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BALANCING (GUN TRY Lu




BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE



PROGRAM OF THE

COUNTRY LIFE
CONFERENCE



NORTH CENTRAL DIVISION
OF THE UNITED STATES



October 25. 1916



"Balancing Country Life Pro



D. Hunter McAlpu,. M. D.. CA..V-u.n

COUNTY WORK DEPARTMENT OF THE

ERNATIONAl COMMITTEE OF YOUNG ME

CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS. P,..,J,



Some Notes for the Conferenc



All .e.sion. of the Conference will be held at the
Hotel LaSalle. a, well a. the luncheon and dinner.

Delegate, part.cipating in general di.cus.ion will be
limited to three minute, each. Leader, who have been
as.igncd topic, to open ducus.ion will be given five minutes

Will delegate, pleax .tate name and official po.ition.
as they rise to .peak, and to a.giit the stenographers, .peak
distinctly.

Delegate, are requested to register on cards furnished.
Also indicate whether a copy of the proceeding, i. desired
which will be published by A.,oc,ation Pre... 124 Ea,t
28th Street. New York City.

The publication, of the Country Life Bookshelf will
be on di,pl.y revealing a .plend.d array of Country Life

The Conference i. .elf entertaining Room, can be
.ecured at the Hotel LaSalle from $1.50 a day and upward..

Luncheon at noon will be .erved for the entire
Conference .t one dollar per plate. The Conference
Dinner in the evening which will prove the climax of the
day will be .erved at 6:30 o'clock .t one dollar and a half
per plate.

The great Y. M. C. A. Hotel on Waba.h Av...
near Eighth Street, at which every night Kveral hundred
country boy. spend their f.r.t night in the city, will be a



PROGRAM



Morning Session



A. M

10:00



Hymn.
10:05 Prayer.

10: 10 Introductory Remark, and Announc.men



10:30-10:50 "The Home of the Country Side." by
M,.. Leonard, Go...



11:10-11.30 "The School of th. Country Side." by Dr.
Eraert Burnham.

f Rur.l Sckocb. W ut<r . St...



11:30-12:00 Quezon, and Di K uion.
12:30 Luncheon.



P. M.

1:30
1:35

1:40-2:00

2:00-2:30
2:30-3:00

3:00-3:30
3:30-4:00

4:00
6:30



PROGRAM



Afternoon S.W,



Hymn.
Prayer.



"The Church of the Country-Side." by
Dr. Oiora S. Da.



Question, and Ducuwion.

"The Community of the Country-Side."
by Dr. R. E. Hieronymu,. ;

U.,., r,,,y of III, !.. Urk.... Ill, ..i,

Question, and Discussion.

Summary. Re.olution. and Business, by >
Commission of the Conference.

Adjournment.
Dinner.



Balancing Country Life



Edited by

THE COUNTY WORK DEPARTMENT OF

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE

OF YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN

ASSOCIATIONS



Association

124 EAST 28rn STREET, NEW YORK
1917



COPYRIGHT, 1917, BY

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS

v Er*r>



PRINTED IN THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



CONTENTS

PAGE

AN INTRODUCTORY WORD Albert E. Roberts, Senior
Secretary County Work Department, International Com-
mittee of Young Men's Christian Associations xi



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME Miss Leonarda Goss,

Editor "The Farmer's Wife," St. Paul, Minn 3

RESPECTABILITY OF THE COUNTRY DEPENDS UPON ITS WOMEN
D. Hunter McAlpin, M.D., Chairman County Work De-
partment Sub-Committee, International Committee of Young
Men's Christian Associations, New York. PARABLE OF
KALEIDOSCOPE AppLiEDy-Bert Ball, Secretary Crop Improve-
ment Committee, Council of Grain Exchanges, Chicago. A
MAJOR PREMISE, THE HOME AN INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
Hon. George MacKay, Young Men's Christian Associa-
tion, Canton, III. IMPORTANCE OF COUNTRY GIRL Miss
Jessie Field, Secretary Town and Country Committee, National
Board of Young Women's Christian Associations, New York.
SURVEY NECESSARY TO BETTER HOMES Dr. Ernest Irving
Antrim, County Committee, Van Wert, Ohio.

II

THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS SCHOOL Dr. Ernest Burnham,
Director Department of Rural Schools, Western State Normal

School, Kalamazoo, Mich 25

VOLUNTEERS NEEDED TO DIRECT COUNTRY LIFE FROM WITHIN
Dr. Allan Hoben, Professor of Practical Theology, The Uni-
versity of Chicago. A TEACHER LEADER T. B. Lanham,
Secretary Ohio Stale Committee of Young Men's Christian
Associations, Columbus. RURAL MINDED COMMUNITY BUILD-
ERS ESSENTIAL Dr. A. W. Fortune, Transylvania College,
Lexington, Ky. ECONOMIC IMPROVEMENT BEFORE ANY
CULTURAL ADVANCE Hon. John C. Ketcham, Master
Michigan State Grange, Hastings. THE "TRENTON IDEA"
TRIED OUT Hon. George MacKay, Young Men's Christian
Association, Canton, III.

Ill

THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS CHURCH Rev. Ozora S. Davis,

D.D., President Chicago Theological Seminary 41

COMMUNITY-WIDE CHURCH A MODERN NEED Rev. J. G.
K. McClure, D.D., McCormick Theological Seminary, Chi-
cago. A SOLUTION FOR OVER-CHURCHING Dr. E. I. Antrim,
County Committee, Van Wert, Ohio.



415500



vi CONTENTS

IV

PAGE

THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS COMMUNITY Dr. R. E.

Hieronymus, Community Adviser, University of Illinois 59

A LACK OF COMMUNITY TEAM WORK Bert Ball, Secretary
Crop Improvement Committee, Council of Grain Exchanges,
Chicago. ASSOCIATION COOPERATION WITH OTHER COUNTY
AGENCIES C. H. Pipher, State Secretary for County Work
in Iowa, Des Moines. THE MASSACHUSETTS FEDERATION FOR
RURAL WORKERS Professor W. J. Campbell, International
Young Men's Christian Association College, Springfield, Mass.
FOR BETTER RURAL SCHOOLS J. Weller Long, The Farmers'
Union, Chicago. IMPROVED HIGHWAYS NECESSARY Hon.
George MacKay, Young Men's Christian Association, Canton,
III. COOPERATION IN ROCK COUNTY, WISCONSIN. MIN-
ISTERIAL COOPERATION L. A. Markham, Secretary County
Young Men's Christian Association, Janesville, Wis. BIG-
GEST PROBLEM is "FOLKS" Miss Jessie Field. A NOTE OF
HOPE Dr. J. P. Landis, President Bonebrake Theological
Seminary, Dayton, O.



THE LUNCHEON 85

SPEAKERS: John E. Wilder, Chairman of Illinois Slate Com-
mittee of Young Men's Christian Associations; Hon. B. F.
Harris, Ex-Chairman Agricultural Commission, American
Bankers 1 Association; C. L. Rowe, State Secretary for County
Work in Michigan; Howard Hubbell, State Secretary for
County Work in Wisconsin; T. B. Lanham, State Secretary for
County Work in Ohio; L. Wilbur Messer, General Secretary,
Chicago Young Men's Christian Association.

VI

THE EVENING BANQUET 105

SPEAKERS: Albert J. Nason, Member of County Work Depart-
ment Sub-Committee, International Committee of Young Men's
Christian Associations; K. A. Shumaker, Secretary Illinois
State Committee of Young Men's Christian Associations; Rev.
Charles Melvin McConnell, Lakeville and Newkirk Circuit,
Northern Ohio Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church; Albert
E. Roberts, Senior Secretary, County Work Department,
International Committee of Young Men's Christian Associa-
tions; D. Hunter McAlpin, M.D., Chairman County Work
Department Sub-Committee, International Committee of Young
Men's Christian Associations.

Appendix I. REPORT OF FINDINGS COMMITTEE 119

Appendix II. CONTRIBUTIONS in Absentia 121

Appendix III. ECHOES AND IMPRESSIONS OF THE CONFERENCE. 123

Appendix IV. DISTRIBUTION OF DELEGATES BY STATES 129

Appendix V. LIST OF DELEGATES 131



PREFACE

To make contagious the spiritual motive in the
Country Life Movement of North America is
one of the tasks to which the Young Men's Chris-
tian Association, through its International Com-
mittee's County Work Department, addresses
itself. The very nation-wide scope of its enter-
prise reveals continually the need of the various
agencies working toward one and the same end,
of coming together out of their field of activities
to gain a perspective of the whole national move-
ment, and for leaders and workers to get a uni-
versal viewpoint and contagious unity of purpose
in such a pioneer undertaking as the Country Life
Movement of the United States presents.

It is for this reason that the County Work
Department of the International Committee, in
cooperation with the representatives from Theo-
logical Seminaries, Agricultural Colleges, the Re-
ligious and Agricultural Press, Federal Council
of Churches, the Sunday Schools, the Young
Women's Christian Association, National and
State Boards of Agriculture and Bureaus of Edu-
vii



viii PREFACE

cation, and all others which have to do essentially
with the human factor of our countryside, under-
takes to encourage and foster the conference idea.

This Chicago Country Life Conference held at
the La Salle Hotel, Chicago, 111., October, 25,
1916, was the first of its kind in the North Cen-
tral Division of the United States. It is the plan
of the Committee to continue these conferences as
they have been conducted, for the New England
and Middle Atlantic Divisions of the United
States, for it is only by a sequence of such confer-
ences held annually that real results are achieved
toward "organized will and purpose" in the
national country life consciousness.

One of the important elements in a constructive
program is a careful record of the proceedings
and of the various papers presented.

In the discussion of the topic "Balancing
Country Life," the contributions under this cover
will afford an excellent basis from which to work
in the future conferences.

Sincere appreciation is due to those who com-
posed the personnel of the Conference, as well as
to the various speakers for their painstaking care
to conserve their material and to contribute it
to this volume.



PREFACE ix

We commend the volume to all country life
workers, with no idea that this is any conclusive
discussion of this important topic, but rather to
awaken study and further experimentation with
the great host of others in the same field, and in
the anticipation of further light which may be
brought out in the records of subsequent con-
ferences.



AN INTRODUCTORY WORD

ALBERT E. ROBERTS

Senior Secretary County Work Department, Interna-
tional Committee of Young Men's Christian
Associations

I was told the other day that there were two
hundred and twenty agencies to make conditions
better in the country, at work in the State of
Illinois alone. I suppose the Young Men's Chris-
tian Association would be classed as one of those
agencies. But most of them are working solely
along economic lines, and we must make condi-
tions economically right in the country. In the
past few years, however, the pared post, rural
free delivery, telephones, automobiles, rural
credits, etc., have done much toward this end,
and it seems to some of us that the social and
religious agencies must see that, along with these
economic improvements, in which we rejoice,
there must be a corresponding development of
the interest in the Church. And so this Chicago
Country Life Conference was called by the
xi



xii AN INTRODUCTORY WORD

Association as an ally of the Church, if I may
use that expression.

The Church itself was represented by theo-
logical seminaries, by rural pastors, and others
connected directly with the Church. The agri-
cultural colleges, the religious press, the agricul-
tural press, the Young Women's Christian Asso-
ciation, the Sunday school, the Young Men's
Christian Association, and other agencies were
also represented.

There was no cut and dried plan. We did not
try to get through some special legislation, but
in a most transparent way we discussed the vari-
ous phases of country life, to see how we could
merge our interests, avoid duplications, and pre-
vent overlapping, and by counselling together
take new ground in the promotion of better
spiritual and social ideals in the country.

We were encouraged to call this Chicago meet-
ing by the success which had attended similar
gatherings in the East.

In New York for four consecutive years we
have had conferences like this, and we have
learned to trust each other. Some splendid fel-
lowships and friendships have been established,
and I believe there have been set in motion some



AN INTRODUCTORY WORD xiii

forces which are resulting very happily in a new
concept of real rural progress, particularly in
behalf of such agencies as I have mentioned.

And so we hope that out of these various
presentations, there may come a clearer light.
If we all may somehow feel our joint responsi-
bility in making country conditions what they
ought to be, I am sure the Young Men's Chris-
tian Association will be gratified and will feel
well repaid for the effort that had to be put
forth to make the Chicago Conference possible.

We were particularly glad to have with us
representatives of the National Board of the
Young Women's Christian Association. We
recognize the splendid work that the Rural De-
partment of the National Board is doing, a work
paralleling that of the Young Men's Christian
Association, and making it possible through
these two agencies to approach the rural problem
from the point of view of the family through
instructing the young women and girls as well
as the young men and boys.



I

THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME

Miss LEONARDA Goss
Editor The Farmer's Wife

Until we, who are country life workers, shall
relate every phase of our endeavors to the cen-
tral unit of the Home, I believe we shall be
building with utter futility in our efforts to help
erect a worthy rural civilization.

Until the country clergyman shall go the
rounds in his second-hand Ford, six days of the
week, on a many-pointed circuit that takes in
every home in his parishes; until the country
teacher makes herself a welcome neighbor in
every kitchen and parlor of her school district;
until in addition to the county agricultural agent,
there shall be likewise a county home-demonstra-
tion agent, who goes into the home where the
farmer's wife carries on her business ; until the
leaders of State Agricultural Colleges and the
Federal Department of Agriculture agree to
3



4 BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE

spend fifty per cent of their thought, their en-
deavor, and their patrimony upon the complex
industries of that home; until the rural press,
originally evolved to meet the urgent economic
needs of the farmer, shall know that this new
day demands for the farmer's wife more than a
page of polyglot fashions, fancywork, and let-
ters of distress from disgruntled persons; until
the farmers' clubs, under whatever name or
form they exist in various sections of our coun-
try, shall become true cooperative neighborhood
clubs by including the women and children of the
home in an honorable part of their program-
making and of their activities; in short, until
there shall be an understanding among all these
agents, pastors, teachers, county advisers, lead-
ers of agricultural colleges and of the state and
national departments of agriculture, editors,
writers, local club leaders, and county secretaries
of the Young Women's Christian Association
and the Young Men's Christian Association so
that our multiple effort is but to quicken the life
of the home we shall labor without purpose,
without objective, and, therefore, without avail.

When, understandingly and with sure inten-
tion, we see, as the goal of our every effort, the



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME 5

Home and the human life within it, then shall
we be building in this nation such a rural civili-
zation as the world has never known. We shall
have found the stone which the builders, so far,
have refused. We shall build a rural civilization
that shall not be temporal, but shall have immor-
tal life.

We are not, in the truest sense, working to-
gether in our rural-life endeavors, for the simple
reason that we have not defined our common
cause. The nearest approach we have made to
finding our center in rural life work has been
in directing our labor toward the betterment of
the neighborhood and the community. But I
ask you to consider what we mean by either
term. May they not become the sounding brass
of mere words unless we think deeply of their
connotation ?

To get at the heart of the meaning, let us re-
duce the term community to a mental graph.
Picture to yourself a plane surface. On that
surface draw a circumference. Let us say for
the purposes of our graph, that the circle repre-
sents a country community. Of what is it made
up? Homes! They are dotted over its entire
surface. But, again for the sake of our graph,



6 BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE

let us place a composite Home, representing all
these homes, at the center of the circle.

On the circumference, let us mark off at equal
distances the other integers of the community.
We shall thus dot off, sixty degrees apart, marks
on the boundary line to represent six factors:
(i) the country school, (2) the county agri-
cultural agent, and the county demonstrator in
home-making, if the county is fortunate enough
to possess one, (3) the extension workers sent
into the community, at times, by the State Agri-
cultural College and Federal Department of
Agriculture, (4) the rural press, (5) the com-
munity club, (6) the county secretaries of the
religious organizations, such as the Young Men's
Christian Association and the Young Women's
Christian Association.

Direct radii extend from each of these six
intersections to the Home. In other words, in-
terpreting our graph, the ultimate object of the
school, the hierarchy of agricultural agencies,
the press, the local club, and the religious organi-
zations, is to connect themselves directly with
the Home, to pour life and strength along the
connecting radii into the folk within that Home,
so enriching their powers that they in turn give



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME 7

back their united strength to make stronger the
very institutions that develop them. We have
thus a complete circuit.

But whence comes the power that passes
through this complete circuit?

It comes from above, and the prism through
which that ray of power passes and breaks up
into the several rays that go to the agencies I
have enumerated, is the country church.

So if you will forgive my geometric parallels,
let us consider our graph to have become a cone,
at the apex of which is the church, transmitting
divine strength to the Home and to the various
community agencies which in their turn pour
that strength into the Home.
. Please do not consider that because in my
graph I have placed the country church at the
apex of the cone, I would put, in reality, this
life-giving church above and beyond community
life. I would keep it very close to the soil. I
believe that the country church should be a
seven-day-a-week church ; it must be close to the
heart of the country community.

When we have spiritualized our country life
work by making the church the divine channel
of power that energizes the community's central



8 BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE

unit, the Home, and every force is working for
that Home, then shall we be sure that our every
effort has an objective and that no force is scat-
tered or wasted.

As we think of the Home, let us think of it,
not in terms of this composite dot I have placed
at the center of our graph, but in terms of the
warm, breathing, human and divine beings who
live within it; specifically let us think in the
terms of the woman, the farm wife and mother
who is the focal unit of that Home.

So we come to this point, that our labors must
have as their objective, her and the family whom
she holds together. We are working to intensify
human values in country life. We are not striv-
ing merely to increase the farmer's income nor
to educate his children religiously and secularly;
we are striving ultimately to deepen human and
spiritual values; we are working not solely for
the land's sake, nor for the crops' sake, nor for
the stock's sake, but through and beyond these,
we are working for life's sake.

And when we work for life's sake, we dare
not forget her who is the very center of life
that quiet, unobtrusive woman who holds to-
gether the Home and its members.



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME g

"A. E.," the Irish mystic, one of the Dublin
group which is "making Ireland over," has been
very closely associated with the Plunketts and
especially with Sir Horace Plunkett in his co-
operative labors in rural Ireland. Substituting
"America" for "Ireland," one might read
"A. E.'s" essay, "The Ideals of Rural Society,"
almost assured that one was reading the pro-
phetic utterances of a writer who was dreaming
of America's future. "A. E." declares :

"We cannot build up a rural civilization in
Ireland without the aid of the Irish women. . . .
A great writer said, 'Woman is the last thing
man will civilize.' If a woman had written on
that subject, she would have said, 'Woman is the
last thing man thinks about when he is building
his empires/ . . . We should not want to see
women separated from the activities and ideals
and aspirations of men. We should want to see
them working together in harmony. ... I be-
lieve they will never get to the Delectable City
if they journey apart from each other and do not
share each other's burdens."

In another place in this same essay, after com-
menting upon the present school of Irish dra-
matists who, in holding up the mirror to Irish



io BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE

peasant nature, reflect nothing but decadence,
"A. E." adds :

"Well, it is good to be chastened in spirit, but
it is a thousand times better to be invigorated in
spirit. To be positive is always better than to be
negative . . . The younger generation should
hear nothing about failures. It should not be
hypnotized into self -contempt."

I would emphasize these two points: we here
in America need the help of American women
in building up our rural civilization; and we no
longer need to be chastened in spirit by hearing
the old, old woe of the unhappy farmer's wife.
We have heard too much of the failures, too
much of the negative; let us hear of the posi-
tive. I admit to you frankly and fully that there
is a shadow-side of human nature and that the
shadow lurks in country homes as well as in city
homes. I am not maintaining, to borrow a phrase
from England, that all is "beer and skittles" for
the country woman, but I am maintaining that
among those country women are splendidly po-
tential forces, now largely neglected by our work-
ers. I challenge you to search out those women
and enlist their leadership in every country com-
munity; I challenge you to place your accent on



THE COUNTRYSIDE ITS HOME n

the positive, constructive strength of strong
country women.

It is not enough that only you and I should
know and utilize the magnificent latent power of
country women. There should be a nation-wide
acknowledgment of her, to the end that in every
country district she may be helped to make her
full contribution to home and community life.

There is needed a more complete understand-
ing of this farm home and this farm woman.
Miasmas that have long obscured our vision
must be cleared away. A new generation of
farm women exists today, far different from that
of fifteen years ago. We must cease to think of
the country woman as we knew her years ago,
as we know her today in the one corner of the
United States in which we live, as fiction repre-
sents her, or as the lecturers who do or do not
know her, declare her to be. We must know her
at first hand in the farm homes of today. Nei-
ther you nor I can get that complete knowledge.
Somebody must gather it and declare the true
status of the country home and country woman.

If, as one outcome of our discussions here
today, we can agree that the Country Home and
the members of that Home, held together by the



12 BALANCING COUNTRY LIFE

mother, are the center toward which all our
work is directed, and if we agree, therefore, to
honor and enlist the active services of country
wives and mothers, we shall have helped mightily
to advance and to make stable our rural life.

In the November issue of The Farmer's Wife,
Dr. Thomas Nixon Carver says, "Several nar-
row misconceptions have had to be or must still
be removed. . . . One is that agriculture and
farmers exist in order that other people may live
in comfort in cities and towns. This must give
way to the idea that 'the normal life is the life
on the farm' and that on the farm is where peo-
ple ought to live."

Let our joint labors help to make the farm life
so glad and happy and healthy that the normal
life of its home will rarely be forsaken by its
sons and daughters. Whether this shall be de-
pends upon the success with which we enlist the
farm wife and mother, the hitherto silent partner
of the firm, to make her contribution to rural
life. When we shall begin to cooperate with her,
then in truth shall we be working, not merely to
produce agriculturists, stock, and crops, but we
shall be working for the Home, for life itself.


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