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I04 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.

In the neighborhood of Alpena, Michigan, occur two forms equally
prevalent. One retains the relative proportions of the Davenport
crinoid, but differs from it in scarcely ever attaining one-third of its
size. The other is basin-shaped, with broader base than the preceding,
steep, low walls, and correspondingly low dome. This seems to have
had no representative in the Davenport locaUty. Such variations,
while of interest as exhibiting the result of differing environments and
geologic time, do not warrant specific distinctions and description.

The condition and character of the deposits in the two localities
are not without interest. In the quarries near Davenport, at least
in those portions to which the crinoids are restricted, we find thick,
heavy beds of rough, compact limestone, without any partings of shale.
While fragments of crinoids abound, yet in most instances they are
partially imbedded in the rock, and cannot be extricated without dan-
ger of breakage. Everything of present environment suggests condi-
tions most unfavorable to their * perfect preservation. On the other
hand, in Alpena, Michigan, we find a series of thin bedded limestones,
and interlaminated beds of soft argillo-calcareous shales, in both of
which crinoids are found, and from which they may for the most part
be readily detached. The surroundings indicate a condition of things
favorable to their existence when Hving or their preservation when
dead.

The two localities are further distinguished by their relative place in
the series of which they form subordinate parts. Near Davenport these
crinoid-bearing beds lie beneath the shales and shaly limestones that
go to make up the series — at the very base of the Hamilton group, if
not below it. It is claimed by Prof. Rominger, of the Geological Sur-
vey of Michigan, that the crinoid-bearing rocks near Alpena head the
series — crown the very summit of the Hamilton.*



♦See Geologry of Michigan, Vol. III., Chap. VI.



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PROC. DAV. ACAD. NAT. SCI. VOL IV.



PLATE I




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PROC. DAV. ACAD. NAT. SCI. VOL IV,



PLATE II.



^,i




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REMARKS ON ABORIGINAL ART. I05



Remarks on Aboriginal Art in California and Queen
Charlotte's Island.

By W. J. Hoffman, M. D. :

Having occasion to again visit the Pacific coast, during the
the summer and autumn of the year 1884, for the purpose of con-
tinuing research in primitive art, linguistics, etc., it was my good
fortune to find a number of localities of great interest, on account
of both painted and etched records, made by Indians belonging to
tribes which are at this time unknown to us. These records occur
in groups; and for the purpose of future reference to them„ I shall
merely state at this point that the most important series is in the
vicinity of Santa Barbara ; another, of less extent, near San
Gabriel ; and the third, consisting of etched characters only,
though in great numbers, is in Owen's Valley, west. and south of
Benton ; all of these are in the State of California. I shall first
describe the more important series at Santa Barbara.

Immediately north of this delightful place is the Santa Ynez
range of mountains, running almost due east and west, north of
which are the San Rafael Mountains, running parallel with the
former, and beyond these, again, is the Coast Range, which at the
sa.me time forms the southern and southwestern boundary of the
Tulare Valley. All of these mountain ranges are extremely diffi-
cult to cross, excepting at a few points where the Indians formerly
had trails for going to and from the coast both for trading and
horse-stealing.

The best preserved painted record is located near the summit of
the Santa Ynez range, about thirteen miles west of Santa Barbara.
This is known as La Piedra Pintadc^, The paintings are in a cavity
which measures about twenty feet wide and eight feet high, being
narrower at the mouth than in the interior. This cavity is under
an immense rock projecting from a ridge into a narrower mountain
cation, near which is a spring of fine water. The rock consists of
gray sandstone, but the ceiling and back portion of the cave has a
yellowish appearance, is disintegrating, and part of the record is

[Proc. D. a. N. S., Vol. IV.] 14 [Dec. 24, 1884.]



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Io6 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.

entirely destroyed. Plate I, A, forms the left-hand portion of the
record, and Plate I, B, the right, the missing portion having occu-
pied the middle third of the whole group of paintings. The colors
employed were red ochre, white, and bluish-black. At the time of
my visit I w^s struck by the marked resemblance to some of the
characters found in Arizona, which are known to have been made
by the Moki Indians, but no information could be gained as to the
import of the record until I subsequently found at Los Angeles
what I consider a hint which may lead to a partial interpretation.

I was informed by the Hon. A. F. Coronel that when he arrived
at Los Angeles in 1843 ^^ frequently saw Indians come into town
from the north, bringing coarse blankets for sale, which were made
of the hair of animals, and colored black and white in alternate,
broad, transverse bands. I also found, in Mr. Coronel's collection,
small figures of Mexican manufacture representing native costumes
and trades, one of which was in imitation of a man lying upon an
outspread blanket, which was similar in coloration and arrangement
of stripes to the figure shown in Plate III, A, 2, and B, i, 2. In the
same collection, also, are a number of large colored plates of Mex-
ican costumes of former times, and in several of these are scrapes,
having colors and borders almost identical with those presented in
Plate III, A, 2, and B, i, 2.

The figure in Plate III, B, i, is evidently a personage of some im.
portance, shown by the lines drawn from the head,* as this method
of denoting superiority, condition, or intelligence is almost an
universal one. These figures are drawn over or in front of the
blanket, as if the latter were intended as a body blanket or serape.
The circles with borders, Plate IV, B, 8, 9, 10, in this connection,
seem to indicate bales of blankets, the intersecting lines upon both
colored and plain circles possibly denoting cords, as wrapped about
goods of this kind. This belief is further strengthened from the
fact that in Plate III, B, 6 we see the drawing of a man, with head
ornaments and breech-cloth plainly visible, leading a horse up hill,
upon whose back is apparently a similarly tied bundle, at the right
hand of which the ends of the cords are seen projecting. It

* In Plate III, B, 2 is a similar figure mounted upon legs, as if some one were
carrying it upon his back, the long arm terminating in a hand directed in an up-
ward direction, possibly so placed to indicate the direction to be taken by the
bearer, i. <?., upward toward the near summit; as in the same group. Figs. 4 and
20, the arms of the human form are likewise pointed upward.



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REMARKS ON ABORIGINAL ART. I07

is probable that the gaudily-colored blankets, if they be such, ex-
cited the admiration of the native artist and prompted him to re-
produce them, as goods with which he may have been familiar or
which were not specially attractive, would be drawn only in simple
outline, as in Plate III, B, 5, 6, 19, 21. When we take into con-
sideration the union of the figure of the human being, in Plate III,
A, 2, and the circle. A, i, it may seem as if the idea was to indi-
cate the owner or seller of the goods ; in other words, the trader.
Fig. 16 in Plate III, B, represents a centipede.

The Indians still living in the vicinity of Santa Barbara disclaim
all knowledge of the authorship of these paintings. As before
stated, many of the characters are similar to, and some identical
with, those made by the Moki and other tribes of the Shoshonian
linguistic stock. There is no historic evidence of any tribe of that
stock having occupied this immediate vicinity or that north of the
mountains. The nearest are the Kauvuya, usually divided into the
Serranos or mountain fnen, and the Playsanos or lowlanders, who
occupied the country south of the San Fernando range, along the
coast to a short distance above San Diego, thence eastward across
the State to the Colorado river. The tribe now living north of
Santa Barbara county is the Tejon, or, as they term themselves, the
Tin'liu. This tribe is of the Yokiit family and entirely distinct from
the preceding.

The tribe who came to trade, and to steal, is said to have come
from the north, and according to the characters shown in the pic-
tures the expeditions were made since the establishment of the
Mission in 1786, and possibly in the early part of the present cen-
tury. To reach the immediate vicinity of Santa Barbara from the
north only four trails are known, and to three of these I have found
rocks with painted figures of various kinds, some of which are
almost exact reproductions. The two beside the locality above
mentioned are a short distance from the foot-hills four miles north-
east of Santa Barbara, where the trail should be taken to make the
ascent. One of these is an isolated boulder, pn the west side of
which are human figures, drawn in the attitude of indicating self
and direction, the extended arm pointing toward another large,
isolated boulder on a direct line to the mountain trail. See Plate
IV, B, 2.

Fifteen miles west of Santa Barbara, near the San Marcos Pass,
and on the northern summit of the range, are a group of paintings



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I08 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.

which are unintelligible. These consist of zigzag lines, heavy curved
lines serrated on the concave side, figures of the sun, short vertical
strokes, etc., as shown in Plate IV, A.

There are temporary streams near by, and springs of water at
greater distance, and from the fact that upon a low, flat boulder of
granite there are twenty-three mortar holes, it is probable that the
people who made these paintings also made the mortars for grind-
ing grass and other seeds, making special visits to this place for the
latter purpose at a certain season of each year.

Three miles west northwest of the last-named locality, down in
the valley, are indistinct traces of figures painted in red ochre ; and
six miles farther west, near the ruins of the Mission of San Marcos,
is a boulder in the river bottom, upon which apparently similar de-
signs are perceptible, though too much worn to permit copying.

Forty-three miles west of Santa Barbara, in the Najowe Valley,
is another rocky promontory, at the base of which are a number of
paintings of various grotesque forms of the human body. There
are several characters which indicate that the record was painted
within historic times, as the figure of an ox appears on the left mar-
gin of the principal paintings and at a short distance from them.
The human figures, in several instances, appear to be drawn in the
attitude of making gestures, similar to that for surprise or astonish-
ment in Plate IV, A, 2 and 5, and negation in A, 4. Many of the
characters, though distinct at certain portions, are much worn in
other parts, owing to disintegration of the surface upon which they
were depicted.

I was deprived the opportunity of visiting an important locality
in the Cuyama Valley, on account of the severe and protracted
rains, which set in early in the season. This is to be regretted, as
the drawings there represented differ considerably from those before
mentioned, but closely resemble parts of the interesting series of
paintings at Tule Indian Agency, about one hundred and eighty
miles to the northeast, which were visited in 1882 and again in
1884.* The general type, of what may be termed the Shoshonian,
prevails in all of these records to greater or less degree, and it
would be of the utmost interest and importance to make thorough
examinations of all of the records known throughout these mountain
regions, from Santa Barbara northward, to ascertain, if possible,

*See Trans. Anthrop. Society of Washington, II, 1883, p. 128, etseq,, Fig. I.



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REMARKS ON ABORIGINAL ART. IO9

liow far similar specific types extend, thus gaining a knowledge of
the former geographic distribution of certain tribes, if not of cer-
tain linguistic families represented by tribes, which are not known,
either historically or traditionally, to have lived there.

The second series visited is located in the Azuza cafion, about
thirty miles northeast of Los Angeles. After following up the
rocky and tortuous cailon of the Azuza, or San Gabriel, river for a
•distance of ten miles, a side cailon turns off toward the left, which,
if followed for about half a mile, will bring us to a white granitic
l)oulder in the bottom of the valley, upon the eastern side of which
are the faint yellow outlines of the characters represented in Plate
V, A. The left arm of figure 3 is directed toward the northeast,
but on account of the precipitous walls of the cafion, egress in that
direction is impossible. Two hundred yards farther on, however,
the cafion makes a sharp turn toward the northeast, and in rounding
the point of land to the right, another boulder, measuring about
twenty feet in length and six or eight feet high, is visible im-
mediately below the trail. Upon this are numerous faint drawings
of various kinds, the most important of which are shown in Plate
V, B, C. This rock is on the line of an old trail leading
from the country of the Chemehuevi, on the north of the moun-
tains, down to the valley settlements of San Gabriel and Los An-
geles. Any attempt to follow the cafion would have been an
extremely rough journey, as well as a considerable increase in dis-
tance. The illustrations in Plate V, B, 4, 5, 6, are taken from
the northwest side of the rock, so that the extended arms of the
human figures are directed toward the passes, above and below,
through which the trail could be followed. Fig. 5 appears to point
up stream with his right arm, and also shows elevation with the
leg of the same side, while with the other arm, the gestures shown
seem to indicate a downward direction, possibly to denote the
lower country of the San Gabriel Valley. Fig. 4, in pointing to
the top of a serrated figure, may possibly have some reference to
the rocky or hilly nature of the course to be pursued. Fig. 6, and
from 7-10, are shown in this connection on account of their gen-
■eral resemblance to those drawn by the Moki. As the Chemehuevi
Indians formerly visited the new settlements, it is more than prob-
able that they were the authors of the drawings, which were placed
there as a guide or notification of direction to traveling parties.
Furthermore, the Chemehuevi Indians are one of the tribes com-



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no DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.

posing the Shoshonian linguistic family, which may be another
reason for the similarity of many of the characters to others found
in regions occupied by nearly all the remaining tribes of that
family. In B, Fig. 5, 6, and C, 8, 9, 10, the hands and feet are
identical with Moki drawings, extending even to the projection or
caudal extremity, signifying a ftiale among the latter. The pe-
culiarity of three-toed and three-fingered feet and hands survives
on the Santa Barbara rock paintings shown in Plate III, B, 3, 5, 7,
Plate IV, I, 2, and Plate III, 2, 5, and occurs also in other parts of
the world. The peculiarly-drawn human figures in Plate V, 7, of
the Azuza series also greatly resembles that at Santa Barbara, in
Plate IV, 3, the arms in the latter seeming to point both directions
of the practicable trail, while the legs are extended obliquely ///
hill and down hill, which exactly corresponds to the topography of
the region encountered in going, respectively, north and south.

The third series to which I desire to call attention is that found
in the northern portion of Owens Valley, California, between the
White Mountains on the east and the Benton Range on the west.
The country was traversed by me in 1871 while in command of a
side party of the United States Geographical Survey, under the
command of Lieut, (now Captain) Wheeler, U. S. A. I saw one
group of this series, but being pressed for time, was unable to obtain
sketches or to make satisfactory examination of the characters.
These are all pecked into the smooth surfaces of rocks of vesicular
basalt to the depth of from a quarter of an inch in some specimens
to nearly an inch in others. During the past season, however, I
went over the region anew, and find what appears to be a series of
landmarks to indicate a course to be followed at stated times by
Indians in coming up the valley and across the Benton Range to a
locality where grass-seed and pinon nuts abound in great quantities.
The terminus of the route seems to be at a point four miles south-
west from the town of Benton, on the western side of the range.
Here are a number of petroglyphs pecked into the rocks around
the upper point of a small mesa, at the southern base of which are
several low, flat boulders, bearing a number of mortar holes for
grinding seed.- A little farther to the west is a fine spring and a
large area of marsh land, on which is an abundance of tall, seed-
bearing grass. Immediately to the east of the rock-etchings, and
on the slope of the mesa, are five or six stone circles, each measur-
ing about eight feet in diameter, which mark the sites of former



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REMARKS ON ABORIGINAL ART. Ill

temporary lodges. As practiced to-day, when erecting a temporary
shelter lodge, stones are placed around the surface required, against
which branches of trees and shrubs are placed and interwoven, thus
offering some shelter against wind and rain. Amongst these ruins
were discovered large quantities of obsidian flakes, arrow-heads,
and knives, the exposed surfaces of many pieces having assumed an
ashen hue from exposure and weathering.

The southernmost group of etchings is eighteen miles south of
Benton ; the next group two miles above that, at the Chalk Grade ;
another, three miles farther north ; a fourth, half a mile north of
the preceding; then a fifth, which is twelve and a half miles south
of Benton and five and a half miles above the first-named. The
last-named locality is the one first noticed in 1871, and contains
the greatest number of characters. The rocks bearing them trend
around toward the northwest, along the faces of which the figures
continue, indicating a direction toward a low pass in the Benton
Range through which the nearest route is found to reach the old
camp above mentioned. The country over which these records are
scattered is arid beyond description and destitute of water and
vegetation. It is evident that the records were prepared under
trying circumstances, and the purpose for which they were placed
there was undoubtedly something more than merely to serve as in-
dications of direction.

The Indians, who at present live about the town of Benton, are
Pai-Utas, but they are unacquainted with the signification of these
characters, arid further state that they do not know by whom they
were made. Were it not for their superstitious nature, and their
suspicions regarding the apparent inquisitiveness of the whites re-
garding these etchings, some information might possibly be ob-
tained.

After making careful drawings of all the characters which I could
find, and which are embraced in the Owen's Valley series, and upon
repeated comparisons with those of other localities, at present
known to us, within a radius of several hundred miles, I fail to dis-
cover any marked specific resemblance, with the exception of those
characters representing what appears to be the human form. There
are several animal forms, and imprints of the human foot, the tracks
of the grizzly bear — specified by large claws, — serpents, zigzag
lines, and many anomalous figures. All of these form but a small



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112 DAVENPORT ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES.

percentage of the entire number of etchings. The characters
which are greatly in excess, and which present an indefinite variety
of form and elaboration, are circles, either plain, nucleated,* bi-
sected, concentric, or ** spectacle-shaped, '* by pairs or threes, or
with various forms of interior ornamentation. Plate V, D, E.

This series resembles etchings from the Canary Islandsf so closely
that the illustrations serve for both localities. The coincidence is
remarkable, from the fact that the resemblance does not lie in one
or several instances only, but in many. On the same plate, Fig.
b, are a variety of circles with ornamented interiors, from a simple
bisection to the stellate and cruciform varieties. J There are similar
ornamented circles, having from three to five short, vertical lines
attached to the bottom, B 6, a form of designating water or rain by
some Indians ; though, if these same characters were shown to some
of the Moki or Zufii Indians, they would pronounce them to be
masks such as are used in dances and religious ceremonies. §

*In the first volume of the Journal of the Anthropological Institute of New
York, 1871-72, p. 65, are two illustrations representing a variety of circles,
either plain, nucleated, or concentric, which were copied from a large boulder
in Forsyth Co., Georgia, and attributed to the Cherokees. The resemblance
between these sculpturings.and those from Owens Valley is striking. The spect-
acle-shaped characters i. e. circles united by straight lines, and waving lines ter-
minating in two circles, placed side by side, also occur in both localities men-
tioned. From information recently obtained, I learn that the Cherokee picto-
graphs in eastern Tennessee are usually placed upon the vertical walls of rock
and indicate burial places near by, or caves in which bodies had been interred.

f Noticias sobre Los Caracteres jeroglfficos grabados en las rocas volcanicas de
las Islas Canarias ; por Mr. Sabin Berthelot. <^ Boletin de la Sociedad Geogra-
fica de Madrid, 1876, Vol. I, No. 3, pp. 261-279. Map, bearing illustrations of
engraved characters. This was also published in Bull. Soc. de Geog. de France,
1875, 6th ser., IX, pp. 177-192, 111.

J-Similar circles bearing cross lines are mentioned by Prof. J. Y. Simpson as oc-
curring at Grevinge, Zeeland, and other forms resembling some in Owens Valley,
from Sleive-na-Calligha, and, New Grange and Dowth, Ireland. <^Proc. So-
ciety of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1867. Separate appendix in 4to. PI. XXXI,
Fig. 3; PI. XXVIII; PI. XXIX, Figg. 8, 9. Compare also PI. XLIX of Vol.
VII for 1866-68, 1870 of same work, with reference to a sculptured stone from
Les Grottos de Keroville, Carnac, Brittany. Text on pp. 394, 395.

\ It is not difficult to find certain characters reproduced in various portions of
the world, but when the coincidences embrace an unusual number of instances
at any given locality, the fact becomes one of more than passing interest. Of a
variety of sculpturings occurring in Owen's Valley, I find exact reproductions of



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REMARKS ON ABORIGINAL ART. II3

Near the site of the former camping ground, referred to as be-
ing four miles southwest of Benton, are quite a number of charac-
ters similar to that shown in Plate V, G, i, being of a horse-shoe
form, with a vertical line within. Sometimes there are several ver-
tical lines running parallel to one another, sometimes only one
which is attached at the top, and a few examples occur here, but
others more plentifully in the other groups of this series, in which
the ends of the * ' horse-shoe ' ' are brought together so as to form a
ring.

In Plate V, H, I, are presented a number of variations of the
human form, from a simple vertical line, intersected above its mid-
dle by a transverse one, to the more complete character, showing
the legs and feet, with the arms and hands in the position of mak*-
ing a common gesture for negation.'^ The figure bearing curved
lines from the shoulders, upward and inward, slightly resembles one
from the painted records at Tule River Agency, Cal., on the west-
•ern slope of the Sierra Nevada, and distant about one hundred and
fifty miles.f PI. V, I, 5.

It may be well to call attention to the absence of any representa-
tions of the human face, apart from the body, in the California



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