oranges in color but being
about the size and shape of small plums. They are used principally for
the making of marmalades and jams, and in this use both the skin and the
pulp are included.

90. LIMES look like small lemons. They are very sour and do not contain
sugar in any quantity. They are valued chiefly for their juice, which is
utilized in the making of drinks, confections, etc.

91. MANDARINS and TANGERINES are really varieties of oranges and are
used in much the same way. They have a very sweet flavor. Their skin
does not cling so closely as the skin of oranges. For this reason they
are known as _glove oranges_ and are very easily peeled.

* * * * *

TROPICAL FRUITS

VARIETIES

92. Besides the citrus fruits, which may also be regarded as tropical
fruits because they grow in tropical regions, there are a number of
other fruits that may be conveniently grouped under the heading Tropical
Fruits. The best known of these are bananas and pineapples, but numerous
others, such as avocados, guavas, nectarines, pomegranates, tamarinds,
and mangoes, are also raised in the tropical countries and should be
included in this class. The majority of these fruits stand shipment
well, but if they are to be shipped to far distant places they must be
picked before they become too ripe and must be packed well. As bananas
and pineapples are used more extensively than the other tropical fruits,
they are discussed here in greater detail; however, enough information
is given about the others to enable the housewife to become familiar
with them.


BANANAS

93. BANANAS are a tropical fruit that have become very popular with the
people in the North. As they are usually picked and shipped green and
then ripened by a process of heating when they are ready to be put on
the market, it is possible to obtain them in a very good condition. It
should be remembered, however, that they are not ripe enough to eat
until all the green color has left the skin. The stem of the bunch may
be green, but the bananas themselves should be perfectly yellow. Black
spots, which are sometimes found on the skins, indicate overripeness or
bruises. When the spots come from overripeness, however, they do not
injure the quality of the fruit, unless there are a great many of them;
in fact, many persons consider that bananas are better when the skins
are black than at any other time.

94. Just under the skin of the banana is some pithy material that clings
to the outside of the fruit and that has a pungent, disagreeable taste.
This objectionable taste may be done away with by scraping the surface
of the banana slightly, as shown in Fig. 14, after the skin is removed.

The strong, typical flavor that characterizes bananas is due to the
volatile oil they contain. It is this oil that causes bananas to
disagree with some persons. The common yellow variety has a milder
flavor than red bananas and certain other kinds and, consequently, is
more popular. If the oil of bananas does not prove irritating, much use
should be made of this fruit, because its food value is high, being
about double that of apples and oranges.

[Illustration: FIG. 14]

95. Bananas are eaten raw more often than in any other way, but many
persons find cooked bananas very agreeable. Then, too, it is sometimes
claimed that cooked bananas are more digestible than raw ones because of
the starch that bananas contain. However, this argument may be
discounted, for a well-ripened banana contains such a small quantity of
starch that no consideration need be given to it.

[Illustration: FIG. 15]

96. BAKED BANANAS. - If bananas are to be cooked, they can be made very
appetizing by baking them with a sirup made of vinegar, sugar, and
butter. When prepared in this way, they should be cut in two
lengthwise, and then baked in a shallow pan, as Fig. 15 shows.

BAKED BANANAS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 bananas
2 Tb. butter
1/3 c. sugar
3 Tb. vinegar

Remove the skins from the bananas, scrape the surface as in Fig. 14, and
cut them in half lengthwise. Arrange the halves in a shallow pan. Melt
the butter and mix it with the sugar and the vinegar. Pour a spoonful of
the mixture over each banana and then set the pan in the oven. Bake in a
slow oven for about 20 minutes, basting frequently with the remainder of
the sirup during the baking. Remove from the oven and serve hot.

97. Banana Fritters. - Delicious fritters can be made with bananas as a
foundation. The accompanying recipe, if carefully followed, will result
in a dish that will be appetizing, especially to those who are fond of
this fruit.

BANANA FRITTERS
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

4 bananas
1 Tb. lemon juice
1/2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/3 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. butter, melted
Powdered sugar

Remove the skins from the bananas, scrape them, and cut them once
lengthwise and once crosswise. Sprinkle the pieces with the lemon juice.
Make a batter by mixing and sifting the flour, sugar, and salt. Stir in
the milk gradually, and add the yolk of the beaten egg and the melted
butter. Lastly, fold in the beaten egg white. Sprinkle the bananas with
powdered sugar, dip them into the batter, and fry in deep fat until
brown. Sprinkle again with powdered sugar and serve.


PINEAPPLES

98. Pineapples are grown in the southern part of the United States, on
the islands off the southeastern coast, and in Hawaii. They vary in size
according to the age of the plants. It requires from 18 to 20 months for
the fruit to develop, and the plants yield only four or five crops. Much
of this fruit is canned where it is grown, but as it is covered with a
heavy skin it will tolerate shipping long distances very well. It is
shipped to the market in cases that contain from 24 to 48 pineapples to
the case. Usually, for a few weeks during the summer, the price of fresh
pineapples is reasonable enough to warrant canning them.

[Illustration: FIG. 16]

99. The food value of pineapples is slightly lower than that of oranges
and apples. However, pineapples have a great deal of flavor, and for
this reason they are very valuable in the making of desserts, preserves,
marmalades, and beverages of various kinds. It is said that the
combination of pineapple and lemon will flavor a greater amount of food
than any other fruit combined. Another characteristic of pineapples is
that they contain a ferment that acts upon protein material and
therefore is sometimes thought to aid considerably in the digestion of
food. The probabilities are that this ferment really produces very
little action in the stomach, but its effect upon protein material can
readily be observed by attempting to use raw pineapple in the making of
a gelatine dessert. If the pineapple is put in raw, the gelatine will
not solidify; but if the pineapple is heated sufficiently to kill this
ferment, it has no effect whatsoever upon the gelatine.

[Illustration: FIG. 17]

100. SELECTING PINEAPPLES. - When pineapples are to be selected, care
should be exercised to see that they are ripe. The most certain way of
determining this fact is to pull out the center leaves of each pineapple
that is chosen. As shown in Fig. 16, grasp the pineapple with one hand
and then with the other pull out, one at a time, several of the center
leaves of the tuft at the top. If the fruit is ripe a sharp jerk will
usually remove each leaf readily, but the harder the leaves pull, the
greener the pineapple is.

[Illustration: FIG. 18]

An overripe pineapple is just as unsatisfactory as one that is not ripe
enough. When a pineapple becomes too ripe, rotten spots begin to develop
around the base. Such spots can be easily detected by the discoloration
of the skin and such a pineapple should not be selected.

[Illustration: FIG. 19]

101. PREPARATION OF PINEAPPLE. - Some persons consider pineapple a
difficult fruit to prepare, but no trouble will be experienced if the
method illustrated in Figs. 17 to 19 is followed. Place the pineapple on
a hard surface, such as a wooden cutting board, and with a large sharp
knife cut off the tuft of leaves at the top. Then, as shown in Fig. 17,
cut the pineapple into 1/2-inch slices crosswise of the head. When the
entire pineapple has been sliced, peel each slice with a sharp paring
knife, as in Fig. 18. With the peeling removed, it will be observed that
each slice contains a number of eyes. Remove these with the point of a
knife, as Fig. 19 shows. After cutting out the core from the center of
each slice, the slices may be allowed to remain whole or may be cut into
pieces of any desirable size or shape. Pineapple prepared in this way is
ready either for canning or for desserts in which it is used fresh.

102. PINEAPPLE PUDDING. - One of the most satisfactory desserts made from
pineapple is the pudding given here. It is in reality a corn-starch
pudding in which grated pineapple is used for the flavoring.

PINEAPPLE PUDDING
(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. scalded milk
1/3 c. corn starch
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 c. cold milk
1-1/2 c. grated pineapple, canned or fresh
2 egg whites

Scald the milk by heating it over the fire in a double boiler. Mix the
corn starch, sugar, and salt, and dissolve in the cold milk. Add to the
scalded milk in the double boiler and cook for about 15 or 20 minutes.
Remove from the fire and add the grated pineapple from which all juice
has been drained. Then fold in the whites of the eggs beaten stiff. Pour
into molds previously dipped in cold water, allow to cool, and serve
with cream.


MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL FRUITS

103. AVOCADOS. - The avocado, which is also known as the _alligator
pear_, is a large pear-shaped, pulpy fruit raised principally in the
West Indies. It has a purplish-brown skin and contains just one very
large seed in the center. The flesh contains considerable fat, and so
the food value of this fruit is rather high, being fully twice as great
as a like quantity of apples or oranges.

This fruit, which is gaining in popularity in the Northern States, is
very perishable and does not stand shipment well. As a rule, it reaches
the northern market green and is ripened after its arrival. It is an
expensive fruit and is used almost entirely for salads. As its flavor is
somewhat peculiar, a taste for it must usually be cultivated.

104. GUAVAS. - The guava is a tropical fruit that is extensively grown in
the southern part of the United States. Guavas come in two varieties:
_red guava_, which resembles the apple, and _white guava_, which
resembles the pear. The fruit, which has a pleasant acid pulp, is
characterized by a more or less peculiar flavor for which a liking must
be cultivated. It can be canned and preserved in much the same way as
peaches are.

Because guavas are very perishable, they cannot be shipped to northern
markets, but various products are made from them and sent to every
market. Preserved and pickled guavas and confections made from what is
known as guava paste are common, but guava jelly made from the pulp is
probably the best known product.

105. NECTARINES. - The tropical fruit called the nectarine is really a
variety of peach, but it differs from the common peach in that it has a
smooth, waxy skin. Also, the flesh of the nectarine is firmer and has a
stronger flavor than that of the peach. Nectarines are not shipped to
the northern markets to any extent, but they are canned in exactly the
same way as peaches are and can be secured in this form.

106. PERSIMMONS. - The persimmon is a semitropical plum-like fruit,
globular in shape and an orange-red or yellow in color. It comes in many
varieties, but few of them find their way into the northern markets. The
Japanese persimmon, which resembles a tomato in color, is the variety
most frequently purchased. Persimmons are characterized by a great deal
of very pungent acid, which has a puckery effect until the fruit is made
sweet and edible by exposure to the frost. In localities where they are
plentiful, persimmons are extensively used and are preserved for use
during the winter season.

107. POMEGRANATES. - The pomegranate is about as large as a full-sized
apple and has a hard reddish-yellow rind. Most varieties contain many
seeds and a comparatively small amount of red edible pulp. Pomegranates
of various kinds are grown in the southern part of the United States and
in other warm climates. They are used extensively in the localities
where they are grown and are much enjoyed by persons who learn to care
for their flavor. A cooling drink made from their pulp finds much favor.

108. TAMARINDS AND MANGOES. - Although tamarinds and mangoes are
practically unknown outside of tropical countries, they are considered
to be very delicious fruits and are used extensively in their native
localities.

The tamarind consists of a brown-shelled pod that contains a brown acid
pulp and from three to ten seeds. This fruit has various uses in
medicine and cookery and is found very satisfactory for a
cooling beverage.

Mangoes vary greatly in size, shape, flavor, and color. Some varieties
are large, fleshy, and luscious, while others are small and stringy and
have a peculiar flavor.


MELONS

109. CANTALOUPES AND MUSKMELONS. - The variety of melons known as
muskmelons consists of a juicy, edible fruit that is characterized by a
globular shape and a ribbed surface. Cantaloupes are a variety of
muskmelons, but the distinction between them is sometimes difficult to
understand. For the most part, these names are used interchangeably with
reference to melons.

Considerable variation occurs in this fruit. Some cantaloupes and
muskmelons are large and others are small; some have pink or yellow
flesh and others have white or light-green flesh. All the variations of
color and size are found between these two extremes. The flesh of these
fruits contains considerable water; therefore, their food value is not
high, being only a little over half as much as that of apples.

110. If melons suitable for the table are desired, they should be
selected with care. To be just at the right stage, the blossom end of
the melon should be a trifle soft when pressed with the fingers. If it
is very soft, the melon is perhaps too ripe; but if it does not give
with pressure, the melon is too green.

111. Various ways of serving muskmelons and cantaloupes are in practice.
When they are to be served plain as a breakfast food or a luncheon
dessert, cut them crosswise into halves, or, if they are large, divide
them into sections lengthwise. With the melons cut in the desired way,
remove all the seeds and keep the melons on ice until they are to be
served. The pulp of the melon may also be cut from the rind and then
diced and used in the making of fruit salads. Again, the pulp may be
partly scraped out of the melon and the rinds then filled with fruit
mixtures and served with a salad dressing for a salad or with fruit
juices for a cocktail. The pulp that is scraped out may be diced and
used in the fruit mixture, and what is left in the rind may be eaten
after the contents have been eaten.

112. CASABA MELONS. - The variety of melons known as casaba, or honeydew,
melons are a cross between a cucumber and a cantaloupe. They have white
flesh and a rind that is smoother than the rind of cantaloupes. Melons
of this kind are raised in the western part of the United States, but as
they stand shipment very well, they can usually be obtained in the
market in other regions. They are much enjoyed by those who are fond of
this class of fruit. Their particular advantage is that they come later
in the season than cantaloupes and muskmelons, and thus can be obtained
for the table long after these other fruits are out of season. Casaba
melons may be served in the same ways as cantaloupes.

113. WATERMELONS. - A very well-known type of melon is the watermelon. It
is grown principally in warm climates of the Southern States, as the
season in the North is not sufficiently long to allow it to develop.
This is a large fruit, having a smooth green skin that is often mottled
or striped, and a pinkish pulp containing many seeds and having a sweet,
watery juice. The large amount of water contained in this fruit makes
its food value very low, it being lower in this respect than muskmelons
and cantaloupes. The volatile oil it contains, which is responsible for
its flavor, proves irritating to some persons who eat it.

114. Watermelon is delicious when it is served ice cold. Therefore,
before it is served, it should be kept on ice for a sufficient time to
allow it to become thoroughly cold. Then it may be cut in any desirable
way. If it is cut in slices, the slices should be trimmed so that only
the pink pulp that is edible is served, the green rind being discarded.
As an appetizer, watermelon is delicious when cut into pieces and served
in a cocktail glass with fresh mint chopped fine and sprinkled over the
top. Small pieces of watermelon cut with a French vegetable cutter make
a very attractive garnish for fruit salads and other fruit mixtures.


FRUIT COCKTAILS

115. Cocktails made of a combination of fruits are often served as the
first course of a meal, usually a luncheon or a dinner, to precede the
soup course. In warm weather, they are an excellent substitute for heavy
cocktails made of lobster or crab, and they may even be used to replace
the soup course. The fruits used for this purpose should be the more
acid ones, for the acids and flavors are intended to serve as an
appetizer, or the same purpose for which the hot and highly seasoned
soups are taken. Therefore, they are seldom made sweet and are not taken



Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 4 of 27)