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THE HISTORIANS
OF GREECE



THE OLYMPIC EDITION

This edition is strictly limited to one thou-
sand signed, numbered and registered sets, of
which this is



8 4 fX
^'-*




Editor in Chief



aluum(kSimcu^(ewjuj



Publishers




Artaxerxes ^

After a Rare Etching of the Sixteenth Century,
in the Vatican Library, Rome



Nm fork




ight, 1909, by ΊΊ1Κ J'ANDV-TIIOMAS COMPANY



(iniu SlUuminatton
ilJint^ €tntntv

THIS design is typical of the illuminations of
the Celtic Monks of the Ninth Century.
The geometrical nature of the design, the intricate
interlacing hands, the soft and delicate colouring
are highly typical of this school. From the
Seventh to the Ninth Century Ireland surpassed
all the other countries of Europe in the beauty of
the illumination of missals, as she did in learning
and piety. The most beautiful manuscript in
existence to-day is the celebrated Book of Kells,
Λvhich was executed in the Ninth Century and is
said to have been the work of St. Columba, Λν1ιο86
manuscripts are supjjosed to have had miraculous
poAvers Λvhich rendered them indestructible by
water. It is now the most treasured possession of
Trinity College, T)ublin.



THE HISTORY

OF

XENOPHON



Translated from the Ancient Greek hy

HENRY GRAHAM DAKYNS, M. A.

FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDOE, AND LATE
ASSISTANT MASTER IN CLIFTON COLLEGE



VOLUME II



NEW YORK
THE TANDY-THOMAS COMPANY



Copyright, 1909, hy
The Tandy-Thomas Company



DF

XasH



CONTENTS

PAGE

Anabasis Book V 11

Anabasis Book VI 65

Anabasis Book VII 110

Hellenica Book III 181

Hellenica Book IV 241



91S814



ILLUSTRATIONS



Artaxerxes Frontispiece

After an Etching in the Vatican Library

Illuminated Title-Page Title

Designed by Walter Tittle after the Celtic School
of the Ninth Century

PAOE

Field Battering Ram 64

After an Etching of the Sixteenth Century in the
British Museum

Ancient Elevator 110

After an Etching of the Seventeenth Century in the
Collection of the Hon. Oswald Bauer

The Heights of Athens 180

After an Engraving by Rosmasler

Suspended Battering Ram 240

After an Etching of the Sixteenth Century in the
British Museum



ILLUSTRATIONS

THE illustrations of this work have been designed
to show the development of book ornamentation.
The earliest forms which have survived the ravages of
time are the illuminations of the Mediaeval manuscripts.
This art was the outgrowth of the work of the Ancient
Greeks and was in turn the source from which modem
book illustration has developed.

With the introduction of printing, wood cut blocks
came into use but were rapidly supplanted by etchings,
especially for finer work. This process dates from 1477
and held first place for centuries until superseded by
steel engravings and finally by modem photographic
processes.

Mr. Walter Tittle, who has made a life study of the
subject, has designed a series of title-pages for this
Avork. Each of these embodies the salient features of
a particular school of Medieval illumination, thus epito-
mising the whole history of the art.

The illustrations also include reproductions of a num-
ber of rare old etchings of the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries, showing the Art of War among
the Ancients, a number of the finest steel engravings of
the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, and finally
some beautiful Twentieth Century photo-mezzotints of
celebrated paintings, illustrating the life and customs
of the Ancient World.



THE
HISTORY OF XENOPHON



ANABASIS BOOK V, BOOK VI,

BOOK VII— HELLENICA

BOOK III, BOOK IV



THE
HISTORY OF XENOPHON

ANABASIS

BOOK V

AFTER this they met and took counsel con-
/% cerning the remainder of the march. The
JL jL first speaker was Antileon of Thurii. He
rose and said : " For my part, sirs, I am weary
by this time of getting kit together and pack-
ing up for a start, of walking and running and
carrying heavy arms, and of tramping along in
line, or mounting guard, and doing battle. The
sole desire I now have is to cease from all these
pains, and for the future, since here we have the
sea before us, to sail on and on, ' stretched out
in sleep,' like Odysseus, and so to find myself
in Hellas." When they heard these remarks, the
soldiers showed their approval with loud cries
of " well said," and then another spoke to the
same effect, and then another, and indeed all
present. Then Cheirisophus got up and said:
" I have a friend, sirs, who, as good hap will
have it, is now high admiral, Anaxibius. If you
like to send me to him, I think I can safely
promise to return with some men-of-war and
other vessels which will carry us. All you have



12 XENOPHON

to do, if you are really minded to go home by
sea, is to wait here till I come. I will be back
ere long." The soldiers were delighted at these
words, and voted that Cheirisophus should set
sail on his mission without delay.

After him Xenophon got up, and spoke as
f ο11θΛ\^ : " Cheirisophus, it is agreed, sets out
in search of vessels, and we are going to await
him. Let me tell you what, in my opinion, it is
reasonable to do while we are waiting. First
of all, we must provide ourselves with necessaries
from hostile territory, for there is not a sufficient
market, nor, if there were, have we, with a few
solitary exceptions, the means of purchase.
Now, the district is hostile, so that if you set off
in search of provisions without care and pre-
caution, the chances are that many of us w^ll
be lost. To meet this risk, I propose that we
should organise foraging parties to capture pro-
visions, and, for the rest, not roam about the
country at random. The organisation of the
matter should be left to us." (The resolution
was passed.) "Please listen to another pro-
posal," he continued: " Some of you, no doubt,
will be going out to pillage. It will be best, I
think, that whoever does so should in each case
before starting inform us of his intent, and in
what direction he means to go, so that we may
know the exact number of these who are out and
of those who stop behind. Thus we shall be



ANABASIS BOOK V 13

able to help in preparing and starting the expe-
dition where necessary; and in case of aid or
reinforcements being called for, we shall know
in what direction to proceed; or, again, if the
attempt is to be undertaken by raw or less ex-
pert hands, we may throw in the weight of our
experience and advice by endeavouring to dis-
cover the strength of those whom they design to
attack." This proposal was also carried. " Here
is another point," he continued, "to which I
would draw your attention. Our enemies will
not lack leisure to make raids upon us : nor is it
unnatural, that they should lay plots against us;
for we have appropriated what is theirs; they
are seated over us ever on the watch. I propose
then that we should have regular outposts round
the camp. If we take it in succession to do
picket and outlook duty, the enemy will be less
able to harry us. And here is another point for
your observation; supposing we knew for cer-
tain that Cheirisophus must return with a suf-
ficient number of vessels, there would be no need
of the remark, but as that is still problematical,
I propose that we should try and get together
vessels on the spot also. If he comes and finds
us already provided for here, we shall have more
ships than we need, that is all; while, if he fails
to bring them, we shall have the local supply to
fall back upon. I see ships sailing past perpetu-
ally, so we have only to ask the loan of some war-



14 XENOPHON

ships from the men of Trapezus, and we can
bring them into port, and safeguard them with
their rudders unshipped, until we have enough
to carry us. By this course I think we shall not
fail of finding means of transport requisite.'*
That resolution was also passed. He proceeded :
" Consider whether you think it equitable to sup-
port by means of a general fund the ships' com-
panies which we so impress, while they wait here
for our benefit, and to agree upon a fare, on the
principle of repaying kindlinesses in kind."
That too was passed. " Well then," said he,
" in case, after all, our endeavours should not be
crowned with success and we find that we have
not vessels enough, I propose that we should
enjoin on the cities along the seaboard the duty
of constructing and putting in order the roads,
which we hear are impassable. They will be
only too glad to obey, no doubt, out of mere
terror and their desire to be rid of us."

This last proposal was met by loud cries and
protestations against the idea of going by land
at all. So, perceiving their infatuation, he did
not put the question to the vote, but eventually
persuaded the cities voluntarily to construct
roads by the suggestion, " If you get your roads
in good order, we shall ail the sooner be gone."
They further got a fifty-oared galley from the
Trapezuntines, and gave the command of it to
Dexippus, a Laconian, one of the perioeci. This



ANABASIS BOOK V 15

man altogether neglected to collect vessels on the
offing, but slunk off himself, and vanished, ship
and all, out of Pontus. Later on, however, he
paid the penalty of his misdeeds. He became
involved in some meddling and making in
Thrace at the court of Seuthes, and was put to
death by the Laconian Nicander. They also got
a thirty-oared galley, the command of which was
entrusted to Polycrates, an Athenian, and that
officer brought into harbour to the camp all the
vessels he could lay his hands on. If these were
laden, they took out the freights and appointed
guards to keep an eye on their preservation,
whilst they used the ships themselves for trans-
port service on the coast. While matters stood
at this point, the Hellenes used to make forays
with varying success; sometimes they captured
prey and sometimes they failed. On one occa-
sion Cle^enetus led his own and another company
against a strong position, and was killed him-
self, with many others of his party.

II. — The time came when it was no longer
possible to capture provisions, going and return-
ing to the camp in one day. In consequence of
this, Xenophon took some guides from the Tra-
pezuntines and led half the army out against the
Drilffi, leaving the other half to guard the camp.
That was necessary, since the Colchians, who had
been ousted from their houses, were assembled
thickly, and sat eyeing them from the heights



16 XENOPHON

above; on the other hand the Trapezuntines,
being friendly to the native inhabitants, were
not for leading the Hellenes to places where it
was easy to capture provisions. But against the
Drilas, from whom they personally suffered,
they would lead them with enthusiasm, up into
the mountainous and scarcely accessible fort-
resses, and against the most warlike people of
any in the Pontus.

But when the Hellenes had reached the up-
lands, the Drilse set fire to all their fastnesses
which they thought could be taken easily, and
beat a retreat ; and except here and there a stray
pig or bullock or other animal which had es-
caped the fire there was nothing to capture; but
there was one fastness which served as their me-
tropolis: into this the different streams of peo-
ple collected; round it ran a tremendously deep
ravine, and the approaches to the place were dif-
ficult. So the light infantry ran forward five
or six furlongs in advance of the heavy infan-
try, and crossed the ravine; and seeing quanti-
ties of sheep and other things, proceeded to at-
tack the place. Close at their heels followed a
number of those who had set out on the foray
armed with spears, so that the storming party
across the ravine amounted to more than two
thousand. But, finding that they could not take
the place by a coup-de-main, as there was a
trench running round it, mounded up some



ANABASIS BOOK V IT

breadth, with a stockade on the top of the earth-
work and a close-packed row of wooden bas-
tions, they made an attempt to run back, but the
enemy fell upon them from the rear. To get
away by a sudden rush was out of the question,
since the descent from the fortress into the ra-
vine only admitted of moving in single file.
Under the circumstances they sent to Xenophon,
who was in command of the heavy infantry. The
messenger came and delivered his message:
" There is a fastness choke full of all sorts of
stores, but we cannot take it, it is too strong;
nor can we easily get away; the enemy rush out
and deliver battle, and the return is difficult."
On hearing this, Xenophon pushed forward
his heavy infantry to the edge of the ravine,
and there ordered them to take up a position,
while he himself with the officers crossed over
to determine whether it were better to withdraw
the party already across, or to bring over the
heavy infantry also, on the supposition that the
fortress might be taken. In favour of the lat-
ter opinion it was agreed that the retreat must
cost many lives, and the officers were further dis-
posed to think they could take the place. Xeno-
phon consented, relying on the victims, for the
seers had announced that there would be a bat-
tle, but the result of the expedition would be
good. So he sent the officers to bring the heavy
troops across, while he himself remained, having



18 XENOPHON

drawn off all the light infantry and forhidden
all sharp-shooting at long range. As soon as
the heavy infantry had arrived, he ordered each
captain to form his company, in whatever way
he hoped to make it most effective in the coming
struggle. Side by side together they stood, these
captains, not for the first time to-day competi-
tors for the award of manly virtue. While they
were thus employed, he — the general — was en-
gaged in passing down his order along the ranks
of the light infantry and archers respectively to
march with the javelin on its thong and the ar-
row to the string, ready at the word " shoot " to
discharge their missiles, while the light troops
v/ere to have their wallets well stocked with
shng-stones; lastly, he despatched his adjutants
to see to the proper carrying out of these or-
ders.

And now the preparations were complete : the
officers and lieutenants and all others claiming to
be the peers of these, were drawn up in their
several places. With a glance each was able to
command the rest in the crescent-like disposition
which the ground invited. Presently the notes
of the battle hymn arose, the clarion spoke, and
^\ath a thrilling cry in honour of the warrior-
god, commenced a rush of the hea\^ infantry
at full speed under cover of a storm of missiles,
lances, arrows, bullets, but most of all stones
hurled from the hand with ceaseless pelt, while



ANABASIS BOOK V 19

there were some who brought firebrands to bear.
Overwhelmed by this crowd of missiles, the en-
emy left their stockades and their bastion towers,
which gave Agasias the Stymphalian and Phil-
oxenus of Pellene a chance not to be missed; lay-
ing aside their heavy arms, up they went in bare
tunics only, and one hauled another up, and
meantime another had mounted, and the place
was taken, as they thought. Then the peltasts
and light troops rushed in and began snatching
what each man could. Xenophon the while,
posted at the gates, kept back as many of the
hoplites as he could, for there were other en-
emies now visible on certain strong citadel
heights; and after a lapse of no long time a
shout arose within, and the men came running
back, some still clutching what they had seized;
and presently here and there a wounded man;
and mighty was the jostling about the portals.
To the questions which were put to them the
outpouring fugitives repeated the same story:
there was a citadel within and the enemies in
crowds were making savage sallies and beating
the fellows inside.

At that Xenophon ordered Tolmides the her-
ald to proclaim: " Enter all who are minded to
capture aught." In poured the surging multi-
tude, and the counter-current of persons elbow-
their passage in prevailed over the stream of
those who issued forth, until they beat back and



20 XENOPHON

cooped up the enemy within the citadel again.
So outside the citadel everything was sacked and
pillaged by the Hellenes, and the heavy infan-
try took up their position, some about the stock-
ades, others along the road leading up to the cit-
adel. Xenophon and the officers meantime con-
sidered the possibility of taking the citadel, for
if so, their safety was assured; but if otherwise,
it would be very difficult to get away. As the
result of their deliberations they agreed that the
place was impregnable. Then they began mak-
ing preparations for the retreat. Each set of
men proceeded to pull down the palisading which
faced themselves; further, they sent away all
who were useless or who had enough to do to
carry their burdens, with the mass of the heavy
infantry accompanying them ; the officers in each
case leaving behind men whom they could sev-
erally depend upon.

But as soon as they began to retreat, out
rushed upon them from within a host of fellows,
armed with wicker shields and lances, greaves
and Paphlagonian helmets. Others might be
seen scaling the houses on this side and that of
the road leading into the citadel. Even pursuit
in the direction of the gates leading to the cita-
del was dangerous, since the enemy kept hurl-
ing down on them great beams from above, so
that to stop and to make off were alike danger-
ous, and night approaching was full of terrors.



ANABASIS BOOK V 21

But in the midst of their fighting and their de-
spair some god gave them a means of safety.
All of a sudden, by whatsoever hand ignited,
a flame shot up; it came from a house on the
right hand, and as this gradually fell in, the
people from the other houses on the right took
to their heels and fled.

Xenophon, laying this lesson of fortune to
heart, gave orders to set fire to the left-hand
houses also, which being of wood burned quickly,
with the result that the occupants of these also
took to flight. The men immediately at their
front were the sole annoyance now, and these
were safe to fall upon them as they made their
exit and in their descent. Here then the word
was passed for all who were out of range to
bring up logs of wood and pile them between
themselves and the enemy, and when there was
enough of these they set them on fire ; they also
fired the houses along the trench-work itself, so
as to occupy the attention of the enemy. Thus
they got ofl*, though with difficulty, and escaped
from the place by putting a fire between them
and the enemy; and the whole city was burnt
down, houses, turrets, stockading, and every-
thing belonging to it except the citadel.

Next day the Hellenes were bent on getting
back with the provisions ; but as they dreaded the
descent to Trapezus, which was precipitous and
narrow, they laid a false ambuscade, and a My-



22 XENOPHON

sian, called after the name of his nation (My-
sus) , took ten of the Cretans and halted in some
thick brushy ground, where he made a feint of
endeavouring to escape the notice of the enemy.
The glint of their light shields, which were of
brass, now and again gleamed through the brush-
wood. The enemy, seeing it all through the
thicket, were confirmed in their fears of an am-
buscade. But the army meanwhile was quietly
making its descent; and when it appeared that
they had crept down far enough, the signal was
given to the Mysian to flee as fast as he could,
and he, springing up, fled with his men. The rest
of the party, that is the Cretans, saying, " We
are caught if we race," left the road and plunged
into a wood, and tumbling and rolling down the
gullies, were saved. The Mysian, fleeing along
the road, kept crying for assistance, which they
sent him, and picked him up wounded. The
party of rescue now beat a retreat themselves
with their face to the foe, exposed to a shower
of missiles, to which some of the Cretan bow-
men responded with their arrows. In this way
they all reached the camp in safety.

III. — Now when Cheirisophus did not arrive,
and the supply of ships was insufficient, and to
get provisions longer was impossible, they re-
solved to depart. On board the vessels they em-
barked the sick, and those above forty years of
age, with the boys and women, and all the bag-



ANABASIS BOOK V 23

gage which the soldiers were not absolutely
forced to take for their own use. The two eldest
generals, Philesius and Sophsenetus, were put in
charge, and so the party embarked, while the
rest resumed their march, for the road was now
completely constructed. Continuing their
march that day and the next, on the third they
reached Cerasus, a Hellenic city on the sea, and
a colony of Sinope, in the country of the Col-
chians. Here they halted ten days, and there
was a review and numbering of the troops under
arms, when there were found to be eight thou-
sand six hundred men. So many had escaped;
the rest had perished at the hands of the enemy,
or by reason of the snow, or else disease.

At this time and place they divided the money
accruing from the captives sold, and a tithe se-
lected for Apollo and Artemis of the Ephesians
was divided between the generals, each of whom
took a portion to guard for the gods, Neon the
Asinaan taking on behalf of Cheirisophus.

Out of the portion which fell to Xenophon
he caused a dedicatory offering to Apollo to be
made and dedicated among the treasures of the
Athenians at Delphi. It was inscribed with his
own name and that of Proxenus, his friend, who
was killed with Clearchus. The gift for Arte-
mis of the Ephesians was, in the first instance,
left behind by him in Asia at the time when he
left that part of the world himself with Agesi-



24 XENOPHON

laus on the march into Boeotia. He left it be-
hind in charge of Megabyzus, the sacristan of
the goddess, thinking that the voyage on which
he was starting was fraught with danger. In
the event of his coming out of it aHve, he charged
Megabyzus to restore to him the deposit; but
should any evil happen to him, then he was to
cause to be made and to dedicate on his behalf
to Artemis, whatsoever thing he thought would
be pleasing to the goddess.

In the days of his banishment, when Xeno-
phon was now established by the Lacedaemo-
nians as a colonist in Scillus,^ a place which lies
on the main road to Olympia, Megabyzus ar-
rived on his way to Olympia as a spectator to at-
tend the games, and restored to him the deposit.
Xenophon took the money and bought for the
goddess a plot of ground at a point indicated to
him by the oracle. The plot, it so happened, had
its own Selinus river flowing through it, just
as at Ephesus the river Selinus flows past the

1 Scillus, a town of Triphylia, a district of Elis, In b. c. 572
the Eleians had razed Pisa and Scillus to the ground. But be-
tween B. c. 392 and 387 the Lacedaemonians, having previously
(b. c. 400) compelled the Eleians to renounce their supremacy
over their dependent cities, colonised Scillus and eventually gave
it to Xenophon, then an exile from Athens. Xenophon resided
here from fifteen to twenty years, but was, it is said, expelled
from it by the Eleians soon after the battle of Leuctra, in b. c.
371. The site of the place, and of Xenophon's temple, is sup-
posed to be in the neighbourhood of the modern village of
Chrestena, or possibly nearer Mazi. To reach Olympia, about
2 1 miles distant, one must cross the Alpheus.



ANABASIS BOOK V 25

temple of Artemis, and in both streams fish and
mussels are to be found. On the estate at Scil-
lus there is hunting and shooting of all the
beasts of the chase that are.

Here with the sacred money he built an altar
and a temple, and ever after, year by year, tithed
the fruits of the land in their season and did
sacrifice to the goddess, while all the citizens and
neighbours, men and women, shared in the festi-
val. The goddess herself provided for the ban-
queters meat and loaves and wine and sweet-
meats, with portions of the victims sacrificed
from the sacred pasture, as also of those which
were slain in the chase; for Xenophon's own
lads, with the lads of the other citizens, always
made a hunting excursion against the festival
day, in which any grown men who liked might
join. The game was captured partly from the
sacred district itself, partly from Pholoe, pigs
and gazelles and stags. The place lies on the
direct road from Lacedeemon to Olympia, about
twenty furlongs from the temple of Zeus in
Olympia, and within the sacred enclosure there
is meadow-land and wood-covered hills, suited to


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