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ColumWa (HnitJersiitp
mtlieCitpoflrttigork

THE LIBRARIES




Bequest of
Frederic Bancroft

1860-1945



THE
FRANCISCANS IN CALIFORNIA



BY



Fr. Zephyrin EngelJiardi, 0. S. F.



WITH A MAP AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.



CUM PERMISSU SUPERIORUM.



Printed And Published At The

HOLY CHILDHOOD INDIAN SCHOOL,

HARBOR SPRINGS, MICHIGAN.

1897.



Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1897, by

Zephyrin Engelhardt,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress.



/A lp|rra)i3f^'7'V



To

Father Junipero Serra and his Band of

Seraphic Laborers on the Pacific Coast

This f 'olnme is Most Affectionately

Dedicated by their Brother in Christ -

The Anther.



Some hints coucerning the pronunciation of Spanish
names and words occurring in this book.

A like a in ah. E ike e in tbev.

I like the / in bid. O like o in so.

U like 00 in wooti.
C, (in America generally), before i and c

has the sound of 5 in so or must, otherwise

it has the sound of c in care.
G, (before e and ;'), is sounded like h in bill:

otherwise like g in give.
H is silent.

J is pronounced like * in hall or hill.
LL as in Wi//iam.
fi as nt opiwjon, or like nj.
Q like k.

X has the sound of b in bat.
Y, when it stands alone, has the sound of ee:

otherwise as in English.
Z should be pronounced like tb in think

or bath; but it is frequently sounded as

is English.
Ch is pronounced like cb in charity.

Other letters are sounded as in English,



- 1



P R E F p G E.

Much has l)een written about those iiohle pioneers
that iirst introduced Christianity and civilization into
California, !)ut very little that is reliable. Ignor-
ance and malice, through exaggeration and misstate-
ments, have succeeded in making the old Fathers ap-
pear in so strange a light that even their friends
fail to recognize them.

It has long been the desire of their succe sors in
the missionary field to possess accurate and more
extensive information regarding the old missions aiul
their founders. Unfortunately the Seraphic Pioneers
of the West were more fond of work than of record-
ing what they accomplished. Little they cared what
later generations thought of their individual share in
the wonders effected, provided the ManUv took no-
tice of them, and marked them down in the "Book
of His Remembrance-'.

Hence comparatively little is o'.i record, and much
of this must be accei)ted upon the authority of writ-
ers not in sympathy with the aims of the missionar-
ies.

Thus, for instance, the reader will find H. H. Ban-
croft frequently quoted in relating events that oc-
curred after the year 1785; for nowhere else can the
same facts and dates be found described so minutely.
Bancroft, indeed, deserves well of the Franciscans,
even though his bigotry and his ignoranc<> of Catlt-
olic affairs at times make his statements exlnnuly
doubtful. However, as far as the author of this work
has been able to discover, everything taken from
this historian may be considered to be reliable, and
all the more valuable for coming from a non-Catholic



-11-

ftource. Where corrections were necessary the reader
will find them pointed out.

Down to the year 1785 Ihe writer has consulted
the original Spanish works and compared the facts
recorded with the statements of Bancroft, which
were likewise borrowed from the same ai thors.

As to tJie statistics concerning the missions, the
original reports of the Fathers from 1786 to 1831
were at hand. From 1881 down to about the year
1850, excepting Mission Santa Barbara, Bancroft
was almost the only authority oifering any accurate
information.

The author sincerely wishes that an abler pen had
been selected to narrate the history of the Seraphic
Pioneers of California. A more readable and enter-
taining work would have been the result.

Volumes might have been tilled easily, but having
in view only the rescue from oblivion of the names
of the missionaries and their principal works, the
author has excluded everything not bearing on the
subject, even though he should appear dry and un-
entertaining.

He was compelled to take this course not only be-
caus3 he was disinclined to write anecdotes, but also
because his position at the head of a large mission-
ary district and of an Indian industrial school made
the labor of obedience and love a most arduous un-
dertaking.

The compiler of so important a work should have
nothing else to distract his mind or to occupy his
time. As the author did not enjoy this advantage it
is with many misgivings he ventures to present his
brethren and the lovers of history with the fruit of
his research concerning the subject upon which he
Y/as directed to write.

Though the spare time of four years was consumed
in compiling this volume, and great pains were taken



„ in -•

to have the figures and statements correct, under the
circumstances errors were unavoidable. The reader
will find a list of them at the end of the book.

As Catholic booksellers demand a heavy security,
not within the reach of a poor missionary, for the
publishing- of a historical work, the author decided
to utilize what facilities his school all'orded and to
have the volume brought out at this estal)lishment.
The printing done by unskilled, youthful hands, in-
structed for that purpose by himself, added immense-
ly to the difficulties of his position, so that he feels
greatly relieved to find his task at last finished. He
hopes that, notwithstanding all its defects, the book
may be of some value to his brethren and to histor-
ians in general.

At all events, the novelty of possessing a literary
work treating about Indian missions and missionar-
ies, written and printed at an Indian school, may
reconcile the readers to the small investment which
will be used for the benefit of the Indian School
with whose management and maintenance the author
is charged.

Even this volume will offer the readers a glimpse
of what it is possible to accomplish with the 'wards'
of the nation if left in charge of their natural guar-
dian The Catholic Mlsslonarj/.



IV-




PART I.

GENERAL HISTORY.



UIIAPTEll 1.

The First Missionaries. V:irious exiteditions. Expulsion of Ihe
Jesuits. Franciscans in Cliarge of the Lower California Mis-
sions. Missions and their Missionaries. Mission TemiMirahties.
Don Jose (-alvez. Dishonesty of the Cconiisionados. Pjoclama-
tion of Don Galvez. Plans for Misi^ions in Upper California.
Departure of the VesseLs. The Lnnd Expeditions. Fr. Junipe-
ro Serra. San Fernando De Velicatii 1.

CHAPTER II.

Some Changes. Epidemics. Death of Fr. Moran. Government In-
structions. Fr. Palou's Protest. His Propositions. More Mission-
Hries. Governor Barri's Anim )s;ty. The Franciscans Cede Lower
California to the Dominicans. Their Departure 16.

CHAPTER III.

Statistics of the Lower Caiilornia Missions. Departure for Up-
per California. Boundary. Liat of Missionaries 28.

CHAPTER IV.

The Second Land Expedition. Fr. Junipero and the Muleteer.
Names Applied to Places aioa^' the Road. The Expeditions
by S-XV. Re-union. Fr. Jum'pero's L^ttir. In S nirch or Monte-
rey. Founding of San Du-g,,. Rapacity of the Natives. Attack
on the Mission. First Vicliin. Characteristics of the Indians.
The "Our Father" in Diegueno .^j.

CHAPTER V.

The Coursv^ of the Expedition. First Baptism in Upper Califor-
nia. Hardships. Sickness. Council. A Mystery. St. Francis and
his Mission. Discovery of San Francisco Bay. Return. The
Governor's Resolution. Painful Suspense. The San Antonio Ar-
rives. Fr. Junfpero's Letter 43,

CHAPTER VI.

Land Expedition to Monterey. The Cross. Founding of San Car-
los. Fr. Junfp?ro's Account. Exultation in Mexico. Plans for
New Missions. New Missionaries 55.



- VI -

CHAPTER VII.

Scarcity of Food. Fr. Serra's Letter. His Journey. Disnsrreeiuent
between the Fr President and Governor Fa^'t's. Fr. Serra
Goes to Mexico. Missionaries for Lipjor Californiii. Fr. Junipe-
ro's Illness and Recovery. His Petition at.d Success. Report on
the State of the Missions 63.

CHAPTER VIII.

Fr. SiM-ra Return?. Exploring Expeditions by Sea. The Fathers
as Chaplains. New Missions Planned 74.

CHAPTER IX.

Fr. Junipero Serra Receives the Faculty to Administer the Sa-
crament of Confirmation. Controversy. High-Harded Proceed-
int?s on the Part of the Secular Authorities. Fr. Serra Sus-
tained by the Viceroy. H. H. Bancroft's Bigotry. Fr. Serra
Resumes his Work of Confirming. Fr. Juan Crespi 80.

CHAPTER X.

New Franciscan Custodies. Fr. Serra's Disappointment ard Rea-
son therefor. Volunteer Missionaries Decline to Serve. The Fr.
Guardian's Defense and Charges. H. H. Bancroft's Lame Ex-
cuse. The Truth about Governor Neve's Plans. Fr. Serra's Pen-
ance. His Illness. New iViissionnries. Last Confirmation Tour.
Preparation for Death. Fr. Ssrra's Last Days. His Death.... 88.

CHAPTER XI.

Desire for Relics. Funeral Service. Fr. Paterna's Care. Result
of Fr. Junipero terra's Labors. More Conversions. Biography.
Fr. Serra's Successor. New Custodies. Neve Retired. Unfortun-
ate Position of the Fathers in the Spanish Missions 99.

CHAPTER XII.

Inspector £'oler. First Direct Proposition to Secularize the Mis-
sions. The Number of the Missionaries to be Reduced. The Fa-
thers Protest. Letter Postage. Charges of Severity. Other Com-
plaints. Refutation and Counter- Charges. State of the Mis-
sions 108.

CHAPTER XIII.

S arch for New Mission Sites. Fr. Lasuen's Report. New Mis-
sions. Arrival and Departure of Missionaries. Fr. Lasuen's Du-
ties. Mission Reports. Secularization. Reduction of the Sti-
pends. Various Troubles of the Fathers. Indian Self-Govern-
ment 116.

CHAPTER X:V.

Fr. Hora's Accusation. Investigation. Spanish Lnuguage Obligato-
ry. The Fathers' Sensible Course. Fr. Las^uon's Able Reply.
The Missionaries Officially Exonerated. The Bishop's Request.
jiDteresting Items. Statistics. Various Industries. Governor Bo-



- VII -

rica Retires. Anothor Altemiit to Changt th3 Mission Sys-
tem 125.

CHAPTER XV.

D?ath of Fr. Lasuen. Biography. Bancroft on Fr. Lasuon. Fr.
Tapis. Superior. Governor Arrillaga's Sensible Report. Fr. Ga-
sol's Circular. Fathers Diaz. Font, and Garc<''S Cro.ss Califor-
nia by Land from Sonora. Exploring Exi^editions. Mission
Santa In^z Founded. Statistics 133.

CHAPTER XVI.

Situation of the Fathers During the Revolutionary Period.
Want of Missionaries. Unsuccefsful Effort to Cede Some of
the Missions to the Orizaba Franciscans. Office of Comisario
Prefecto Created. Fr. Sarria's Circulars. A Warning from the
Fr. Guardian. A Request from the Commissary General. Fr.
Senan Ordered to Write a History of the Missions. Fr. Pay-
eras' Report. Statistics 142.

CHAPTER XVII.

Secularization Published in California. The Fathers Ready to
Leave. Instructions to the Missionaries. Fr. Payeras' Protest.
Expedition to the North. Independence of Mexico. Death of
Fr. Payeras. Death of Fr. S-fiau. The Fathers Refuse to Take
the Oath of Allegiance. Fr. Martfnez Banished 151.

CHAPTER XVIII.

Secularization. Destitution. Missions Taxed. Indian Revolt. Statis-
tics. Decree of Secularization Published. Opinion of Some of
the Fathers. Fr. Duran's Commentaries. The Pious Fund. Its
History. Echandia's Regulations. Fr. Sanchez' Criticism. Fr.
Peyri 160.

CHAPTER XIX.

New Missionaries from Zacatecas. Concordato Funeral. Corporal
Punishment. Gov. Figunroa's Report. His Regulations. Fr. Du-
ran's Letter. Indians Unwilling to be "Emancipated." Renewed
Efforts. Fathers Diego ard Dura'i Reply. Six Missions Secu-
larized. Statistics. Missionary Changes. The Rule of Plunder.
The First Bishop of California 171.

CHAPTER XX.

The Diocese of California. Election of the First B'shoji. His P ts-
toral Letter. Arrival and Reception. His Means. Sa' la Barbara
Chosen for his Residence. His Disappointment. Mis.sions Re-
stored. Missionary Changes. The Bishop's Efforts. Fr. Lu -an's
Report. Masonic Hatred Destroys Valuable Books and Manu-
scripts. First Seminary. Secularization Completed 18i.

CHAPTER XXI.

California in the United States. Orders from General Kearney
and Gov. Mason. Mission Property Restored. Other Items. Mis?-



- VIII "

sionaries in 18iG. D.nith of Bishop G.uei'a. Doath of Fr. Daran.
A Novitiate Established at Santa Baibara. The New Bishop.
First Franciscan Priests Ordained in California. Death of Fr.
Gonzalez. The Connnunity Doomed to Extinction. Incorporated
into the Province of the Sacrtd Heait.Tho first Guardian. .IftG.

CHAPTER XXII.

Missionary Changes. Fr. Ferdinand Elected Provincial of the
Province of the Sacud Heait. Fr. Fe;dinand again Guardian
of Santa Barbara. His Tiagi(^ Death. Biography. Fr. Servatius
Altmicks. Changes. New Foundations. San Luis Key Re-occu-
pied by Franciscans from Mex co. Proposition to Organize a
Custody of the Iraniaculate Heart of Mary in California. The
Commissariat of California 204.

CHAPTER XXIII.

Method the Franciscans Observed in the California Missions.
Peculiarity of the Spanish Missions. The Mission Buildings.
Opinions of Dwindle and Forest. Mission Fare. The Commis-
sary Department. Dress. Punishments. Disaster. The Indian
under Control of the Catholic M'ssioniiry ard Otherwise. . .212.



PART II-

LOCAL HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

SA.V DlEdO.

San Diego Mission Founded. First Missionaries. Other Missiona-
ries. Fr. Sena Goes to Mexico aid Returns. Preparations for a
new Chvirch. Removal of the M'ssiou. Success of the Fathers.
Indian Revolt. Attack on the Mis;on. Death of Fr. Jayme.
Destruction of the Buildings. Brave Defense 219.

CHAPTER II.

SAX DIEGO {CONTIXUED).

Fr. Serra's Happiness. Sad end of an Inlian Criminal. The Mis-
sion Rebuilt. Missionaries. New Reg^steis. First Public Execu-
fon in California. Fr. Serra Confirms at San Diego. Fr. Figu-
er. State of the Mission. Fathers Torrens and Mariner. An A-
queduet. Remains of the Dead Missionarii-s Transferred. Vari-
OLis Missionaries. New Church. Mission Boundaries. Fr. Martin.
Effects of S-cularization. Statistics 231.

CHAPTER III.
SAN CARLOS.
San Ciirlos Founded. Conversions. Removal. Carmslo. Fathers
Crespi and Serra Die. Other Missionaries. New Chv.rth. Fr



- IX -

Lasueu Die?. Missiouaiies. Fr. Tujol, VMliils, and Carnicer.
Mission Lands. Secularization. Statistics. Graves of the Mission-
aries Discovered. Church Restored -211.

CHAPTER IV.

SAX AXTOXIO.

Founding of San ADtoni(\ Buildings Erected. Learning the Lan-
guage. A Straut^'e Story. Frosts Kill the Uroj.s. Indian Shot.
New Church. Fr. Payeras. Other Missionaries. Fr. Sitjar Dies.
Interesting Items. Fr. Sancho Dies. Mission Lands. Statistics.
Secularization. Indians ill-treated. Rev. Doroteo Ambris 256.

CHAPTER V.

SAN GABRIEL.

Shu Gabriel F]stablished. The Picture of Our Lady. Scandalous
Conduct of a Soldier. Indian Attack. Missionary Changes. Slow
Progress Fr. Serra Confirms at San Gabriel. Conspiracy. Mis-
sionary Changes. Fathers Cruzado and Sanchez Die. Fathers
Ordmas, Estevan, and Barcenilla Retire. New Church. San
Bernandino. Fathers Dumetz and Miguel Die 266.

CHAPTER VI.

.S'.IA' G Aim I El. [CONTINUED).

Earthquake. Death of Fr. Nuoz. Missionaries, Fathers Boscana
and Sanchez D e. Mission Lands. Secularzation. Poverty of the
Mission. Statistics. Death of Fathers Est^nega and Ordaz.
John Russel Bartiett. Los Angeles Star. Mission San Gabriel
Sold. -'Our Father" in Indian 272.

CHAPTER VII.

SAN LUIS OBISPO.

Founding of San Luis Obispo. Missionaries. Captain Anza's Ex-
peditiou. F.re at the Mission. Fr. Serra Confirms. Death of
Fr. Cavalier. Departure of Fr. Giribet. Revolt. Other Items.
Death of Fr. Cipres. Fr. Martinez Banished. Mission Lands.
Statistics. Fr. Giii Dies. Sale of the Mission 281.

CHAPTER VIII.

SAN FRANCISCO.

Don Galvez and St. Francis. Discovery of San Francisco Bay
Exped.tion t) the Bay by S^a. Anza's Land Expedition. The
Presidio Established. Expedition North of the Bay. Founding
of the M.^Jion. Dolores. Th3 Indians. Indian Attack 288.

CHAPTER IX.

SAN IRAN CISCO [CON TIN T ED).

The Indians and their Customs Fr. Serra Confirms. Service at
the Presidio. Statistical. Fr. Francisco Palou. His Writings.



Fr. Cambon. Lieutenant Moraga. Troubles with the Natives.
Complaints 296.

CHAPTER X.

^.I.V FRANCISCO {CONTINUED).

A Carmelito Monastery Plannc'd. Rancho Del Rey. Missionary
Changes. Fr. Espi, Garcia, and Fernandez Retire. The Mission
Buildings. Vancouver's Visit. Fr. Saenz Retires. The Church.
Great Mortality. Other Items. Branch Mission across the Bay.
Statistical. Missionary Changes. The Inventory. Statistics. .301.

CHAPTER XI.

SAN yUAN CAPISTRANO.

First Attempt to Found the Mission. The Founding. Fr. Serra's
Danger. First Convert. The Missionaries. Fathers Amurrio and
Murgartegui Retire. Death of Fr .Fuster. Confirmation at San
Juan. Statistical. New Church Begun. Weaving. A Fire. De-
dication of the New Church. Fathers Santiago and Faura Re-
tire. The Missionaries. An Earthquake Destroys the Buildings
and Kills a number of Indians. Decline of the Mission. Fr.
Boscana Insulted. Enancipation. Inventory. Fathers Oliva and
Ordaz Die. L.-st Missionaries. Sale of the Mission. Statistics.
The "Our Father" 314.

CHAPTER XII.

SANTA CLARA.

Founding of the Mission. A Harvest of Souls. Sodomy. Fr. Serry
at the Mission. The New Church. Fr. Murguia Dies. Other
Items. Fathers Pena and Noboa Retire. Vancouver's Visit. The
Buildings. Industries. Indian Troubles. Another Church Build-
ing Erected. Fr. Catala's Death. Biography. Taxes. Fr. Viader
Retires. Zacatecans Arrive. Fr. Moreno Dies. Fr. Mercado Re-
tires. Fr. Jose Real Retires. Secularization. Statistics. The
Lord's Prayer 324.

CHAPTER XIII.

SAN BUENA VENTURA.

Founding of the Mission Repeatedly Delayed. A Beginning Made
at Last. The Indians. Governor Neve's Plan. Report of 1790.
Vancouver's Visit and Report. Indian Fight. Missionary Chan-
ges. Death of Fr. Santa Maria. Earthiiuake. Indian Fight and
Other Items. Death of Fr. Sefian. Biography. Fr. Altimira
Retires. Interesting Items. Death of F'athers ouner, Uria, and
Fortuni. Secularization. Last Missionaries. Sale of the Mission.
Statistics 336.

CHAPTER XIV.

SANTA BARBARA.

The Presidio of Santa Barbara Founded. Fr. Junipero Serra Dis-
appointed. Santa Barbara Mission Founded on the Old Plan.



- XI -

The First Missionaries. The Buildingrs. Conversions. Tiles Man-
ufactured. More Buildings. Missionary Chanfjes. Death of Fr.
P.iterna. The Tiiird Church. Wall around the Property. In-
dustries. Report of 1802. X Missionary Station at Sagshpileel.
Mission Santa Inez. Other Items. The Reservoir. Fr. Cortes
Retires. Missionary Changes. Earthquake. New Church 347.

CHAPTER XV.

SAA'TA BARBARA [COXTIN UED).

Indian Revolt. Opinion of the Fathers. Fr. Amestoy Retires.
Death of Fr. Antonio Jaine. Fr. Ripoll Retires. Interesting
Items. Sf^cularization. Statistics. Mission Reports. Fr. Antonio
Jimeno's Dpath. Fr. Jose Jimeno Retires. The Mission Rented
and Sold. The Inventory. The Community of Santa Barbara.
Fathers Romo and Codina. Death of Fr. Sanchez. His Biogra-
phy 356.

CHAPTER XVI.

L/1 PURISIMA CONCEPCION.

Founding of the Mission. Success of the Fathers. Fathers Arroi-
ta and Fernandez Ret re. New Church. Report of Fr. Payeras.
Missionary Changes. Earthquake in 1812. Destruction of the
Buildings. Mission Removed. New Church. Fire. Death of Fa-
thers Rodriguez and Paveras. Indian Revolt. Last Missionary.
Statistics ". 362.

CHAPTER XVII.

S^NTy^ CRUZ.

Preparations. Founding of the Mission. Fr. Lasuen's Report. In-
structions to the Guards. Erection of Buildings. Dedication of
the Church. Gloomy Prospects. Missionaries. Fathers Salazar,
Lopez, and Fernandez Retire. Murder of Fr. Quintaua. Pun-
ishment of the Criminals. Missionary Changes. Fathers Mar-
quinez and 01b(''S Retire. Disease among the Indians. Other
Items. Secularization. Inventory. The Last Missionary. Statis-
tics 370.

CHAPTER XVIII.

Lyt SOLED^D.

Founding of the Mission. Progress in Mission Work. The Mis-
sionaries. Fr. Rubf Retires. Epidemic. New Church. Death of
Gov. Arrillaga. Death of Fr. Ibanez. Biography. Missionary
Changes. Items. An Election. Fr. Sarn'a Starved to Death at
Soledad. Biography. State of the Mission. Unworthy Treat-
ment of the Missionary. Secularization. End of the Mission.
Statistics 380.



- xii -

CHAPTER XIX.
S/iN yosE.

Mission San Jost- Established. Success. Missionaries. Fr. Cueva
Retires. Indian Attack. Description of the Mission by Langs-
dortt". New Church Dedicated. State of the Mission in 1820.
Interesting Items. Statistics. Secularization. Fathers Muro, Qui-
jas, and Gutierrez Retire. Temporal Artairs. Mission San Jose
soul '^^y •

CHAPTER XX.

SAN JUAN BAUTISTA.

Instructions to the Guards. Missionary Stations. Founding of the
Mission. The First Missionaries. Missionary Progress. Indian
Troubles. Earthquake. Controversy. New Church. Fiithers Lo-
jjez, Murtiarena, and Iturate Retire. Death of Fr. Duianto.
Death of Fr. Tapis. Biography. Other Missionary Chang; s.
Secularization. Inventory. Statistics. The Mission Sold. Fr. An-
zar the Last Missionary oUT.

CHAPTER XXI.

SAN MIGUEL.

The Mission Site. Ceremony of Foundation. The Beginning. Mis-
sionary Changes. Fr. Concepcion De Horra. Fr. Andnano
Martinez. Missionaries Poisoned. A Fire. Fr. Martin's Death.
Biography. Other Items. Departure of Fr. Juan Cabot. Secu-
larization. Inventory. Statistics. Sale of the Mission 404.

CHAPTER XXII.

SAN EERNANDO.

"Achois Comihavit". Founding of the Mission. Mission Success.
Contributions. Church Blessed. Fr. Pedro Munoz Retires.
Death of Fathers Lazaro and Landaeta. Fr. Jose Antonio
Uria Retires. Death of Fr. Urresti. Other Missionaries. Earth-
quake. Death of Fr. Ulibarri. Fr. Ibarra's Complaint. Mission
Land. Death of Fr. Pedro Cabot. Inventory. Statistics. Fr.
Bias Ordaz Manager of the Property. Sale of the Mission. Last
Missionary 411.

CHAPTER XXIII.

SAN LUIS EEY.

Exploration for a Mission Site. Mission Established. Success.
Fr. Peyri. New Church. Various Missionaries. Fathers Garcia
and Carranza Retire. Statistical. San Antonio De Pala. A Hcs
pital. Missionary Changes. Surprise of Fr. Peyri. Prosperity.
Exaggeration. White Population. Fr. Peyri Retires. His Biogra-
phy.'^Other Missionaries. Statistics. Secularization. Inventory.
Death of Fr. Ibarra. Biography. Last Mi^sionary. Death of
Fr. Zalvidea. Biography. Sale of the Mission. Modern San
Luis Rey. Freemasonry.' A Novitiate for Mexico. Re-dedication



- XIII

Reception of Novices. The Community at present 418.

CHAPTER XXIV.

S/1hlT.4 INEZ,

Thn Mission Site. Founding of the MidVion. Th» First Mission-
aries. Fr. GutitTi-ez Retires. Mis:5ion Sueces-i. Earthqualte. New
Cliurch. Missionarits. Death of Fr. Calzula. Revoit. Baild ngs
and Lands. Death of Fathers Va-toria and La Cuesta. Secu-
larization. Inventory. Statistics. Death of Fr. Moreno. Found-
ing of a Seminary. Sale of the Mission. The College Aban-
doned. The '-Our Father" in Indian 132.

CHAPTER XXV.

SAN RAF/EL.

Mortality at San Francisco. Founding of the Mission. San Ra-
fael a branch of San Francisco. Transfer of Indians. Explo-
rations. Progress. Statistical. Mission Lauds. Death of Fr.
Aniorrts. The Zacatecaus. Statistical. Fr. Mercado Slandered.
Secularization. Inventory. Sale of the Mission. Statistics. The
Lord's Prayer in Indian 439.

CHAPTER XXVI.

SAN FRANCISCO SOLANO.

Explorations. Founding of the Mission. Disapproval of the Su-
periors. Fr. Altiraira. A Compromise. Church Dedicated. The
Name of the Mission. Santa Eulalia Mission Station. The
Buildings. Industries. Statistical. Contributions from San Fran-
cisco. Conversions. Indian Tribes Belonging to the Mission.
Missionary Changes. Statistics. The "Our Father" In Guiiu-
co 446.

PART III.

MODERN HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.— Santa Barbara 456.

CHAPTER II. - Pajaro. Uo/s Orphan Asylum 459.

CHAPTER III. - San Francisco. Si. Bouifjce\ Goldat Gate Ai\\ 464.

CHAPTER IV.- St. Turibins Minslon 469.

CHAPTER V. Fruitvalc. SI. E.'isjb.-lb's 477.



- XIV -
CHAPTER VI.— San Francisco. 5^ tAnthotifs, t/Jrnw Stmt. 481.

CHAPTER VII.— Los Angeles. St. Joseph's 484.

CHAPTER XIII.— Sacramento. St. Frauds' 488.

CHAPTER IX.- Phcenix. H. (T^arfs ; 491.



- XV



LIST or ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tho Pioneer Teacher of Californin (Frontis-piece)

Founding of a Franeiscan Mission Piige 15.

A Typic-ai Spanish Franciscan Missioc 58.

Father Juni'pero Serra 9G.

Franciscan Missionary College at Zacatecas 172.

Presidio and Town of Santa Barbara in 1835 186.



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