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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals online

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has been mentioned, the sooner vegetables are canned after they are
taken from the garden, the better will be the canned product. Directions
for practically all vegetables included in this group are here given.

60. ASPARAGUS. - Select tender asparagus, and proceed with the canning no
later than 5 hours after it has been taken from the garden. Remove the
hard portions at the ends of the stems, and cut the trimmed stems into
pieces the length of the jars into which they are to be placed. If
preferred, however, the asparagus may be cut into small pieces. Wash the
cut asparagus thoroughly in cold water, and then sort out the uneven
pieces that were cut off in making the stems even in length. These may
be canned separately for soup. Lay the stems of asparagus in an orderly
pile in a colander or a wire basket, cover it, and place it into a large
vessel where it may be kept completely covered with boiling water for 5
minutes. Then cold-dip the asparagus quickly, and pack it neatly into
the jars, keeping the tip ends up. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each
jarful and pour boiling water into each jar until it is completely full.
Adjust the covers and proceed to sterilize and cook the jars of food.
Cook for 1-1/2 to 2 hours in the water bath, or, in the pressure cooker,
cook for 60 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 40 minutes at a
pressure of 10 pounds.

61. BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CABBAGE, AND CAULIFLOWER. - In canning Brussels
sprouts, cabbage, or cauliflower, first prepare each vegetable as if it
were to be cooked for the table. When thus made ready, blanch it with
the aid of a square of cheesecloth or a colander in live steam, over
boiling water, for 10 to 15 minutes. Then cold-dip it and pack it
tightly into the jars. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful and fill
each jar with boiling water. Proceed next to sterilize and cook it
according to the method selected. Boil for 90 minutes in the water bath;
in the pressure cooker, cook for 60 minutes at a 5-pound pressure or for
40 minutes at a 10-pound pressure.

62. EGGPLANT AND SUMMER SQUASH. - Both eggplant and summer squash are
canned in the same way, because the consistency of these vegetables is
much alike. Select firm vegetables with no decayed spots. Blanch for 3
to 8 minutes in boiling water; cold-dip quickly; remove the skins; cut
into pieces of a size that will fit into the jars; pack into the jars;
and add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful. Next, adjust the jar lids
and proceed according to the directions given for the method selected.
In the water bath, boil for 1-1/2 hours; in the pressure cooker, cook
for 60 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 40 minutes at a pressure
of 10 pounds. Eggplant or summer squash so canned may be rolled in egg
and crumbs and sauted or fried, the same as fresh vegetables of
this kind.

63. OKRA AND GREEN PEPPERS. - Both okra and green peppers may also be
canned in the same way. Prepare these vegetables for canning by washing
fresh, tender pods of either vegetable thoroughly. Blanch for 5 to 15
minutes in boiling water and cold-dip quickly. Pack the pods into the
jars, add a teaspoonful of salt to each jarful, and fill the jars with
boiling water. Adjust the lids and proceed according to directions for
the method selected. In the water bath, boil for 1-1/2 to 2 hours; in
the pressure cooker, cook for 60 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or
for 40 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.

64. STRING BEANS. - String beans of any variety should be canned as soon
as they are gathered. If the beans to be canned are not of the
stringless variety, prepare them by stringing them, following the
directions given in _Vegetables_, Part 1. Stringless beans should be
selected if possible, to avoid this part of the work. Cut out any rusted
portions, cut each end from the beans, and, if preferred, cut the beans
into inch lengths. When thus prepared, blanch them for 10 to 15 minutes
in live steam, cold-dip quickly, and pack tightly into the jars. Add a
teaspoonful of salt to each jarful, fill the jars with boiling water,
adjust the lids, and cook according to the method preferred. In the
water bath, boil for 1-1/2 to 2 hours; in the pressure cooker, cook for
60 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 40 minutes at a pressure of
10 pounds.


GROUP 3 - ROOT AND TUBER VEGETABLES

65. Only the small, young, and tender vegetables included in the third
group lend themselves readily to canning. As a rule, such vegetables are
allowed to mature, when they can be stored for winter use without
canning them. However, many housewives like to can some of them for the
variety they offer in the preparation and planning of meals.

66. BEETS. - For canning, select small, young beets. Prepare them by
cutting off the tops, which may be cooked as greens or canned
separately, and all but about an inch of the stems and an inch of the
roots. Scrub the trimmed beets well, and then blanch them in boiling
water for 5 to 15 minutes or until the skins may be easily scraped off
with a knife. Plunge them quickly into cold water and draw them out
again. Then scrape off the skins and remove the roots and stems. The
roots and stems are left on during the blanching and cold-dipping to
prevent them from bleeding, or losing color. When thus prepared, pack
the beets into jars, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful, and fill
the jars with boiling water. Then adjust the jar tops and proceed to
sterilize and cook the jars of beets according to the directions for any
preferred method. In the water bath, cook them for 1-1/2 hours; in the
pressure cooker, cook them for 1 hour at a pressure of 5 pounds or for
40 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.

67. CARROTS, PARSNIPS, AND TURNIPS. - Young parsnips and turnips are
canned in exactly the same way as young carrots. Therefore, directions
for the canning of carrots will suffice for all three of these
vegetables. Prepare the carrots for canning by cutting off the tops and
the roots and scrubbing them well. Blanch them for 10 to 15 minutes in
boiling water, so that the skins may be easily removed, and cold-dip
them. Then remove the skins by scraping, pack the carrots into the jars,
add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful, and fill the jars with boiling
water. Adjust the jar tops next, and proceed to sterilize and cook the
jars of carrots according to the method selected. In the water bath,
cook for 1-1/2 hours; in the pressure cooker, cook for 1 hour at a
pressure of 5 pounds or for 40 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.


GROUP 4 - SPECIAL VEGETABLES

68. Vegetables of the fourth group, which include those which cannot
well be classified in the other groups, lend themselves readily to
combinations, such as succotash, that make for variety in food. As is
true of the other vegetables, special vegetables must be fresh and sound
if good results in canning are expected.

69. LIMA AND OTHER SHELLED BEANS. - For canning, only tender beans,
whether Lima or some other variety, should be chosen. Prepare them for
immediate canning by shelling them - that is, taking them from the
pods - blanching them for 5 to 10 minutes in boiling water, and then
cold-dipping them quickly. Pack the jars to within 1/2 inch of the top,
add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jar, and fill the jars with boiling
water. Adjust the covers and proceed to sterilize and cook them. In the
water bath, boil for 2-1/2 to 3 hours; in the pressure cooker, cook for
1-1/2 hours at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 1 hour at a pressure of
10 pounds.

70. GREEN CORN. - For canning purposes, only corn that is young and milky
should be selected. Get it ready for canning by husking it and removing
the silk. Then blanch it for 3 to 5 minutes in boiling water and
cold-dip it quickly. Cut the kernels half way down to the cob and scrape
out what remains after cutting. For best results in this operation, hold
the ear of corn so that the butt end is up; then cut from the tip toward
the butt, but scrape from the butt toward the tip. Next, pack the jars
tightly with the corn, pressing it into them with a wooden masher.
Unless two persons can work together, however, cut only enough corn for
one jar and fill and partly seal it before cutting more. As corn swells
in the cooking, fill each jar to within 1/2 inch of the top. The milk in
the corn should fill all spaces between the kernels, provided there are
any, but if it does not, boiling water may be poured in. Add 1
teaspoonful of salt to each jarful of corn and adjust the jar lids. Boil
for 3 hours in the water bath; but, if the pressure cooker is to be
used, cook for 1-1/2 hours at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 1 hour at a
pressure of 10 pounds.

Corn on the cob may be canned in the same way if desired, but as only
three small ears can be put into a quart jar, this would seem to be a
waste of space and labor. If corn on the cob is to be canned, 2-quart
jars will prove more convenient than 1-quart jars.

71. PEAS. - Peas for canning should be well formed and tender, and they
should be canned as soon as possible after coming from the garden.
Proceed by washing the pods and shelling the peas. Blanch the shelled
peas for 5 to 10 minutes in live steam, and cold-dip them quickly. Pack
the peas into the jars, having them come to within 1/2 inch from the
top, add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful, and fill the jars with
boiling water. Then adjust the jar lids and proceed according to
directions for the method selected. In the water bath, boil for 2 or 3
hours; in the pressure cooker, cook for 1-1/2 hours at a pressure of 5
pounds or for 1 hour at a pressure of 10 pounds.

72. PUMPKIN AND SQUASH. - The canning of pumpkin and squash is advisable
when there is any possibility of their not keeping until they can be
used. Prepare either of these vegetables for canning by first peeling it
and cutting the edible part into inch cubes. Blanch these cubes for 10
to 15 minutes in live steam and cold-dip them quickly. Pack the jars as
full as possible, and add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jar, but no
water. After adjusting the jar lids, boil the jars of food for 1-1/2
hours in the water bath, or cook them for 1 hour at a pressure of 5
pounds or for 40 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds in the pressure
cooker. When finished, the jars will be found to be only about half
full, but the contents will keep perfectly.

If desired, pumpkin or squash may first be cooked as if preparing it for
use and then put into the jars for processing.

73. SUCCOTASH. - Of course, succotash is not a vegetable, but the name of
a food that results from combining corn and beans. These vegetables may
be canned together to make for variety in the winter's food supply, or
each may be canned separately and combined later. Clean the ears of corn
in the manner previously directed; then blanch them for 5 minutes and
cold-dip them. Also, remove green Lima beans from the pods, blanch them
for 10 minutes, and cold-dip them. Then cut and scrape the corn off the
cobs and mix it with an equal quantity of the beans. Pack the mixture
into the jars to within 1/2 inch of the top, add a teaspoonful of salt
to each jarful, and fill the jars with boiling water. Adjust the jar
tops and proceed according to the directions for the process to be
employed. In the water bath, boil for 2 hours; in the pressure cooker,
cook for 50 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 35 minutes at a
pressure of 10 pounds.

74. TOMATOES. - As has been stated, tomatoes may be canned successfully
by the open-kettle method. If this method is to be employed, the first
part of the preparation is exactly the same as for the cold-pack method,
except that the jars, jar tops, and jar rubbers must be carefully
sterilized.

For canning, firm tomatoes should be selected if possible, as they will
keep their shape better than those which are very ripe. If some are
soft, they should be sorted out and canned for soup making or made into
catsup. After washing the tomatoes, proceed to blanch them. The length
of time required for blanching depends entirely on the condition of the
tomatoes. They should be blanched for 1 to 3 minutes, or just long
enough to loosen the skin. After blanching, dip them quickly into cold
water and remove the skins. These, it will be found, may be removed
easily and quickly. Pack the tomatoes thus prepared tightly into jars
and fill them with boiling water, boiling tomato juice, or stewed
tomatoes. Add a teaspoonful of salt to each jar. Then adjust the jar
lids and proceed according to the directions given for the method
selected. Boil for 22 minutes in the water bath; in the pressure cooker,
cook for 15 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or for 10 minutes at a
pressure of 10 pounds.

75. TOMATOES FOR SOUP. - If there are soft tomatoes at hand or if
tomatoes are canned by the open-kettle method, quantities of tomato
juice will be available. Such material as this may be put through a
sieve and boiled down for winter use in the making of soups, bisques,
etc. It may be canned simply by pouring the boiling juice into
sterilized jars and sealing them immediately.

76. TOMATOES AND CORN. - An excellent food combination results from
combining stewed tomatoes with corn. Such a combination may be canned
safely by either the open-kettle or the cold-pack method. The acid of
the tomatoes helps to keep the corn, but the combination requires longer
cooking than just plain tomatoes. Prepare each vegetable as for canning
separately, but, if desired, cut the tomatoes into pieces. Mix the two
foods in any desirable proportion and, for the cold-pack canning method,
put the food into the jars. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt to each jarful,
but no water. Then adjust the jar lids, and proceed to sterilize and
cook the jars of food. In the water bath, cook them 1-1/2 hours; in the
pressure cooker, cook them for 50 minutes at a pressure of 5 pounds or
for 35 minutes at a pressure of 10 pounds.


DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS

77. The chief difference between the canning of fruits and the canning
of vegetables is that sugar in the form of sirup, instead of salt water,
is used for the liquid. Fruits may be canned without sugar if desired,
but nothing is gained by so doing, for sugar will have to be added
later. Because of the sugar used in canning and the acid contained in
the fruit, canned fruit has better keeping qualities than canned
vegetables. In fact, it is much more likely to keep well even though it
does not receive such careful attention as vegetables. It is for this
reason that canned fruit does not require so much time for sterilization
as vegetables do. Still it should not be inferred that care is not
necessary in the canning of fruits. Indeed, the more care that is taken,
the better are the results likely to be.

78. SIRUPS FOR CANNING. - Before the canning of fruits can be undertaken,
it is necessary to possess a knowledge of the sirups that are needed.
Such sirups consist simply of sugar dissolved in boiling water. The
quantity of sugar and water required for a sirup depends on the acidity
of the fruit and the purpose for which it is to be used. Plain canned
fruits that are to be used for sauces, etc. require less sugar
proportionately than those which are preserved, and fruit canned for pie
making may have less than either. Thus, fruits of the same kind may be
canned with sirups of different proportions. To a great extent, the
quantity of sugar to use with fruit may be regulated by the taste, but
it will be readily seen that such fruits as sour cherries and plums will
require more sugar to make them palatable than pears and blueberries. It
will be well to note, though, that the sugar does not penetrate the
fruit unless the two are cooked together.

79. In order to make sirup for canning, place the desired quantities of
sugar and water in a kettle and proceed to heat them. Stir the liquid
while it is heating, in order to assist in dissolving the sugar. When it
has begun to boil rapidly, remove the sirup from the fire and use it at
once. Do not continue boiling.

In preparing such sirups, it will be well to note that the greater the
proportion of sugar to water or the longer the sugar and water are
allowed to boil, the denser, or heavier, will the sirup become. It is
this _density_ of sirup that regulates its use for the different kinds
of fruit and determines its nature. Thus, a sirup in which the
proportion of sugar to water is so large as to make the sirup thick is
known as a _heavy sirup_; one in which the proportion of water to sugar
is so large as to make the sirup thin is called a _light sirup_; and one
in which the proportion of sugar and water is such as to produce a sirup
that is neither thick nor thin, but stands between the two extremes, is
called a _medium sirup_.


TABLE I

SIRUPS FOR CANNING FRUITS

Proportions Degrees
- - - - - - With
Sirup Sugar Water Hydro-
No. Cups Cups meter Uses
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
1 2 4 28 Open-kettle canning, or pie
fruit canned by any method.

2 2 3 30 Open-kettle canning, or pie
fruit canned by any method.

3 2 2 40 Open-kettle canning, or sweet
fruits canned by cold-pack
methods.

4 2 1-1/2 48 Sweet fruits canned by
cold-pack methods.

5 2 1 54 Sour fruits canned by
cold-pack methods.

6 2 1/2 68 Very rich fruits canned by
cold-pack methods; preserves
canned by open-kettle method.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

80. The density of sirup is also affected by the amount and rapidity of
evaporation that takes place in boiling, and these, in turn, depend on
the amount of surface that is exposed. For instance, if a sirup is
cooked in a large, flat kettle, the evaporation will be greater and more
rapid than if it is cooked in a small, deep vessel. Atmospheric pressure
affects the rapidity of evaporation, too. In a high altitude,
evaporation takes place more slowly than at sea level, because the
boiling point is lower. Thus, in the making of sirups for canning, the
first point to be determined is whether the sirup desired should be
light, medium, or heavy, and in its preparation the points mentioned
must receive consideration.

81. For determining the density of sirup, a _sirup gauge_, or
_hydrometer_, will be found useful. This device consists of a graduated
glass tube attached to a bulb that is weighted with mercury. The
graduations, or marks, on the tube, or top part, of the hydrometer serve
to indicate the percentage of solid matter dissolved in a solution and
register from to 50 degrees. To use such a gauge, partly fill a glass
cylinder - an ordinary drinking glass will do - with the sirup and place
the hydrometer in it. The greater the amount of solid matter dissolved
in the sirup, the higher will be hydrometer float. Then read the number
of degrees registered by observing the mark that is level with the
surface of the sirup.

The number of degrees that the hydrometer should register for sirups of
different densities - that is, for sirups consisting of different
proportions of sugar and water - are given in Table I. This table, in
addition, gives the uses that should be made of such sirups, and each
one is numbered so that it may be referred to readily later in the
recipes for canning fruits.

82. CLASSIFICATION OF FRUITS. - For the sake of convenience in canning,
fruits, too, are here divided into groups. These groups, three in
number, together with the fruits included in each, are:

1. _Soft Fruits_, which are subdivided into three kinds, namely, sweet,
sour, and very sour. The _sweet soft fruits_ include blackberries,
blueberries or huckleberries, sweet cherries, elderberries, ripe
gooseberries, mulberries, and black and red raspberries; the _sour soft
fruits_, apricots, currants, grapes, peaches, and strawberries; and the
_very sour soft fruits_, sour cherries, cranberries, green gooseberries,
plums, and rhubarb.

2. _Hard Fruits_, which include apples, quinces, and pears.

3. _Special Fruits_, which include ripe figs, kumquats, loquats,
nectarines, persimmons, and pineapples.

The advantage of this classification, as in the case of the vegetable
classification, is that, as a rule, all fruits belonging to a group or a
subdivision of a group may be canned in the same way and with sirup of
practically the same density.

83. CANNING METHODS FOR FRUITS. - The canning of fruits may be done by
the several methods previously discussed, but the Cold-pack and
open-kettle methods seem to meet with most favor. On account of the
sirup used in canning fruit and the acid in the fruit, the open-kettle
method is usually fairly successful, whereas, in the canning of
vegetables, with the exception of tomatoes, it is not so reliable. The
housewife, by experiment, can determine which method will suit her needs
best, but by no means should methods be mixed. If a certain method is
decided on, it should be adhered to in every detail and carried through
without any substitution. For all methods, as has been mentioned, the
fruit should be selected when it is fresh and in good condition, as such
fruit has less chance to spoil than fruit that is overripe or has
decayed spots. After it is graded for size and condition, the fruit
should be washed, stemmed, hulled, seeded, peeled, or halved, quartered,
or sliced, depending on the kind. Then the work may be proceeded with
according to the canning method that is to be followed.

84. If fruits are to be canned by the open-kettle method, certain
precautions must be observed in order to insure success. The
sterilization of the product cannot be perfect in this method no matter
how carefully the canning is done; and this means that the sugar and the
fruit acids must be greatly relied on to assist in preservation. Still,
the jars, jar covers, jar rubbers, and any utensils used for filling the
jars must be sterilized and kept in boiling water until the fruit is
ready to be canned. Another thing to guard against is the discoloring of
the fruit. Any fruit that is likely to become discolored after it is
prepared for canning should be kept in salt water until it is ready to
be cooked. A solution consisting of 1 teaspoonful of salt to each quart
of water will answer for this purpose.

After the fruit has been prepared and while the containers, etc. are
being sterilized, it is necessary to prepare the sirup that is to be
used. For the sweet fruits of Group 1, No. 1 or 2 sirup should be made;
for the sour fruits of this group, No. 2 or 3 sirup; and for the very
sour fruits, No. 4 or 5 sirup. The hard fruits may be canned by this
method with No. 1, 2, or 3 sirup, while the special fruits require No. 4
or 5 sirup. If the fruit is to be canned for pie, it will be advisable
to use thin sirup and then use more sweetening when pies are made.

When the sirup is made by mixing the sugar and water and bringing it to
a boil, the prepared fruit should be dropped into it and cooked. The
fruit should be cooked in the sirup until it may be easily pierced with
a fork or until it is soft. Berries have to be cooked only a few
minutes, while the hard fruits may require from 10 to 15 minutes. The
jars should be placed upright in a pan of hot water while the boiling
fruit from the kettle is poured into them, and as each jar is filled the
rubber should be put in place and the cover adjusted and secured. It is
important to close one jar before filling another, because the longer a
jar remains open the more bacteria will be permitted to enter. Even by
working as rapidly as possible and taking the greatest precaution, a
certain number of bacteria are bound to enter in this method of canning.
After the jars are filled and sealed, they should be placed upside down
or on the side to cool and test for leaks.

85. If the cold-pack method is employed in canning fruit, it is possible
to obtain a sterilized product that is dependent for preservation on
neither the sirup used nor the acid of the fruit. In this method, the
jars, jar tops, covers, and utensils for handling the fruit do not have
to be sterilized beforehand. They may simply be washed clean and kept
hot in clean water until they are needed. After the fruits are prepared,



Online LibraryWoman's Institute of Domestic Arts and SciencesWoman's Institute Library of Cookery Volume 5: Fruit and Fruit Desserts; Canning and Drying; Jelly Making, Preserving and Pickling; Confections; Beverages; the Planning of Meals → online text (page 8 of 27)