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William Loring Andrews

Collection of Early Books







Copyright, 1913


Yale University Press
Printed from type October, 1913. 300 copies


The collection of early printed books presented to the
Library of Yale University in 1894 by Mr. William
Loring Andrews, of New York, was formed to illustrate
the first century of printing, which is a better boundary
for the survey than the half -century ending with the year
1500, more often chosen. The latter, the so-styled cradle
period of the art, is wanting in real definition, being at
most a convenient halting place, not a completed stage,
whereas at the middle of the sixteenth century the printed
book of the better class had acquired most of its maturer
features and no longer has for us an unfamiliar look.
Designed to serve as a permanent exhibition, it is a selec-
tion rather than a collection, not large, but wisely chosen,
and no less attractive than instructive, having been
formed a quarter of a century ago, at a time when
opportunities were unusually favorable.

The surviving books of the first presses, which are the
chief sources of our knowledge of the early art, are at
the same time, when obtainable, the most efficient teach-
ers. For the illustration of the typography, the feature
of first importance, there is nothing comparable to the
open pages of a representative series of the original
books, such as are here spread out before us. The best
of the available substitutes, phototype reproductions of
specimen pages, apart from other limitations, must
always lack the authority and the impressiveness of the

While it is the main office of the present collection to
set before the students of the University as a whole the
more general features of the art of the early printer, a
further service which it is prepared to render must not
be overlooked. To such as are prompted to go into the


subject more deeply it offers an excellent body of the
original material upon which any serious study must
of necessity be based.

The two fine fifteenth century MSS. at the head of the
collection, far from serving a merely ornamental purpose,
like their own illuminated initials for example, are a
needful introduction. It is obvious that from such
sources the first printers got the models of their types,
and the MSS. in which Jenson found the prototypes of
his famous roman characters, which in the judgment of
some are still unsurpassed, could not have been very
remote from these. Some of the more striking features
which distinguish the early printed books from the later
were not original with them, but only survivals from the
MSS. The abbreviations and contractions in which both
abound were the labor-saving devices of the copyists,
adopted without hesitation by the printers who used the
MSS. as copy and only slowly abandoned. The copyist
left spaces in his MS. for initials to be supplied by the
illuminator, without which his work was not considered
complete, and for about a hundred years the printer con-
tinued to do the same. If the copyist saw fit to attach
his name to his work, we look for it at the end of the vol-
ume and there also the printer placed his colophon. Sig-
natures and catchwords, to guide the binder in the
arrangement of the sheets, did not come in with the
printed book, but had long been in use in the MSS.

Although out of the hundreds of presses active during
the first century only a score are here represented, leav-
ing wide gaps in the series, it is better, because more
nearly in the natural line of development, that the books
should be ranged under the country, the locality and the
press to which they severally belong, than that they
should be kept in strict chronological order. A general
chronological order underlies the geographical even
where it does not come to the surface. By right of
seniority Germany stands at the head, and Mainz, the


birthplace of printing, is followed by the other German
towns in the order of their press age. Next come the
presses of Italy, France, Holland and England, arranged
in like order. To prevent, however, too wide a departure
from the chronological succession which would result
from the strict application of this rule, the later, i.e., the
sixteenth century, Venice and Paris books are separated
from the earlier and transferred to the end of the list,
where in point of development they properly belong.
Placed in the order thus indicated, the books, as befits so
small a total, are numbered consecutively in one series.
The conspectus, which brings into one view the titles,
dates, places and printers' names, will serve also as a
sufficient index.

While we are here most concerned with the genealogy
and family history of the books, or in other words with
their press relationships, the personal history attaching
to them — habent sua fata libelli — is not without interest.
The Zeno MS. and the Philo, printed on vellum, are the
dedication copies, not merely set apart, but specially pre-
pared for this use. In a few of the volumes are found the
names or the arms of early owners. The Livy MS. and
one-half of the printed books are from the library, dis-
persed in 1886, of Michael Wodhull (1740-1816) of Then-
ford, Northamptonshire, the first translator into English
verse of all the extant works of Euripides, the most as-
siduous and painstaking and in some departments of
bibliography the best equipped among the book collectors
of his day. It was his custom (well illustrated in the
present collection) to enter on the fly-leaf of each pur-
chase the source and the cost, adding as a separate item
the binding, often by Roger Payne, and to affix his name
and the date. His vise l ' Collat : & complet : " is seldom
wanting and often bibliographical notes and references
to authorities are added. Justinian's Novellae, printed
by Schoeffer, and all the Aldine press books save one are
from the library gathered at Syston Park, Lincolnshire,



Thorold, between 1775 »^^«Sffl« to all the vol-
One valued mark of °™*™° rf cW books who
umes, is the ex Ubns of the lover ted and

united them in one family,™ ^XersityLibrary.
gave them into tte keepmg ^^ ag ^ appar -

js xsn& «■* ,? r ils necessary

SU.-^'^^fSS^S: compiler to .his

jsrwasr - - u ^ rsity for assist -

ance in the catalogue.

Addison Van Name, Librarian Ementus.

Yale University Library, September, 1913.


Ames, J. Typographical antiquities, or, History of printing in
England, Scotland and Ireland, enlarged by T. F. Dibdin.
4 v. 4°. Lond., 1810-19.

Blades, W. The life and typography of William Caxton. 2 v.
4°. Lond., 1861-3.

British Museum. Catalogue of books printed in the XVth cen-
tury now in the British Museum. Pt. i, ii. 4°. Lond., 1908-

Brown, H. F. The Venetian printing press. 4°. N. Y. and
Lond., 1891.

Brunet, J. C. Manuel du libraire. 5 e ed. 6 v. 8°. Paris, 1860-5.

Burger, K. Deutsche und italienische Inkunabeln. Lief. i-ix.
f°. Berlin, 1892-1912.

Campbell, M. F. A. G. Annales de l'imprimerie neerlandaise au
XV e siecle. 8°. La Haye, 1874-90.

Claudin, A. The first Paris press: an account of the books
printed for G. Fichet and J. Heynlin in the Sorbonne
1470-72. [Bibl. Soc. Illust. Monogr. vi.] 4°. Lond., 1897.

Copinger, W. A. Incunabula Biblica. 4°. Lond., 1892.

Supplement to Hain's Repertorium bibliographicum.

2 pt. in 3 v. 8°. Lond., 1895-1902.

Crevenna, P. A. Bolongaro. Catalogue des livres de la biblio-

theque de M. Pierre-Antoine Bolongaro-Crevenna. 5 v. 8°.

Amsterdam, 1789.
De Vinne, T. L. Notable printers of Italy during the fifteenth

century. 4°. New York, 1910.
Didot, A. Firmin. Aide Manuce et l'Hellenisme a Venise. 8°

Paris, 1875.
Duff, E. Gordon. A century of the English book trade. 4°

Lond., 1905.

Hand-lists of English printers 1501-1556. Pt. i, ii. 4°

Lond., 1895-6.

Hain, L. Repertorium bibliographicum. 2 v. in 4 pt. 8°

Stuttgart, 1826-38.
Le Long, J. Bibliotheca sacra, continuata ab A. G. Masch. 2 pt

in5v. 4°. Halae, 1778-90.


Morgan, J. Pierpont. Catalogue of manuscripts and early-
printed books now forming a portion of the library of J.
Pierpont Morgan. 3 v. f °. Lond., 1907.

Panzer, G. W. Annales typographici ab artis inventae origine ad
annum MDXXXVI. 11 v. 4°. Norimbergae, 1793-1803.

Pellechet, M. Catalogue general des incunables des biblio-
theques publiques de France. T. i-iii. 8°. Paris, 1897-1909.

Philippe, J. Origine de l'imprimerie a Paris. 8°. Paris, 1885.

Pollard, A. "W. An essay on colophons. [Caxton Club]. 4°.
Chicago, 1905.

Proctor, R. An index to the early printed books in the British
Museum. 8°. Lond., 1898.

The printing of Greek in the fifteenth century. [Bibl.

Soc. Illust. Monogr. viii] . 4°. Lond., 1900.

Quaritch, B., ed. Contributions toward a dictionary of English
book-collectors. Pt. i-xiii. 8°. Lond., 1892-9.

Renouard, A. A. .Annales de l'imprimerie des Aide. 3 e ed. 8°.
Paris, 1834.

Annales de l'imprimerie des Estienne. 2 e ed. 8°.

Paris, 1843.

Ricci, Seymour de. Catalogue raisonne des premieres impres-
sions de Mayence (1445-1467). [Veroff. der Gutenberg-
Gesellsch. viii-ix] . 4°. Mainz, 1911.

A census of Caxtons. [Bibl. Soc. Illust. Monogr. xvi].

4°. Lond., 1909.



1. Zeno. Vita Caroli Zeni .

2. Livius. Historiarum libri I-X




1. Biblia Latin a ....

2. Justinianus. Novellae

3. Isidorus. Etymologiae

4. Gesta Komanorum

5. Gregorius I. Homiliae

6. Psalterium Latinum .

7. Modus perveniendi ad sapien


8. Hugo. De arrha animae .

9. Caracciolus. De poenitentia

10. Valla. Elegantiae linguae


11. Plinius. Naturalis historia

12. Nonius Marcellus. De com-

pendiosa doctrina

13. Dullaert. Quaestiones super

Aristotelem de anima

14. Aristoteles. De animalibus .

15. Ubertinus. Arbor vitae cru-

cifixae Jesu

16. Albertis. De amoris remedio

17. Aesopus. Vita et fabulae

18. Ovidius. Metamorphoses .

19. Pius II. De duobus amantibus

20. Pius II. De curialium miseria

21. Plato. Epistolae ....

22. Magni. Sophologium . . .

23. Hieronymus. Vaderboeck






J. Fust & P. Schoeffer 1462

P. Schoeffer
[J. Mentelin]
[U. Zell]
[G. Zainer]

[c. 1473]
[c. 1473]

[c. 1473]

N. Jenson

" [c. 1473] 13

" 1473 13

Wendelin of Speier 1472 14

1471 15

1472 17

" 1476 19

F. Eenner & Nicolas of

Frankf. 1473 21

John of Cologne & J.

Manthen 1476 22

< <

A. de Bonetis

1485 23


1471 24


Bonus Accursius

[c. 1480] 26


A. Portilia

1480 28


[Friburger, Gering



[1472] 28


1 1

[1472] 29

« (

i i

[1472] 30

1 1

Crantz, Gering & Fri-


1477 32


P. van Os

1490 33



Higden. Polychronicon . . Westminster

Ordinary of Christians . . London


Plutarchus. Moralia . . Venice

Scriptores rei rusticae

Cicero. Ehetorica .

30. Celsus. De medicina .

31. Cicero. Epistolae ad Atticum "

32. Cicero. Orationes .... "

33. Ptolemaeus. Planisphaerium "
Livius. Historiae Eomanae . "

Biblia Latina Paris

Philo. De divinis decern ora-

culis "



W. Caxton
W. de Worde
E. Pynson
Aldus Manutius

Andrea d'Asola

Aldi filii

Paulus Manutius

Vidua Th. Kerver

C. Stephanus


[1482] 34

1506 38

1510 40

1509 41

1514 43

1521 45

1528 47

1540 47

1546 49

1558 50

1572 51

1549 52

1554 55


1. ZENO, Jacopo. Vitae, morum, rerumque gestarum
Caroli Zeni libri X. 1458.

Fine white vellum, 192 leaves, in 19 quires of ten leaves
each and two additional leaves at the end, the last of
which is blank. Signed on the lower inner angle of the
last page of each quire by a letter (A-T) which is
repeated at the point directly facing it on the first page of
the next quire. Leaves four to seven of the first quire
and all of quires three to eight, a total of sixty-four
leaves, have 28 lines to the page, the rest 27 lines. Ruled
on one side only with a hard point. Leaf 10y 2 X 7 in.,
text-page 7 X 3% in.

Written in regular Italian minuscules of the 15th cen-
tury, formed on the models of the 11th and 12th centuries.

The subject of the memoir is the distinguished Vene-
tian Admiral Carlo Zeno (1334-1418), brother of Nicolo
and Antonio, reputed discoverers of America. His biog-
rapher, Jacopo Zeno (1417-1481), Bishop of Feltre and
Belluno, and later of Padua, was his grandson. The work
is dedicated to Pius II. in honor of his recent elevation to
the papal throne, and since this is evidently the dedica-
tion copy, the accession of Enea Silvio Piccolomini in
August, 1458, fixes approximately the date of the MS.
In April, 1460, Jacopo Zeno was translated to the see of

The execution and the decoration of the MS. are in
keeping with its special use. The gratulatory preface
occupying ten pages is introduced by the following head-
ing in letters of burnished gold :



FATIO: [GJLORIOSA .... The ornamentation of the
ten-line illuminated initial G is of the interlaced style,
and a border of similar pattern surrounds the entire
page, enclosing on the front margin vignettes — a vase,
two rabbits and a stork — and at the foot the Piccolomini
arms, supported by kneeling angels and surmounted by
the papal keys and tiara. Each of the ten books has a
heading in burnished gold in which the dedication to
Pius II. is repeated, and an initial of like character to that
of the preface, with a marginal ornament. The occa-
sional marginal subject-headings and the book-number
at the top of each leaf are likewise in gold.

The Latin text has thus far been printed only in
Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (of which a new
edition is now in progress), vol. xix, Milan, 1731, from a
MS. then, and still, preserved in the library of the Epis-
copal Seminary at Padua. This MS., the only one which
he was able to discover, Muratori describes in the follow-
ing language: "Codex autem Patavinus quamquam per-
vetustus a non satis docto Librario profectus est ac
proinde occurrunt ibi quaedam parum castigata, quaedam
etiam plane vitiata. Mutilus praeterea est in fine, ubi non
multa quidem sed tamen aliqua desiderantur. " Mura-
tori's text breaks off in the middle of a sentence at the
end of the nineteenth (i.e. the last full) quire of our MS.,
and accordingly lacks only the seventeen lines contained
on the next leaf, which is the last. If, as seems quite pos-
sible, the quiring of the two MSS. is the same, the loss of
the single unprotected leaf at the end is the more readily

In 1591 there was published at Bergamo an abridged
Italian version, made from an illuminated MS. which had
once belonged to the famous library of Matthias Cor-
vinus, but was then in the possession of Caterino Zeno,
governor of Bergamo. It had been among the spoils car-


ried to Constantinople after the capture of Buda by the
Turks in 1526. There, seven years later, it had been
bought and carried back to Italy by Caterino's father,
the younger Nicolo, who, in 1558, first gave to the world
the narrative of his ancestors' voyages. For no better
reasons than that the Paduan MS. also was illuminated
in gold and colors, and that it had been bought twenty-
five years before (c. 1700) in Venice where this branch
of the Zeno family had become extinct, Muratori was in-
clined to identify it with the Corvinus MS. The relations
between Pius II. and the king of Hungary, who was his
ally in the proposed crusade against the Turks upon
which he was just embarking when overtaken by death,
and to whom the 48,000 ducats which he left behind
him were sent in aid of the prosecution of war, suggest
another possibility. It may be safely assumed that
between the present MS., given only an opportunity to
acquire it, and any other copy the king's choice could not
have hesitated.

The MS. is in 18th-century Italian binding, red
morocco, gilt edges. Sold with other MSS. from the
library of the Trivulzio family of Milan at Leavitt's
auction, New York City, November, 1886.

2. LIVIUS, Titus. Historiarum Eomanarum libri I-X.
Late 15th century.

Vellum. 336 leaves, the last blank. 34 quires all hav-
ing ten leaves, except the 17th and 34th which have eight
each. 31 lines to the page; catchword placed at right
angles with the last line of the quire ; ruled on both sides
with plummet. Leaf 14^ X 10 in., text-page 9 X 6 in.

Written in very regular, bold Italian minuscules of the
period of the Renaissance.

The first page of the preface is surrounded by an illu-
minated border in gold and colors in the Renaissance
style of ornament, into which are introduced the Carac-
cioli arms belonging to the distinguished Neapolitan


family of that name. The initial F on this page is histo-
riated with a view of Eome, and each of the ten books has
an eight-line initial of dull gold on a background of red,
blue and green, with marginal ornamentation.

From the close agreement, even in punctuation, be-
tween this MS. and the edition printed at Milan in 1495
by Ulrich Scinzenzeler for Alexander Minutianus, and
from other features which forbid the supposition that
one is taken directly from the other, we must conclude
that they both reproduce a common ancestor.

This MS. of the first Decade of Livy is in unusually fine
preservation, and is bound in russia extra, with broad
borders of gold and gilt marbled edges.

Brought from Palermo by Dr. Anthony Askew (1722-
1772), it was sold with his collection of MSS. in 1785.
Michael Wodhull, Esq., of Thenford, Northamptonshire,
who gave seven guineas for the volume at "White's sale"
in March, 1798, added to his customary entry of these
details on the fly-leaf this note: "This appears to be the
very Book which I saw Sir W. Burrell purchase at Dr.
Askew 's manuscript Auction (No. 482) for thirty- two
guineas ; in Sir W. Burrell 's Auction, May, 1796, it is said
to have gone for about five (No. 657). The note in Bib.
Askev. manuscripta is: 'Ex Panormo in Sicilia hunc cod.
adduxit secum CI. Askevius.' & '300 annor. MSS. longe
pulcherrimus. ' "

At the sale of the Wodhull library in January, 1886,
the Livy MS. and the greater part of the 15th-century
books hereinafter described were acquired by the donor
of the collection, William Loring Andrews, M. A., of New
York City.


1. BIBLIA LATINA. Moguntiae, Johannes Fust et
Petrus Schoeffer, 14 August, 1462.

[Folio. 481 leaves, 2 columns, 48 lines to the column,
gothic letter, without signatures, catchwords or pagina-

Leaves 204, 205 containing Judith xiv. 17 — Esther iv.

Fol. 204^>, col. 1 (red) : explicit liber iudith secundum ieronimum. Incipit
prologus in librum hester. Col. 2 (red) : Explicit prologws. Incip. liber
hester. Hain *3050. Pellechet 2281. Copinger 4. Brit. Mus. 15th cent.,
I, p. 22. Burger pi. 74. De Eicci 79.

Five-line initial of prologue and fourteen-line initial I
of Esther i. 1 supplied in colors. Heading of leaf in
alternate red and blue capitals. Initial-strokes in red
on text capitals. Measurement 16^4 X 11^ in.

The fourth printed Bible, and the first in which place,
printers ' names and date are given. These details, which
are wanting in so many of the books of the early printers,
Fust and Schoeffer — and Schoeffer when he carried on
the business alone — rarely failed to add to anything large
enough to be called a book that came from their press.
This is their fifth book and the colophon attached to the
first, the famous Psalter of 1457, was repeated in them
all, with no essential change beyond the date, and con-
tinued to do duty for ten years longer. In the present
Bible among the typographical differences found in the
copies are three varieties of the colophon, two of which
however are identical in language and differ only in the
printers' use of contractions and capitals. The more
common of the forms affirms that: "This present work
by the ingenious invention of printing or stamping letters


without any scratching of the pen has been thus fashioned
in the city of Mainz and to the worship of God has been
diligently brought to completion by Johann Fust citizen
and Peter Schoeffer clerk of the same diocese in the year
of the Lord 1462, on the eve of the Assumption of the
Virgin Mary."

In Seymour de Ricci's "Catalogue raisonne des pre-
mieres impressions de Mayence (1445-1467)," Mainz,
1911, 61 known copies of this Bible, 36 of them on vellum,
are enumerated and 41 copies which cannot now be
traced. The fragment in our possession is entered
(No. 115) as one leaf only, instead of two.

The second dated Bible, the eleventh in the series of
printed Bibles, was that of Sweynheym and Pannartz,
Rome, 1471 ; the third was a reprint by Schoeffer in 1472
of the present edition, page for page, line for line and in
the same type.

2. JUSTINIANUS. Novellae constitutiones, sive Au-
thenticum. Consuetudines feudorum. Codicis libri
X-XII. Moguntiae, Petrus Schoeffer, 21 August,

Fol. T. [Text (red)] : In nomiwe domini nostri ihesu
ckristi. de heredibws et falcidia constitutio prima si
heres legata soluere noluerit Incipit cowstitutio Impera-
toris Iustiniani. a. Iohawni pape secuwdo. [Commentary] :
[I]N nomine domini. Iustinianus opus suum laudabile
deo attribuit. Fol. 16 9 b . Explicit liber autewticorwm.
Fol. 170*. [Text (red)] : Incipkmt consuetudines feudo-
rum. Fol. 206*. [Text (red)] : Codicis domini iustiniani
sacratissimi principis perpetui augusti repetite prelec-
tionis incipit liber decimus. Fol. 300 h , Colophon (red) :
Anno incarnaciowis dominice .M.cccc.lxxvii. xii. kalewdis
septembrijs! Sanctissimo in ohvisto patre ac domino,
domino Sixto papa .iiii. pontifice maximo. Illustrissimo
noblissime domus austrie domino, domino Friderico Ro-
manorum Imperatore inuictissimo, monarchic chris^iane


dominis! Reuerendissimo deoqwe amabili in Chxisto
pa£re ac domino, domino Diethero archipresule Magun-
tino; in ciuitate Maguncia impressorie artis inuewtrice
atqwe elimatrice prima .x. collacionum triumqwe librorum
Codicum opus egregium, Petrus Schoiffer de Gernsheiin,
glorioso fauewte deo suis consignando scutis, feliciter
finiuit. [Pkinter's Device in red.]

Folio. 1. Novellae: quires [iw, 28, 3-6io, 7-86, 910, ios, 11-121°, 138, 1410,
158, 166, 17-18io, 19io-i (the blank second leaf cut away)], 169 leaves.
2. Consuetudines feudorum: quires [1-31°, 4 6 ], 36 leaves. 3. Codicis libri
X-XII: quires [18, 210, 3-58, 6^ 7s, g*, 9-1010, 1110 + 1 (the additional leaf
prefixed)], 95 leaves. In all 300 leaves, two columns of text and two of com-
mentary, 51 lines of text and 66 of commentary to the column, gothic
letter, without printed signatures, catchwords or pagination. Two- to six-line
spaces, some with guide-letters, left for capitals. Two pinholes, the use of
which Schoeffer was thought to have abandoned a little earlier than the date
of this volume. Titles and colophon printed in red. The text type is that
of the Bible of 1462. Hain *9623. Brit. Mus. 15th cent., I, p. 33 (IC. 217).

The first page of each of the three works is ornamented
with a floral scroll border in colors. At the head of the
several books are thirteen initials in gold and colors.
Chapter initials in alternate red and blue ; initial-strokes
in red in both text and commentary.

The present volume agrees in contents with the fifth
and last volume of the Corpus juris as it is found
arranged in the medieval MSS., except for the omission
of the Institutiones, already sufficiently accessible in sepa-
rate editions, of which no less than fifty were printed in
the 15th century, the first of them by Schoeffer himself
in 1468. The first three volumes of the Corpus were
occupied by the Digests, the fourth by the Codex lib.

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